Late 1960s and early 1970s in: |
|Common Instruments||Guitar , piano , organ , synthesizer , VCS 3 , bass , keyboards , double bass , among others.|
|Popularity||United States, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada and most of the continent of Europe and the World .|
|Derivatives||Krautrock, jazz rock, NWOBHM, new age, new wave, post-rock|
|Metal progressive , avant-progressive rock , symphonic rock , neo-progressive rock , new prog , space rock , zeuhl , math rock|
|Avant-prog, progressive metal, progressive folk|
| Italian |
progressive rock Spanish
progressive rock Latin American progressive rock
The rock progressive , also known as prog rock or prog is a subgenre [ 1 ] Music rock , which became popular in the UK , with further development in Germany , Italy , Chile , Argentina , Spain and France during the mid and late from the 1960s and 70s. It developed from psychedelic rock and originated, like art rock , as an attempt to give rock music greater weight and artistic credibility.[ 2 ] Bands abandoned the shortpopsinglein favor of compositional and instrumentation techniques more frequently associated with jazz orclassical musicin an effort to give rock music the same level of musical sophistication and critical respect. . [ 3 ] Some songs were replaced by musical suites that often lasted up to 20, 30, or even 40 minutes and containedsymphonicinfluences, extended musical themes,philosophical-esotericlyrics,and complex orchestrations. [ 4 ]
Progressive rock saw a high level of popularity throughout the 1970s, especially the mid-1970s. Bands such as Pink Floyd , Rush , Yes , Jethro Tull , King Crimson , Camel , Genesis , Emerson, Lake & Palmer and The Alan Parsons Project were the most influential groups of the genre and were some of the most popular acts of the time, although there were many other bands, often highly influential, that experienced a lesser degree of commercial success. The popularity of the genre waned during the second half of the decade. The majority consensus holds that the emergence ofPunk rock caused this, although in reality a number of factors contributed to this decline. [ 5 ] bands rock Progressive achieved commercial success well into the 1980s, but changed formations and structures of the most compact songs.
The genre grew out of Pink Floyd's space rock and the classic rock experiments of bands like The Moody Blues , Procol Harum, and The Nice of the 1960s. [ Citation needed ] Most of the notable bands from the genre's rise from the 1970s fall into the category of " symphonic prog ", in which classical composition techniques and orchestrations are fused with rock music . There are other sub-genres, including the more accessible neo - progressive rock of the 1980s, the Canterbury Sound.from the 1960s and 1970s influenced by jazz , and Rock in Opposition from the late 1970s and onwards, more political and experimental. [ 6 ] Progressive rock has influenced genres such as krautrock , new wave, and post-punk , and has merged with other forms of rock music to create subgenres of heavy metal such as neoclassical metal and progressive metal . A revival, often referred to as a new prog , occurred in the early 21st century and has enjoyed a cult following.since then. And that is why progressive rock bands have influenced the music world in a good way.
Progressive rock sources
From an instrumental point of view, the work of some early 20th century musicians such as Bartók , Debussy and Stravinski is an essential reference for all progressive rock . Its influence is especially visible in the development of intricate rhythmic passages and irregular measures (5/4, 7/8, 13/16 etc.), which also have a precedent in Eastern European music. On the more experimental side of the genre, the influence of avant-garde electronic music composers , such as Karlheinz Stockhausen , is also observed . From the combination of classical elements with other taken from jazz and rockcomes the peculiar sound characteristic of progressive rock .
Allmusic quotes the poetry of Bob Dylan and the bands The Mothers of Invention with Freak Out! (1966) and The Beatles with Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band (1967) as samples of the "early sounds of progressive rock and art rock ", while progressiverock.com cites the latter as its "starting point". [ 7 ] Already on previous albums, such as Rubber Soul and RevolverThey had started using oriental music and instruments that are not common in rock. The East of Eden band also did so with the use of oriental harmonies and instruments such as the Sumerian saxophone on the 1969 Mercator Projected album . [ 8 ] This would later spread to progressive rock bands such as Yes , King Crimson , Emerson, Lake & Palmer , Electric Light Orchestra , Jethro Tull , Supertramp , or Gentle Giant .
Freak Out! , released in 1966, was a mix of progressive rock, garage rock, and avant-garde . In the same year, the band "1-2-3", which later changed their name to Clouds, began experimenting with song structure, including improvisations and multi-layer arrangements. [ 9 ] In March that year, The Byrds released " Eight Miles High ", a pioneer of the psychedelic rock single with lead guitar heavily influenced by the style jazzero of John Coltrane . Later that year, The Who released A Quick One , the first example of rock opera.and considered by some as the first epic progressive rock album. [ 10 ]
In 1967, Jeff Beck released the single "Beck's Bolero", inspired by the bolero of Maurice Ravel and later that same year, Procol Harum released the single " A Whiter Shade of Pale ", influenced by Bach . Also in 1967, the Moody Blues released Days of Future Passed , combining orchestral classical music with classical rock instrumentation and song structure. Pink Floyd's first album , The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967), contained about 10 minutes of instrumental improvisation on the song " Interstellar Overdrive ."
In the late 1960s, many rock bands began incorporating classical and oriental music instruments, as well as experimenting with improvisations and longer compositions. Some, like the English Soft Machine , began to experiment with mixes of rock and jazz . Other bands and artists recorded albums with full orchestras such as Deep Purple on their Concerto for Group and Orchestra album (1969) and The Nice on their Five Bridges (1970). This use of classical music would be consolidated in the 1970s with works such as the orchestral recording of Amon Düül II inMade in Germany (1975), Pink Floyd con Atom Heart Mother (1970), Rick Wakeman con Journey to the Center of the Earth (1974), o varios trabajos de Frank Zappa, por citar algunos.
The bands that fed progressive rock in its early stages were Traffic , Jeff Beck , Family, Jethro Tull, and Genesis ; while King Crimson , Camel , Yes , Emerson, Lake and Palmer and Van der Graaf Generator represent the genre at its peak. Bands of the genre were formed in the late 1960s and early '70s, including The Moody Blues (1964), Pink Floyd (1965), Soft Machine (1966), Barclay James Harvest (1966), Gong (1967) , Genesis (1967), Van der Graaf Generator (1967), Jethro Tull (1967), The Nice (1967), Yes (1968), Rush (1968), Caravan (1968), King Crimson (1969), Supertramp (1969), Gentle Giant (1969), Wishbone Ash (1969), Curved Air (1970), Electric Light Orchestra (1970) y The Alan Parsons Project (1976),
Although these bands come mostly from the British Isles, the genre grew in popularity in continental Europe , making the German scene stand out. One of the countries with a stronger prog scene was always Germany (the so-called Krautrock), with names such as Triumvirat , Embryo, Guru Guru , Eloy , Amon Düül II, Can , Jane or Faust , among many others, while Tangerine Dream , the first Kraftwerk or Popol Vuh were the referents of German electronic progressive music (Berlin School), which was closely related to progressive music.
The progressive rock Italian has also been an important and very fertile subgenre (more than a geographical variant) led by PFM , Le Orme and Bank Mutual Soccorso , who gained international recognition. Among the pioneers of this country, Franco Battiato of the seventies stands out (in the 2013 reissue of Darwin! By Banco del Mutuo Soccorso , there is a song they interpret as a duo). Other notable Italian bands were New Trolls, Area, Goblin , Campo di Marte, Museo Rosenbach , Il Balletto di Bronzo , Maxophone or Locanda delle Fate..
Similarly, in other European countries a movement of progressive rock bands began to emerge , such as Focus , Kayak , Ekseption and Trace formed in the Netherlands , Ange , Gong and Magma in France, or Aphrodite's Child in Greece , led by electronic music pioneer Vangelis together with singer and bassist Demis Roussos , who after their psychedelic pop beginnings, crowned their career with a double progressive rock album before breaking up: 666 (1972).
Scandinavia , meanwhile, was represented by Swedish bands such as Samla Mammas Manna or Kaipa, and the Finnish band Wigwam, among others.
Peak of popularity and decline
The popularity of progressive rock bands peaked in the mid-1970s, when artists of the genre regularly topped reader polls in major popular music magazines in Britain and the United States, and albums such as tubular Bells by Mike Oldfield headed the lists. At that time, several progressive rock bands had formed in North America. Kansas , which had actually been around in one form or another since 1971, became one of the most commercially successful progressive rock bands.
Likewise, the Electric Light Orchestra , which was formed in 1970, with a strong influence from The Beatles , a markedly symphonic sound and a strong presence of stringed instruments, had its greatest success in the mid-1970s, when they turned to a more accessible style. . Pop star Todd Rundgren took to the prog with his new band, Utopia , and the Canadians of Rush became a major band, with a string of successful albums stretching from the mid-1970s to the present.
Eder says this album "suffered from bad sound and lack of inspiration" and "made the devotion of fans and critics even more tenuous." He states that "the end [of progressive rock] was swift: in 1977, the new generation of listeners were even more interested in having a good time than the audiences of the 1970s, and had no patience for a suite of 30 minutes of progressive rock or concept albums based on Tolkienic stories ". He states that in the late 1970s and early 1980s, "ELP was barely functioning as a unit, and was not producing music with all its energy; Genesis redefined itself ... as a pop-rock band; and Yes he had returned to writing four-minute songs ... and even releasing singles. "
In 1974, four of the biggest progressive rock bands, Yes, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Genesis and King Crimson, went into indefinite hiatus or experienced line-up changes. The members of Yes and ELP began to perform solo works, as well as Peter Gabriel the singer of Genesis, who left the band (who would continue with Phil Collins as vocalist), and Robert Fripp, who announced the end of King Crimson after the release. of Red .
When Yes and ELP played again in 1977, they had some success, but were unable to maintain their previous dominance. Rush also changed their sound: according to The Canadian Encyclopedia , from "1975 to 1982 ... when Rush co-produced their music with Terry Brown, the trio fused elements of progressive rock (such as complex beats and virtuosity) with an emphasis on heavy. metal that he had shown on the first albums. " [ 12 ] However, Progressive Rock Central magazine claims that Rush only released two progressive rock records, A Farewell to Kings and Hemispheres .
The advent of punk rock and disco in the 1970s helped to mobilize critical opinion and the UK public towards a simpler and more aggressive style of rock, with which progressive bands were increasingly shunned by be pretentious and over the top, ending the reign of progressive rock as a leading style within rock. [ 13 ] [ 14 ] However, established progressive rock bands having a strong fan base; Rush, Genesis, ELP, Yes, and Pink Floyd regularly entered the best-selling album charts and went on massive tour dates.
Renaissance in the 1980s
The 1980s saw a revival of the genre, led by artists such as Marillion , UK , Twelfth Night, IQ , Pendragon , Quasar or Pallas. The groups that emerged during this time are sometimes known as neo- progressive or neo-prog. Bands of this style were influenced by the progressive rock groups of the 70s such as Genesis, Yes and Camel , but incorporated some elements of the new wave music and other rock elements of the 1980s. The digital synthesizer became a important instrument in style. The neo-progit continued for the next decade and beyond with bands like Arena and Jadis .
Some hardcore progressive rock bands changed their musical direction, simplifying their music and making it more commercially viable. In 1981, King Crimson reappeared incorporating a more new wave sound, possibly influenced by Talking Heads (with whom the group's new vocalist, Adrian Belew , collaborated) and Asia released their first pop-oriented album. This demonstrated a market for more commercial British progressive rock - a style very similar to Styx and Journey . Genesis shifted in a more commercial direction during the 1980s, and Yes came back with album 90125 , with their only US number one single, "Owner of a Lonely Heart . " Kiss featured on the 1981 album Music from" The Elder, and likewise Pink Floyd's A Momentary Lapse of Reason in 1987 was a break from their previous concept albums, with much more songs. short and more electronic sound.This was the first album that the band recorded after the departure of Roger Waters , their main composer during the previous stage of the band.
Despite the aforementioned simplification or commercialization of the sound, this decade produced some songs now considered classics within the genre, which capture the essence of progressive rock made in the 1980s, such as "Subdivisions" by Rush; "Home by the sea" (part I and II) by Genesis; "Without you" from Asia; "Changes" by Yes or "Ammonia Avenue" by Alan Parsons Project.
1990s and 2000s
Progressive rock enjoyed another revival in the 1990s. A notable boost for this revival was the founding of the Swedish Art Rock Society in 1991, an association created to rescue the values of classic progressive rock, with Pär Lindh as president. [ 16 ] This partnership was a catalyst for new Swedish bands such as Anekdoten , Änglagård , Landberk and Pär Lindh Project, which joined the music scene between 1992 and 1994. These bands became part of the "third wave" of rock. progressive, headlined by The Flower Kings from Sweden, Porcupine Tree from the UK, White Willow from Norway and Dream Theater, Spock's Beard , Echolyn , Proto-Kaw (a reincarnation of one of the earliest formations from Kansas ), and Glass Hammer from the United States. The project Ayreon of Arjen Anthony Lucassen , with the support of a wide range of talents of progressive rock, produced a series of concept albums innovative progressive metal since 1995.
Several of the progressive metal bands - the American Queensrÿche , Fates Warning and Dream Theater , as well as the Swedish band Opeth - cite Rush as one of their main influences, although their music also exhibits influences from more metal and hard rock bands. traditional like Black Sabbath or Deep Purple .
Tool (United States) mentions King Crimson as an influence on his work. [ 17 ] King Crimson opened Tool's concerts during their 2001 tour and expressed his admiration for the group while continuing to deny the label of "progressives".
Progressive rock has served as inspiration for genres such as post-rock , avant-garde metal , power metal , neo-classical metal, and symphonic metal . Former Dream Theater drummer Mike Portnoy has recognized [ 18 ] that the prominent use of progressive elements and qualities in metal is not limited to bands conventionally classified as "progressive metal". Many styles of underground metal [ 19 ] (especially extreme metal styles, which are characterized by very fast or very slow speed, high levels of distortion, epic orientation and often highly unusual melodies, scales, vocal styles, song structures and, especially in death metal , abrupt tempo, key and pitch changes. compass; folk metal is known to employ infrequent instruments often and other unusual elements) and some bands like Watchtower , Death , Celtic Frost [ 20 ] (a band that pioneered various styles) or The 3rd and the Mortal are still rare. known even to fans of the genre.
Former members of the pioneering post-hardcore band At the Drive-In , Cedric Bixler-Zavala and Omar Rodríguez-López formed The Mars Volta , a successful progressive that incorporates jazz , funk , punk rock , Latin music and ambient noise into songs. They vary in length from a few minutes to more than thirty. They achieved some success with their 2005 album Frances the Mute , which reached # 4 on the Billboard 200 count after the single "The Widow" became a hit on modern rock radio.
Coheed and Cambria are another band known for their long solos and their way of composing leaving aside structures, in which each song corresponds to an important event in the graphic novel and in the novel series, The Amory Wars , which was written by singer and guitarist Claudio Sánchez . Other successful rock bands include Radiohead and Muse , [ 21 ] who have been cited in the mass press as the heirs to the mantle of progressive rock, along with Sleepy Hollow, Oceansize , Amplifier , Pure Reason Revolution, The Pineapple Thief , and Mew. . [ 22 ]
The first decade of the 2000s saw progressive rock gain popularity in Eastern Europe, especially in Russia, where the InProg festival was founded in 2001, and bands such as Little Tragedies, EXIT project, Kostarev Group or Disen Gage achieved some success within rock. Russian and were known in other countries. Other notable bands from Northern and Eastern Europe are the Turkish band Nemrud, Olive Mess from Latvia, and Riverside from Poland. From the former Soviet Union or Asia one could mention From.Uz from Ukraine or Teru's Symphonia from Japan .
Some of the bands that pioneered the genre during the 1970s are still playing. This is the case with Rush that still maintains its three original members, Yes, who has had some line-up changes, Van der Graaf Generator and Jethro Tull . When the other projects of its members allow it, King Crimson and Camel return to the stage.
Despite the current lack of massiveness of the genre, notable resurgences and renewed interest are shown in many and very different countries, from Japan, to Peru, through Mexico and Argentina, this musical genre continues to attract audiences and admirers of all ages. .
Progressive rock in Spain
In Spain, progressive rock also obtained an ideal field to grow, with its own characteristics, and had its peak during the 1970s , with the simultaneous birth of three key groups in the movement: the Madrilenians Modules (1969), the Catalans Machine! (1969) and the Andalusians Smash (1969). Modules were the ones with the most commercial success thanks to their fusion of symphonic rock with commercial pop and Spanish lyrics .
On the other hand, a very particular subgenre, Andalusian rock , brought together a series of groups that fused progressive rock with the sensibility of flamenco and even jazz fusion, highlighting a good number of names such as Triana , Goma , Guadalquivir , Tabletom , Cai , Imán , or a little later, the Tenerife band Psikopolis , Medina Azahara , merging jazz and metal , the latter contributing a hard rock imprint to Andalusian symphonism.
Progressive rock in Latin America
In Argentina, the greatest exponents of progressive rock were Crucis , MIA , Vox Dei , Alas , Espíritu , Coven , The Bird Making Machine , Serú Girán , Almendra , Invisible , Spinetta Jade , El Reloj , Arco Iris , Tantor , Alma y vida , Bubu , Contraluz , Horizonte, Ave Rock, among others. In the 1970s , Argentine progressive rock in turn generated the subgenretango rock founded by Luis Alberto Spinetta , Charly García , Gustavo Moretto , Rodolfo Mederos and some compositions by Astor Piazzolla . [ 23 ] [ 24 ]
The Mexican progressive rock had its peak during the 70s and especially in the 80 . At the beginning of the 1970s, several rock bands partially ventured into the genre, such as El Ritual ("El Ritual", 1971), Luz y Fuerza ("We Can Fly", 1971), Toncho Pilatos , in their self-titled debut ( 1971), where acid rock, touches of blues and even jazz are mixed with Mexican folk music, Los Dug Dug's , already transformed into a trio, begin with a fundamental change, strongly approaching progressive rock, but only on their second album " Smog "(1972) and Náhuatl (homonym, 1974), where some experimentations on their first album brought the group closer to interesting progressive movements in a couple of cuts.
At the end of the 70s and in the 1980s other groups were formed such as Nobilis Factum ("Mutante", 1982), Iconoclasta (homonym, 1983), Delirium ("The Theater of Delirium", 1984), Praxis ("The Eternity of the Ephemeral ", 1987), Maná (" Missing Love ", 1989). It is worth mentioning the Rock group from the City of Mexicali Cast ("Sounds of Imagination", 1994), who were internationally recognized even in distant countries like Japan , but in their country they were only followed by a small audience. [ 25 ] Others like Arturo Meza("No Vayamos a Irnos Sin Mar", 1984) ("Venadito de sol", 1993) and Chac Mool ("Nobody in Special", 1980). There was also a proposal closer to Rock in Opposition and jazz with Banda Elastica ("Banda Elastica 2", 1986).
At the end of the 90s and in force today, new generations of musicians emerge venturing into the genre and renewing the sound with mergers with jazz, traditional Mexican music and academic music; Of which Cabezas de Cera ("Cabezas de cera", 2000), Gallina negra (Parachicos y paraviejos, 2009), Xochipilli, Alonso Arreola, La Perr, Arteria stand out. All of them have promoted a renaissance of the genre and new bands have emerged in the last 5 years such as Luz de Riada ("Cuentos y fabulas", 2011), Govea ("Danza Urbana", 2012), Sonor-Am ("Soy Sonido" 2014), Deuol, Umpalumpas, Komodo, Saena, The Return of the Sorcerers, The Gorgon and Khan Karma.
There are great bands currently in activity such as Black Riders, Baalbek, Maná, Presto Vivace, Sonor-Am, Laquesis and Black Flag.
So much so that the large number of International Progressive Rock festivals visited prove it.
In Mexico the "Baja Prog", the "Summers end progressive Rock Festival" (in Bristol ), the Progressive Rock festival in Peru in 2011, the "La Plata Prog" Festival in Argentina, and many other festivals that attract thousands of followers. every year, are some examples.
In Chile, Fulano and Los Jaivas stand out , a band born in 1963 whose music is characterized by its fusion with Latin American roots, avant-garde and classic rock. One of the main characteristics of the compositions of Los Jaivas is the accompaniment with electronic instruments that give some of their classic songs a cosmic atmosphere. The last album recorded by the original formation, "Obras de Violeta Parra ", stands out as the closest to progressive rock with songs such as "Arauco has a penalty", "And above burning the sun" or "In human gardens" with long instrumental intervals. Violeta Parra could be placed as a forerunner of the genre, specifically with the song "
At the beginning we have bands linked to the first Peruvian rock scene (1957-1975) in which El Polen, Traffic Sound, Pax, Tarkus, El Álamo, Red Amber, etc. stand out. Some with more folkloric overtones, others linked to the hardrock of the time and the most psychedelic.
In the 80's, the Frágil band stands out, which from 1976 to the present has evolved and toured the different tones of progressive rock. In 1990, with the third wave of the progressive, groups such as "Fulgor Sedano", "Zendra", "Human Beings", "El Aire" appeared.
In the decade of the 2000 they sound "Flor de Loto" and "Supay", among others, staying up to date. There are two important festivals in Peru dedicated to progressive rock "Una Noche de Rock Progresivo" that already has 9 editions and the Lima Prog Fest that already has four editions, vinyl both organized by Sonidos Latentes Producciones. Videos and audios of these groups can be found on the Internet.
In the 2010s a psychedelic rock "Lima scene" emerged that groups together various bands with CD and vinyl releases in Latin America and Europe such as Cholo Visceral, Tortuga, Búho Ermitaño, Virgen Sideral, Tabla Espacial, Spatial Moods, etc. These groups are within the framework of a psychedelic rock movement called "New Latin American Psychedelia", some with more progressive overtones (such as Cholo Visceral), others more linked to heavy music and others to noise. [ 26 ]
In Cuba the group "Anima Mundi" has published four good quality Progressive Symphonic Rock albums since 2002, performing live in Europe. From Honduras we can mention the band Requiem, perhaps the only band of the genre, active in its first stage between 1986 and 1992, pioneers in Honduras and Central America. It was reformed in 2009, launching the CD 'Réquiem'. It is still active, launching "Requiem II" (2010), "Requiem III" (2012) and "La Misa Católica Rockmana" (2013).
Progressive compositions are characterized by the use of movements, as in classical music works , [ 27 ] and by the gradual addition of new instruments that develop the musical themes raised in the piece and improvisation , often close to the canons of jazz , [ 27 ] along with an experimental component inherited from electronic music . [ 27 ] Long songs, concept albums, the ambitious lyrics, the virtuosity of the instrumentalists and a prominent use of the melotron and synthesizers . [ 27 ] Although not all of these traits always occur, they are common in the bands that shaped the genre, such as Soft Machine , The Moody Blues , The Nice , King Crimson , Emerson, Lake & Palmer , Camel , Focus , Genesis , Gentle Giant , Jethro Tull , Pendragon , Supertramp , Mike Oldfield ,The Alan Parsons Project , Pink Floyd , Rush , Renaissance or Yes . The concerts of these bands are generally bombastic and spectacular, especially in the popular groups of the 1970s , such as Yes or Pink Floyd, [ 28 ] while their lyrics tend to have literary pretensions, unlike those of the groups of other genres. [ 28 ]
One of the main influences of this type of music is in the minimalist music (that includes artists like Steve Reich , John Adams , and Philip Glass ) and the "Gamelan", the music of Java . In both types of music a repetitive and hypnotic element predominates, potentially inducing the trance. In this sense, progressive rock connects with the aspirations of psychedelia , and many compositions of the genre can be considered as music created to accompany the psychedelic journey or reproduce, without chemical help, its structure and effects. An early example of the application of minimalist technique to rockis the composition "Sister Ray" from The Velvet Underground .
Progressive rock can be separated from so-called symphonic rock . Although the two genres frequently overlap, the adjective "symphonic" refers mainly to the orchestral sonority, integrated into some pop songs (eg " She's Leaving Home " by the Beatles and " Nights In White Satin " by The Moody Blues ) by using string sections or entire orchestras, or evoked (more economically) by primitive samplers such as the mellotron or analog synthesizers.
Subgenres and currents
Within progressive rock there are many varieties, styles and mixes. Among some of the best known movements that can be considered subgenres of progressive rock , or currents related to it, are the following:
- Sonido Canterbury
Within British progressive rock there is a current with a peculiar style, close to jazz and less bombastic, called the Canterbury sound or scene . It is made up of groups such as Soft Machine , Camel , Caravan , Hatfield and the North , Matching Mole and Gong .
- Zeuhl and RIO
There are two subgenres much more experimental and radical than the previous one: the zeuhl , invented by the French band Magma ; and the RIO ( Rock in Opposition ), whose main exponents are Henry Cow and Univers Zéro . These two subgenres are notable for their complexity and for the influences of jazz , avant-garde composers, and classical music, and they were not very commercially successful.
In the late 1960s an experimental trend called krautrock emerged in the West German counterculture , which is often considered part of progressive rock and included groups such as Ash Ra Tempel , Eloy , Neu! , Can , Faust , Amon Düül II , La Düsseldorf , Popol Vuh , Cluster and Embryo . In this experimental line, we must also highlight the influence of the first solo albums of the British Brian Eno. It is characterized by the use of synthesizers , approaching electronic music and space rock . [ 29 ]
In the United States , Frank Zappa & The Mothers Of Invention , The Velvet Underground , Captain Beefheart and The Residents practice an avant-garde ( avant-garde ) aesthetic heavily influenced by jazz , with continuous rhythm changes, multiple melodies and style changes within the same theme, as well as a tendency to make music with critical elements (like the concept albums of The Residents).
Progressive electronic music ( progressive electronic ) is a well- founded style bands and artists who introduced synthesizers in a context of progressive and often experimental music. Among the most notable names in this trend, Tangerine Dream , Vangelis , Klaus Schulze or Popol Vuh stand out as pioneers and references. The Spanish group Neuronium or the renowned French artist Jean-Michel Jarre also belong to this trend.
- Space Rock
In this subgenre Tangerine Dream was also important, along with Pink Floyd , Hawkwind , Ozric Tentacles or Ayreon , developing a mixture of the lysergic sounds of psychedelic rock with the complex structures of the prog , in which electronic music and sound effects " futurists "are not absent.
It was practiced by bands that began to emerge in the 80s, who claimed the original parameters of symphonic rock from a rather purist point of view. This new movement is known by the name of neo- progressive rock ( neo-prog in English), and its members are heirs to the complexity of Genesis or Yes , although with a modernized sound, which is sometimes close to AOR and even to the New wave . Marillion was and is the paradigm of the neo-prog , along with other important names like Pendragon or Arena .
- Progressive Hard Rock - Progressive Metal
The rock heavy has always been a genre related to the rock symphonic , as evidenced since 1969 the group Deep Purple when merged with an orchestra in his Concerto for Group and Orchestra . In the 70s the same Deep Purple together with bands like Black Sabbath , Wishbone Ash , Queen , Kansas or Uriah Heep also contributed to continue approaching the progressive current. However, Canadians Rush (as well as their lesser-known Triumph compatriots ) and Kisswith the album Music from "The Elder" of 1981, they are considered the most precise antecedent of the subgenre, which begins properly with Queensrÿche in the 80s, being the salient names that shaped progressive metal ( prog metal in English). It is a hybrid in which heavy rock takes the form of ambitious structures, long songs with a serious and overloaded tone (often suites ), and a special virtuosity in the execution. Unlike power metal , more based on the warrior epic, prog metal themesthey tend to revolve around more erudite, philosophical, mythological or even psychological issues. Other bands to mention in this subgenre are Tool , Fates Warning , Dream Theater , Crimson Glory , Symphony X , Voivod or, in Spain, Dark Moor . Pillar groups of "traditional" heavy metal such as Judas Priest or Iron Maiden have frequently dabbled in progressive metal .
Although it could be marginally related to progressive rock , the so - called post-rock certainly includes uses, structures and characteristics very typical of the prog , especially of bands like Yes, Pink Floyd or various kautrock artists . In the same way, it collects influences from electronic music, ambient and experimental rock , as well as symphonic rock , especially through the use of string instruments, generating a markedly personal and heterogeneous style at the same time. They also develop very long songs and assembled in a way reminiscent of prog rock suites.from the 1970s. Among some fundamental names of this subgenre are Sigur Rós , Mogwai , Godspeed You! Black Emperor , Tortoise or Explosions in the Sky .
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- Manticornio.com. "School - General Definition of Progressive Rock" . Archived from the original on March 22, 2008 . Retrieved March 9, 2008 .
- Manticornio.com. "School - Main Subgenres" . Archived from the original on April 4, 2008 . Retrieved March 10, 2008 .
- Manticornio.com. "School - Specific Subgenres" . Archived from the original on April 14, 2008 . Retrieved March 10, 2008 .
- Martin, Bill (1998), Listening to the Future: The Time of Progressive Rock, Chicago: Open Court, ISBN 0-8126-9368-X.
- Cleveland, Barry (marzo de 2005), Prog Rock, Guitar Player, NewBay Media LLC.
- Palmer, Carl (2008), BBC Prog Rock Britannia: An Observation in Three Movements (entrevista televisada), BBC Four.
- Cambiasso, Norberto (2014). Selling England for a pound. A social history of British progressive rock. Volume I: Transitions from psychedelia to prog . Gourmet Musical Editions. p. 400. ISBN 978-987-29830-9-3 .
- Progressive rock
- Sinfomusic Foro (in Spanish) .
- Sinfomusic Portal (in Spanish) .
- ProgJazz The World Progressive Rock Page (in English and Spanish) .
- Progressive Rock Magazine Archived May 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine . (in Spanish) .
- Chilean Page on National and International Progressive Rock (in Spanish) .
- Manticornio - Progressive Rock (in Spanish) .
- The Spanish Progressive Rock Page (in English and Spanish) .
- Musea: Progressive Rock (in English).
- The Progressive Rock Bibliography (en inglés).
- Schizophrenia - Progressive rock portal (in Spanish) .
- Progressive Rock Forum - Melo's Prog Bazaar (in English).
- ProgArchives.com .
- Progressive Rock Central .
- Gibraltar Encyclopedia of Progressive Rock .
- Acid Dragon magazine .
- The Music Box.
- Radio Live 365.
- Radio Mirage.
- Radio programs and magazines.
- Small chronology through disc comments (in English).
- 25 Years with King Crimson - Progressive Rock (in English);