|Musical origins||Rock and roll, rockabilly, blues, blues eléctrico, folk, country, rhythm and blues, soul, jazz|
|Common Instruments||Bass , drums , electric guitar , keyboards , vocals|
|Category: Rock subgenres|
|Rock andaluz, blues rock, country rock, dance rock, folk rock, funk rock, jazz fusión, noise rock, pop barroco, pop punk, pop rock, raga rock, rap rock, reggae rock, rock electrónico, rock industrial, rock latino, stoner rock|
|Category: Rock by country|
Rock is a broad term that groups together a variety of styles of popular music that originated as rock and roll in the early 1950s in the United States and evolved into a wide range of different styles in the 1960s, particularly in that country and the United States. United. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It is rooted in the rock and roll of the 1940s and 1950s, from the combination of earlier genres such as blues , rhythm and blues and country . Rock musicalso drew heavily on electric blues andfolk , and incorporated influences from jazz , classical music, and other sources. The rock has focused on the electric guitar , usually as part of a group composed of singer , drums , bass and sometimes keyboard instruments such as the organ and piano . Usually the rock is focused on the songs, usually with compass 4/4 and verse-chorus structure; however, the genre has become extremely diverse and common musical characteristics are difficult to define. Like pop music, the lyrics often focus on romantic love, but also deal with a wide range of other topics with a frequent focus on the social, the personal, and the political.
In the late 1960s, referred to as the "golden age" or " classic rock " period, [ 1 ] different subgenres emerged, including blues rock , folk rock , country rock, and jazz rock , many of which which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock , influenced by the countercultural psychedelic scene . New genres that emerged from this scene include progressive rock , which extended artistic elements; the glam rock , which highlighted the live show and visual style; and theheavy metal , which focuses on volume, power, and speed. In the second half of the 1970s, punk stepped up and reacted against some of these trends to produce raw and energetic music. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on the development of other subgenres, including new wave , postpunk, and the alternative rock movement. Since the 1990s, alternative rock began to dominate the genre and rose to fame in the forms of grunge , britpop, and indie rock . Since then other subgenres of fusion have appeared such as pop punk , rap rockand nu metal , as well as attempts to remember the history of rock, with the resurgence of genres such as garage rock , postpunk, and synthetic pop in the early 2000s.
Rock music also encompassed and served as a vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to the creation of subcultures such as mods and rockers in the United Kingdom, and the hippie counterculture that spread in San Francisco (United States) in the 1960s. Similarly, the punk culture of the 1970s gave rise to the visually distinctive emo and goth subcultures . Heir to the folkloric tradition of the protest song , rock music has been associated with political activism, as well as changes in social attitudes about racism., sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth rebellion against consumerism and conformity .
Chronology and evolution
Rock music has its roots in 1950s rock & roll. In its purest form, it has three chords, a strong, insistent backing beat, and a catchy melody. Early rock and roll was inspired by a variety of sources, primarily blues, R&B, and country, but also gospel, traditional pop, and jazz swing. All of these influences were combined into a simple blues song-based structure, which was fast, danceable, and catchy. [ 3 ] In the mid-1960s, rock music was combined with folk music to create folk rock , with blues to create blues rock, and with jazz, to create jazz-rock fusion , and without a timestamp to create psychedelic rock . In the 1970s, rock incorporated influences from soul , funk, and Latin music . Also in the 1970s, rock developed a number of subgenres, such as soft rock , the hard rock the rock progressive , the heavy metal and punk . Rock subgenres of the 1980s include new wave , new romantic , glam rock , synth pop , hardcore punk, alternative rock , thrash metal , and speed metal . Rock subgenres of the 1990s include grunge, britpop, and indie rock .
- In 1954 Elvis Presley recorded the song "That's Alright Mama" which, according to Rolling Stone magazine , is the first rock and roll song in history. However, other researchers say that the first song was "Fat Man", by Fats Domino and then "Rocket 88" (1951), by Jackie Brenston and Ike Turner (ex-husband of Tina Turner) although "The Fat Man" would sound more like a rhythm blues and "Rocket 88" a boogie boogie. At first, Presley did not reach a large audience because its diffusion was limited to the southern circuit. It was not until 1956, with the transfer of the local Sun Records from Memphis to RCA, that the Elvis phenomenon began and with it the rock and roll phenomenon. Pelvic movements, dancing, physical appeal, and versatile voice contributed to the popularity of Presley, who was called "the king of rock and roll" or "the king." He was also the first white singer to interpret and merge country and blues (clearly African-American until then) in a style that would be called "rockabilly". [ 4 ] [ 5 ]
- Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley y Little Richard; el rock eminentemente "negro".
- Bill Haley , Gene Vincent , Vince Taylor, Eddie Cochran , Jerry Lee Lewis and Roy Orbison They popularize many hits and brought rock and roll closer to the white population.
- Popularization of rock on a large scale.
- " The day the music died ". Buddy Holly , Ritchie Valens, and The Big Bopper were killed in a plane crash. Years later, Don McLean would treat this subject in his song " American Pie ".
- Throughout the 1950s, surf rock and instrumental rock were cultivated , which would continue throughout the early '60s with groups like The Shadows .
- The great leap to the fusion of rhythm & blues and rock came from Detroit with the founding of the Tamla / Motown label by producer and songwriter Berry Gordy, who achieved collaboration between artists and serial production work in the style of the great automobile industry of that city. The session musicians exchanged a soprano-tenor dancer and white-voiced child that led his brothers to the pinnacle of success. In the seventies he would already be a soloist with his name, Michael Jackson .
- Phil Spector revolutionized the way of recording music with his Wall Of Sound and would become the role model for music producers of the 1960s. Soul is born thanks to the mixture of gospel and rhythm and blues promoted by Ray Charles and Sam Cooke , a style that in its evolution was promoted by the Stax and Motown labels .
- Rock and roll comes to the UK with musicians like Billy Fury and Marty Wilde . He popularized skiffle of Lonnie Donegan and groups such as The Quarrymen (later will become The Beatles ).
- Surgen The Everly Brothers.
- The Beatles and the so-called " British Invasion " emerge : The Rolling Stones , The Kinks , Small Faces , The Who , The Yardbirds , The Animals . The mod movement is born , led by several of these groups.
- In the United States the so-called "surf rock" begins, a genre of which The Beach Boys are the main exponents, with catchy melodies and lyrics that refer to the beachy and carefree lifestyle of the American middle-class youth.
- Bob Dylan uses the electric guitar in folk songs , creating folk rock . They would be followed by The Byrds , Simon and Garfunkel or Crosby, Stills and Nash .
- The psychedelic rock was born in California with Grateful Dead , Jefferson Airplane , The Doors , The Turtles , Love and Iron Butterfly or pop rock influenced by the hippismo of The Mamas and The Papas and Association. In the UK it is assimilated by the "British Invasion" groups, led by The Beatles and their Revolver , their Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and their Magical Mystery Tour , among others. The Rolling Stones with Their Satanic Majesties Request. Other bands also emerged such as Pink Floyd , Traffic , Jethro Tull and Soft Machine , which would later give rise to progressive rock . The use of the Moog synthesizer , the mellotron and the sitar is popularized .
- Many of these groups have a strong tendency to blues rock, of which Janis Joplin and her band Big Brother & The Holding Company would be great exponents , [ 6 ] in addition to groups such as Canned Heat .
- Jimi Hendrix , Keith Richards , George Harrison and Eric Clapton with Cream revolutionize the way you play the electric guitar. [ 7 ] [ 8 ]
- Frank Zappa and the band Mothers Of Invention were an early sample of the most unclassifiable and iconoclastic progressive and symphonic rock, with influences from Edgar Varèse and Stravinsky , comedy, Dada and countercultural references .
- In the middle of the decade, Creedence Clearwater Revival and Buffalo Springfield , the group from which Neil Young would come out , maintained the more classic and purist side of rock and roll, with a rock of old stamp and worked melodies.
- In 1967 Leonard Cohen's first album was released , consolidating the figure of rock singer - songwriter and crooner and influencing many artists who would later develop this concept.
- In 1969 the first solo by Neil Young, which combines acoustic lyricism with distortion and rawness, spiced with psychedelic spirit . Also in 1969 Led Zeppelin publishes its first two albums.
- The Velvet Underground ; the darker, lyrical, and artistic side of rock; [ 9 ] Inspired by Andy Warhol's " The Factory " they leave an indelible mark on rock, influencing punk , goth rock , and the entire subsequent alternative scene . Its leader, Lou Reed , would evolve later in his solo career, straddling poetry and rock, playing glam rock in the 1970s with albums such as Transformer or Berlin .
- King Crimson in 1969 released his first album In the Court of the Crimson King , considered the first progressive rock album.
- Black Sabbath , Led Zeppelin , Deep Purple , Queen and Blue Cheer begin to combine elements of other musical genres and lay the roots of what would become heavy metal , which reached its maximum popularity in the eighties.
- Mexi Core appears as the first gestures of Frontier Rock by the hand of Richard Valentino .
- With the albums Black Sabbath and Paranoid by Black Sabbath and Led Zeppelin by Led Zeppelin, the creation of heavy metal is taken for granted.
- Thanks to the tour of The Rolling Stones American Tour 1972 , the phrase "Sex, drugs and rock and roll" became popular.
- Paul Rodgers rose to fame with Free , mainly through the song "All right now", in the late 1960s and early 1970s, to later form Bad Company . Faces , with Rod Stewart at the helm, are another exponent of that classic raw rock, halfway between blues rock and hard rock .
- Queen rises to fame with a mix of hard rock, progressive rock , heavy metal, glam rock and opera rock . Early 1970s. In addition, it is considered that the single Stone Cold Crazy was the first Thrash metal song .
- The Stooges , New York Dolls and MC5 , and later The Runaways , the beginning of proto-punk .
- In 1974 punk rock was born with one of the pioneers of the genre, Ramones . This music is characterized by being simpler, with songs of between one and two minutes in length and without complicated guitar solos. Another characteristic are the vindictive letters on political and social problems. A little later, bands like Sex Pistols or The Clash would join the new protest genre, on the British side .
- Kiss is born with its characteristic makeup this time attached to heavy metal and rock and roll.
- Jethro Tull , Pink Floyd , Peter Gabriel Stage Genesis , Yes , Rush and King Crimson : Progressive Rock and Jazz Rock . Pink Floyd publishes The Dark Side of the Moon , which would become the most successful album of the genre, also posing as the fathers of space rock , which would have its continuity in Hawkwind .
- Glam rock emerges with artists such as Elton John , T. Rex , Queen , David Bowie , Roxy Music , Alice Cooper , Slade and Sweet , joined by Lou Reed and The Stooges . Glam updated, with provocation and makeup, the freshness of rock and roll of the 1950s against the virtuosity of progressive rock, and later influenced punk and all the genres that were born from it at the end of the decade.
- Mountain and Grand Funk Railroad create a new style and are pioneers of North American hard rock and heavy metal. Aerosmith rises to fame, mixing hard rock with funky rhythms. At the same time, groups such as Kiss, Cheap Trick and Ted Nugent appeared . In Australia AC / DC was born and in Ireland Thin Lizzy , while in England Motörhead emerged , who would impose a greater speed in the riffs, anticipating the punk-metal crossover and thrash.
- Second stage and final development of heavy metal. Rainbow , UFO , Judas Priest , Scorpions , Nazareth , Uriah Heep as some of the bands within the movement.
- The power pop gets the melodies of British Invasion groups, combined with energetic guitars with artists like Big Star , Todd Rundgren and The Raspberries . At the end of the decade the genre lived its commercial success thanks to groups like The Knack . Starting in the 1990s, alternative rock groups like Teenage Fanclub and The Posies would revitalize the genre.
- Kraut-rock , German derivation of symphonic or progressive rock, in which the synthesizer , derived from Moog ,begins to be usedin a certain way that would cause the birth of electronic music . Can , Neu! , Kraftwerk .
- The great English explosion of punk , after the appearance of The Ramones, Misfits , Patti Smith , Iggy Pop and The Dictators , followed by Dead Boys and The Heartbreakers in the United States and as a reaction to excesses, back to basics; Sex Pistols , The Clash , The Damned , Buzzcocks , The Slits appear in the UK .
- Since Jamaica 's reggae achieved worldwide popularity thanks to Bob Marley and other artists like Peter Tosh and Jimmy Cliff . Another Jamaican rhythm, the dub , is popularized by Lee "Scratch" Perry . Reggae would deeply mark many rock musicians, such as The Rolling Stones, and especially the punk and new wave generation, including The Clash and The Police . From that fusion of punk and reggae, modern ska or 2 Tone would evolve .
- The new wave , tributary of rock and roll in the 1960s, after the end of punk. The Police , U2 , Blondie , Talking Heads , The B-52's , Elvis Costello .
- Van Halen revolutionized from his first album in 1978 the way of playing the electric guitar in hard rock.
- Surgimiento del post-punk: Siouxsie & the Banshees, The Cure, Joy Division, Bauhaus, Public Image Ltd., Gang of Four, Parálisis Permanente.
- Using the synthesizer in the synth pop to late: Kraftwerk , Gary Numan , Ultravox , Human League .
- Gothic rock in Europe, deathrock in the United States and dark wave in Germany, Holland and other European countries influenced by post-punk, Glam rock and New wave. Bauhaus, The Sisters of Mercy , The Cure, Siouxsie & the Banshees , Joy Division , The Damned , Clan Of Xymox , Dead Can Dance , Christian Death , Alien Sex Fiend , Specimen .
- Roots of industrial rock : electronic and rock begin to merge. Throbbing Gristle , KMFDM , Einstürzende Neubauten .
- Tom Waits and later Nick Cave , would represent the figure of the crooner from an iconoclastic and underground point of view , in a long career that extends from the 1970s to the present, and whose greatest heyday takes place in the 1980s.
- The soft rock is represented by groups like America and Eagles .
- The NWOBHM emerged in England with bands such as Iron Maiden , Diamond Head , Saxon , Angel Witch , Tygers of Pan Tang and Def Leppard as a banner.
- Southern rock also had its greatest splendor, a genre that emerged in the late 1960s, which mixed rock and roll, blues and country. Its greatest exponents were bands like The Allman Brothers Band , Lynyrd Skynyrd , ZZ Top , and some songs from Creedence Clearwater Revival and later bands like Outlaws and Black Oak Arkansas .
- Neo-progressive rock (sometimes shortened to neo-prog) is a musical genre derived from progressive rock that reached its peak in the 1980s. It is characterized by compositions transmitted through dark lyrics and careful theatricality on stage; Marillion is perhaps the most important band of the genre, whose albums Misplaced Childhood and Clutching at Straws reached high positions in the charts. Other bands like IQ, Pendragon, Pallas, Jadis or Arena also got good sales.
- El pop rock de radiofórmula continúa mostrando la influencia de la new wave: Tears for Fears, Duran Duran, INXS, The Cars, Adam and the Ants, Billy Idol, Dire Straits y Bryan Adams.
- Melodic rock or soft rock arises , characterized by powerful guitar solos and melodies in charge of the keyboards; style spearheaded by bands like Journey , Toto , Foreigner and Boston .
- In the field of more commercial rock, Michael Jackson , Madonna and Prince achieved numerous successes. [ 10 ] [ 8 ] [ 11 ]
- American rock revives thanks to Tom Petty and Bruce Springsteen , the latter described as "the future of rock and roll" or "The Boss". Musicians such as John Cougar Mellencamp or John Hiatt excel in style, while Joan Jett , from The Runaways , and Pat Benatar triumph with numerous rock FM hits.
- The hard rock of the 1980s, also called glam metal or hair metal because of the clothes and hairstyles typical of that decade, reaches its peak with groups such as Bon Jovi , Cinderella , Europe , LA Guns , Kiss , Vinnie Vincent Invasion , Mötley Crüe , Poison , Ratt , Tesla , Quiet Riot , Twisted Sister , Warrant , White Lion and Whitesnake among the most successful.
- Christian Rock : Christian rock is a form of rock music played by bands whose members are Christian, and which often center their lyrics on religious themes. The extent to which their lyrics are explicitly Christian varies between bands as was the first band of this nascent Stryper genre .
- The independent record companies created from punk made possible the birth of indie and indie pop represented by bands like The Smiths , Orange Juice or The Go-Betweens . In 1986 NME published a cassette with the title C86 that would give rise to the movement of the same name.
- In 1980 U2 released their first album, Boy
- Early Alternative Rock Groups : The Cure, Siouxsie & the Banshees , REM , U2, The Smiths , Primal Scream , Pixies , Sonic Youth , Jane's Addiction , Dinosaur Jr., and Red Hot Chili Peppers in the UK and US, score the bases of the genre, in its beginnings in an underground plane , and for initiates, and later as mass phenomena.
- Rap metal is born , an alternative style whose pioneers were Run-DMC and Beastie Boys . [ 12 ]
- The thrash metal marked the beginning of this genre with Megadeth , Venom , Celtic Frost , Metallica , Slayer , Testament , Anthrax , Sepultura , Suicidal Tendencies , Pantera , Overkill . In Germany, Kreator , Destruction , Sodom and Tankard . Heavy metal acquires more speed and speed metal appears that would later give thrash metal and power metal. The harshness and influences of the genre increase due to the different perspectives of some groups and others, creating death metal with bands like Death or Morbid Angel and black metal with bands like Venom again, Hellhammer , Bathory or Mayhem . Death metal would merge with hardcore punk creating a genre called grindcore , the most popular band in the genre is Napalm Death .
- In 1987 Guns N 'Roses redefined hard rock using elements of heavy metal on the album Appetite for Destruction . This implies a change in theme and attitude preparing for a change in the following decade, thus moving away from the frivolity and fun of Glam metal . Two other bands that made a substantial difference in the genre were Dogs D'amour and The Cult , the latter in their rockier and less sinister stage; For their part, both Skid Row and the Scots Gun, invoicing a slightly more modernized hard rock, Sleaze rock , would remain in the scene of the early 1990s, already dominated by grunge .
- The strong influence on rock of hip hop groups like NWA Cypress Hill , Public Enemy is beginning to be appreciated .
- The madchester scene emerged in the city of Manchester , which mixed indie with danceable rhythms and gave the music a psychedelic tinge. Bands like The Stone Roses , Happy Mondays , Inspiral Carpets , The Charlatans , James and 808 State would be representatives of the genre.
- The shoegazing was a genre of music indie emerged in the late eighties and early nineties in the UK. He is represented by groups such as My Bloody Valentine , Ride, and Slowdive , among others.
- Second wave of black metal throughout the 1990s along with all the controversy that surrounds it, also appears Oasismania and a second invasion of British bands. [ 13 ] It was during this period when the development of black metal became patent and more evident, however, the origin of the genre must be placed much earlier in the early and mid-1980s. It was the British Venom , who with their The 1979 demo paved the way for the black metal wave to come. The fans were divided in opinions regarding this group, [ 14 ] who with their second album, from 1982, entitled Black Metal, gave the name to the genus. Other influential bands in establishing the foundations of the genre were, in terms of aesthetics, Kiss , and the Danish Mercyful Fate, which in 1982 released a four-song EP called Nuns Have No Fun . Black metal merges with the symphonic and orchestral with bands like Emperor and later Dimmu Borgir among others.
- The metal death is divided into several branches, appearing on a rough style, strong and technical bands as Cannibal Corpse , Immolation or Dying Fetus one melodic with In Flames , At The Gates , Dark Tranquility , with progressive ones or progressive rock Edge Of Sanity , Cynic or Opeth and even mixed with jazz music in bands like Cynic again or Cephalic Carnage . There is also the doom / death of Anathema , Paradise Lost orMy Dying Bride , which would take doom elements (subgenre or variant of heavy metal ) created by Black Sabbath and Candlemass , years later it would be mixed with the gothic subculture creating the genre called gothic metal .
- Fusion rock: Rock, metal and punk merge with rap and funk and incorporate other elements such as progressive rock . Red Hot Chili Peppers , Fishbone , Living Color , Faith No More , Incubus , Infectious Grooves , Primus, and Rage Against the Machine . In Holland the Urban Dance Squad would become known .
- The alternative rock and grunge revolutionize the genre following the success of the single Smells Like Teen Spirit , from the album Nevermind of Nirvana . Seattle becomes the center of rock; in addition to Nirvana arise Pearl Jam , ( reborn from the ashes of the seminal Mother Love Bone ), Screaming Trees , Soundgarden , Stone Temple Pilots , Blind Melon and Alice In Chains , in addition to Hole , The Afghan Whigs , and Garbage, bands that would later open the way to others of a more commercial nature such as Nickelback or Collective Soul . Grunge is also influencing the hard rock scene, with hair bands practically disappearing with the new trend. In alternative rock , Weezer , The Smashing Pumpkins and Jane's Addiction triumph thanks to the Lollapalooza festival .
- Added to this is the rise of industrial rock and industrial metal , with bands like Nine Inch Nails , Marilyn Manson , Ministry and Rammstein .
- The metal of the 1990s begins to permeate the spirit of alternative rock ; Sepultura innovate with the Chaos AD and Roots albums , just as Metallica adapt their budgets to the new decade, while Pantera unseats Michael Jackson from number one on the US chart with an extreme metal album called Far Beyond Driven .
- Stoner rock or desert rock emerges , a fusion of psychedelic rock from the 1970s with alternative rock from the 1990s, with the music of Black Sabbath ; characterized by dense riffs of dark guitars and slow rhythms, using the lowest tunings of the instruments, contrasted by Melvins and other American bands from California such as Kyuss (considered founders of the style), Fu Manchu or Nebula , but without reaching the commercial success of Seattle bands and the grunge movement; the style had its continuity with bands like Queens of the Stone Age for the next decade.
- Hard rock and heavy metal groups with a tendency to incorporate elements of psychedelic rock and punk , as well as the culture of " Serie B ", begin to popularize and succeed in the United States: Monster Magnet , White Zombie , Y Danzig , band from the former leader of The Misfits .
- The Black Crowes contrast as a rare bird in the new scene for their strongly retro proposal, influenced by Faces or The Rolling Stones. Throughout the 1990s they would further develop their style towards the concept of jam-band , thus connecting with an incipient 70s revival , supported by the personal proposal of Blind Melon , who since 1992 combine alternative rock and certain aspects of grunge with a retro aesthetics and sound, and followed to a lesser extent, Spin Doctors and a new batch of bands influenced by the Grateful Dead that would emerge in the second half of the decade, among them, Phish y Blues Traveller.
- This retro trend towards sounds from the 1970s would be confirmed by groups such as Counting Crows or 4 Non Blondes , who would rise to fame with their two respective hits, "Mr. Jones" and "What's up", songs that would sound insistently during the rest of the decade in radio formulas, both becoming reference themes of the decade.
- The Britpop was born in the UK in the mid-1990s, as a reaction to the growing popularity of grunge that filled local radios, hand bands like Oasis , Blur , Radiohead , Pulp , Suede , The Verve and Placebo . Britpop is influenced by the madchester, indie , shoegazing , new wave and rock genres of the 1970s and 1960s.
- Oasis releases (What's the Story) Morning Glory? , his second album, which sold more than 22 million records worldwide. The band became very popular and went on to perform two mega concerts in Knebworth Park for 125,000 people each night, which was a record in their country.
- Prodigy , The Chemical Brothers , Fatboy Slim , Apollo 440 and other big beat artists combine rock with different genres of electronic music , reaching a notable popularity among rock audiences.
- Pop punk arises with groups like The Offspring , Green Day , Blink-182 , Rancid and NOFX ( mainly from the melodic hardcore punk scene ), who are responsible for taking punk to a less countercultural and disruptive plane than the original punk, and musically cleaner and more melodic. Also the genre is a big part of the second wave of punk.
- Bands like Redd Kross , Urge Overkill or Jellyfish , once again vindicate the music and image of the 1970s, this time from an optics and sound that is sometimes close to Cheap Trick or the early Kiss , and to Beatlerian melodies covered by energetic rhythmic sections taken from the punk and hard rock.
- The 1990s are also the decade in which soloists triumph, sometimes close to the figure of the crooner or singer-songwriter, but with markedly personal, risky and iconoclastic proposals, which on many occasions take a course outside the genre, such as Jeff Buckley , PJ Harvey , Björk or Tori Amos . An artistically reborn Johnny Cash produces his latest records for American Recordings .
- Radiohead publishes OK Computer , an album that according to the music press becomes their masterpiece and one of the most important of the decade, [ 15 ] influencing later groups such as Travis , Delirious? , Keane , Muse and Coldplay .
- Nu metal emerged from the mixture of grunge, funk and hip hop in the middle of the decade , a very popular style until the middle of the next decade. Bands like Korn and Deftones would be the forerunners of the style, which would reach its maximum popularity with the appearance of bands like Limp Bizkit or Linkin Park.
- Second stage of gothic metal and third stage of gothic rock, led mainly by the German band Unheilig since 1999. The guttural voices of death in gothic metal are suppressed : Nightwish , Moonspell , Within Temptation and Anabantha fuse gothic metal with opera . Bands that show influences of gothic metal fused with other genres such as alternative metal or Doom metal begin : Epica , Within Temptation , Therion . The 69 Eyes , HIM ,Xandria , L'Âme Immortelle , Entwine (1996 - 1998).
- Second half of the decade: new wave of rock, sometimes called action-rock, fusing hard rock with punk, as a reaction to the intellectuality of grunge and alternative, back to the most basic rock. The movement comes mainly from Scandinavia ; Turbonegro , Backyard Babies , The Hellacopters , Hardcore Superstar or Gluecifer ; without forgetting the American response, with Buckcherry or Nashville Pussy . This brings with it a certain revival of glam rock , and groups like LA Guns or Poison return to tour or release albums.
- In the late 1990s, and the first half of the new decade, alternative or American country became popular , that's how the new American rock is called; country and American roots music fused with alternative rock ; Drive-By Truckers , Steve Earle , Lucinda Williams , Son Volt , Wilco or Cracker . Back to the roots, but with a more current point of view, based on the legacy of Gram Parsons, and whose roots are generally located in the Uncle Tupelo group.
- The last groups that defined rock during the 1970s disappear. Pink Floyd, leader in psychedelic and progressive rock, ends up breaking up.
- Although rap metal had its success during the 1990s, with bands like Rage Against The Machine, its true success was at the beginning of the millennium with bands like Linkin Park releasing their first album Hybrid Theory , it also became the debut album more sold of the decade. Limp Bizkit who released Chocolate Starfish and the Hotdog Flavored Water , Papa Roach , Deftones , Korn , and Slipknot with their self-titled album.
- Rise of metalcore and deathcore , with bands like As I Lay Dying , Killswitch Engage and Shadows Fall as the main exponents.
- After the mergers between genres that occurred in the 1990s, rock returned to its most basic concept in 2000 as garage rock or garage rock revival , with alternative influences and focus, with groups such as The Strokes , The Sounds , Yeah Yeah Yeahs , The White Stripes , The Black Keys , The Libertines , The Vines , The Hives , Kings of Leon , BRMC , among others.
- The new wave of post-grunge ; with groups like Audioslave , 12 Stones , Three Days Grace , Seether , Taproot .
- Follow the wave of pop punk between 2000 and 2005 with bands like The Offspring , Green Day , Blink-182 , Sum 41 , NOFX , among others.
- En el deathcore destacan Job for a Cowboy, Despised Icon y As Blood Runs Black.
- En el plano del rock alternativo destacan Muse, Placebo, The Smashing Pumpkins, Radiohead, Linkin Park, Keane, Coldplay, Foo Fighters, Green Day, Evanescence e Incubus.
- In 2001 the second album of System of a Down appeared entitled Toxicity which was very successful in the music industry.
- In 2005 the Californian band Green Day gave their biggest concert in Milton Keynes, this being the biggest concert in the history of punk rock.
- Queens of the Stone Age continue during the new era legacy stoner rock of Kyuss , adding other nuances, instrumentation and structures that define something like Robot Rock.
- In the UK, The Libertines reinvents britpop, giving it a less commercial tinge than bands like Oasis or Blur. With more self-destructive lyrics, but without changing the formula of the previous bands too much, they manage to be a cult band, while opening the way for bands like Franz Ferdinand , Boy Kill Boy , Bloc Party , Arctic Monkeys , Kasabian , Maxïmo Park , and Kaiser Chiefs . Other post-punk revival bands , like Mando Diao (Sweden), update the legacy of post-punk and britpop.
- The main hard rock and heavy metal bands return to their classic sound of the 1980s, after long stages of experimentation with typical sounds of the 1990s.
- Indie rock bands , post punk revival, other branches of the new wave (post-punk), ( new wave ) such as The Strokes , The Killers and The Bravery (among which there have been rivalries), Franz Ferdinand , Vampire Weekend and Arctic Monkeys ( indie ), Arcade Fire and Interpol (1998 - present) of post punk revival, a band whose dark style has been compared to that of Joy Division , Interpol is one of the pioneering and most influential bands of the post punk revival.
- In the United States, groups like LCD Soundsystem , !!! or The Rapture would adapt the most danceable part of the genre giving rise to dance punk and dance rock with bands like Panic! at the Disco .
- In 2007 the solo of the song Blackbird by the band Alter Bridge was named the best solo of all time by Guitar Magazine .
- In 2007 Klaxons debut album , Myths of the Near Future , released on January 29, 2007 gives way to the new genre called new rave , in which there are also groups like Datarock , Hot Chip and Cansei de Ser Sexy . The style denotes the influence of rock from the 2000s with part of the rave (electronic) culture of the 1990s, the label of new rave is frequently and perhaps wrongly applied to groups with electronic influences.
- Muse is enshrined in Europe with his mix of alternative rock with classical music and progressive touches, with tours around the world presenting his albums Absolution (2003) and Black Holes and Revelations (2006), giving two sold-out shows in the new stadium of Wembley in London presenting the latter.
- The traditional figure of the iconoclastic singer-songwriter in rock has its continuity with the success of Antony and the Johnsons and his album I am a bird now , while Rufus Wainwright surprises in successive installments with his personal style reminiscent of Jeff Buckley in his vocal tonality , both musicians practicing various stylistic fusions that link with the work of artists such as Lou Reed between rock and lyrical, while Mark Lanegan continues with his deep and introspective sound after the dissolution of Screamin 'Trees .
- The Darkness , The Answer and Airbourne bring the essence of hard rock back to the forefront with great attention to staging, energetic and neat guitars, fun as the main leitmotif , and even falsetto vocals . For its part, Velvet Revolver adds to the genre the influence of post-grunge and grunge, due to the fact that its ex-vocalist was from the grunge band Stone Temple Pilots .
- Wolfmother and Jet achieve audience successes with their retro hard rock.
- Both the Scissor Sisters band and the soloist Mika merge pop rock with funk and retro disco music , reaping notable success.
- The progressive rock and experimental rock get a relative boom thanks to bands like Porcupine Tree and The Mars Volta , the latter is most notable for its influences from punk rock, jazz fusion, funk, giving hints psychedelic rock of the 1960s and 1970 like those of Jimi Hendrix and Carlos Santana . The progressive metal is growing in popularity thanks to bands like Ayreon , Dream Theater , Mastodon , Opeth , Pain of Salvation , Riverside , Symphony X and Tool.
- Avenged Sevenfold , DevilDriver , Disturbed , Lamb of God , Machine Head and Trivium are some of the bands that are part of the movement known as NWOAHM (New Wave of American Heavy Metal).
- The most popular rock bands of the twentieth century return, though most as soloists or in small gatherings. The Live 8 event allowed for the latest comeback of bands like Pink Floyd. Led Zeppelin reunites in concert after nearly 25 years of separation, while Queen teams up with Paul Rodgers to form Queen + Paul Rodgers . Roger Waters , bassist for Pink Floyd, performs a Dark Side of the Moon World Tour and later returns to commemorate 30 years of The Wall with The Wall Live . Bands like Oasis and REM . they separate, and others like The Police reunite.John Fogerty tours Creedence Clearwater Revival songs .
- Some of the old school bands went on to release studio albums and world tours like AC / DC with Black Ice ; Aerosmith with Just Push Play , Honkin 'on Bobo and Music from Another Dimension! ; Iron Maiden with Dance of Death , A Matter of Life and Death and The Final Frontier ; or Def Leppard with X and Songs from the Sparkle Lounge , among others.
The various genres of rock were adopted and essential to the identity of various subcultures . In the 1950s and 1960s, respectively, British youth adopted the Teddy boys and Rocker subcultures , both centered on American rock and roll. The counterculture of the 1960s was closely related to psychedelic rock . The punk subculture of the mid-1970s began in the United States and Britain almost simultaneously and took on a distinctive image created by designer Vivienne Westwood that became popular around the world. From the punk scene, the Emo and Goth subcultures grew up presenting their own visual styles.
When an international rock culture developed, it managed to dethrone film as the biggest influence on fashion. Rock music fans have often mistrusted the world of fashion, which they have often seen as an exaggeration of the importance of image at the cost of content. Rock fashion has been seen as a combination of different cultures and periods, as well as an expression of divergent views on sexuality and gender, and rock music in general has been viewed and criticized for facilitating greater sexual freedom. Rock has also been associated with various forms of drug use, including the stimulants used by some mods in the early and mid-1960s, by LSD.related to psychedelic rock in the late 1960s and early 1970s; and occasionally marijuana , cocaine and heroin , all praised in the songs.
Rock has been credited for changing racial attitudes by opening African-American culture to a wider audience; but he has also been accused of appropriating and exploiting that culture. While rock has absorbed many influences and introduced Western audiences to different musical traditions, its worldwide popularity has been interpreted as a form of cultural imperialism . Rock took the folkloric tradition of protest music , making political statements on issues such as war, religion, poverty, human rights , justice and the environment . Political activism peaked with the single " Do They Know It's Christmas?"(" Do they know it's Christmas? ", 1984) and the Live Aid concert for Ethiopia in 1985, which while successfully raising awareness of poverty and altruism, have also been criticized (along with other similar events), for provide a platform to enhance self-standing and provide higher profits for the performers involved.
From its early beginnings, rock music has been associated with rebellion against social and political norms, which was most obvious in early rock and roll's rejection of adult-dominated culture. The rejection of the counterculture towards consumerism and conformity and the rejection of punk towards all forms of social convention , can be seen as a form of commercial exploitation of these ideas and a way to distract the youth from political and social action. and environmental.
- W.E. Studwell y D.F. Lonergan, The Classic Rock and Roll Reader: Rock Music from its Beginnings to the mid-1970s (Abingdon: Routledge, 1999), ISBN 0-7890-0151-9
- Pop / Rock and AllMusic
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- Janis Joplin Janis Joplin brought her powerful, bluesy voice from Texas to San Francisco’s psychedelic scene, where she went from drifter to superstar. She has been called "the greatest white urban blues and soul singer of her generation". Joplin’s vocal intensity proved a perfect match for the high-energy music of Big Brother and the Holding Company, resulting in a mix of blues, folk and psychedelic rock
- The Jimi Hendrix Experience Jimi Hendrix expanded the range and vocabulary of the electric guitar into areas no musician had ever ventured before. Many would claim him to be the greatest guitarist ever to pick up the instrument. At the very least his creative drive, technical ability and painterly application of such effects as wah-wah and distortion forever transformed the sound of rock and roll. Hendrix helped usher in the age of psychedelia with his 1967 debut, Are You Experienced?, and the impact of his brief but meteoric career on popular music continues to be felt
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