Romance studies - Romanistik
Romance studies or Romance philology deals with the past and present of the Romance languages and literatures that emerged from Latin . This also includes the cultures of the language areas of Europe created by the Romanization or Latinization as well as the areas overseas that were added by colonization , especially in America and Africa.
In this context one speaks of the Romania antiqua or the Romania nova .  Formerly Romanized areas in which no Romance languages are spoken today - in today's Great Britain, southwest Germany, in the Balkans - are called Romania submersa . The basis of the Romance languages is not written, classical, but spoken Latin, which is traditionally called Vulgar Latin and which is therefore difficult to reconstruct from written sources.
Romance studies thus mainly includes French , Italian , Spanish , Portuguese and Romanian , but also the smaller Romance languages such as Catalan , Galician , Occitan , Romansh , Ladin , Friulian and Sardinian . Since it is extremely difficult to differentiate between languages and dialects, the number of Romance languages in the manuals varies between ten and sixteen. There are doubts, for example, about the name of the Asturian , desAragonese , Gascon and Corsican as separate languages. The Franco-Provencal is only spoken in different dialects, but has emerged no standard language without literature. The Romance-based Creole languages also belong to the subject area of Romance Studies .
Because of the emergence of the Romance languages, Romance studies is regarded as a model for historical-comparative cultural studies: All Romance languages are daughter languages of Latin. Unlike other original languages, Latin (even if not Vulgar Latin) is very well documented. Therefore, dealing with the entire breadth of Romance languages was one of the peculiarities of the university subject Romance Studies, which initially constituted itself as a historical linguistics. Outside of Germany, this model has never been adopted on a large scale; in the various Romance countries, individual philologies of French, Italian, etc., but no Romance philology became established. Because of this, and because of the increasing specialization of knowledge, the original preoccupation with all occursRomance languages are increasingly taking a back seat in the context of a discipline, giving way to a more intensive study of Romance languages (as individual philologies). In often controversial scientific and professional policy discussions, the sub-subjects of Romance studies are thus increasingly approaching the national philologies as they are established in the various Romance countries. One then speaks of Romanian Studies , Italian Studies , French Studies (also: Franko- or Gallo-Romance Studies), Hispanic and Lusitan Studies . Romance Studies also makes a contribution to Creole Studies .
Romance studies is divided into two main areas: Romance literature and Romance linguistics. Literature and linguistics expand into a comprehensive cultural studies.
Romance linguistics forms hypotheses about the exact process by which the Romance language family came into being. She tries to typologically grasp the similarities and differences between the Romance languages. In addition, the discipline records the description of the variety structure (dialects, language levels and registers), the language structure and history of each individual Romance language. In the recent past, Romance linguistics has increasingly tried to take up suggestions from general linguistics, especially pragmatics, cognitive linguistics and syntax.
Development of a linguistic area
One of the first to classify and write about Romance and other European languages was Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada (1243)  in his History of the Iberian Peninsula . De Rada distinguished three major groups, which he divided into the Romance, Slavic and Germanic languages, and he also mentioned other languages, such as Hungarian and Basque .  In the Spanish Renaissance , Andrés de Poza (1587)  wrote a first classification of the Romance languages, which also included Romanian and retained its importance until the 18th century.
In Germany, Friedrich Diez, with his "Grammar of Romance Languages" from 1836 and for word research with the first "Etymological Dictionary of Romance Languages" from 1853 , is the founder of scientific Romance studies. As the founder of the subject Romance studies at the German universities as a comparative subject, his influence can still be seen today. His students in Bonn included Hugo Schuchardt , Gaston Paris and Adolf Tobler .
- Frank Baasner, Peter Kuon: What should Romanists read? Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 1994, ISBN 978-3-503-03081-1
- Georg Bossong: The Romance Languages. A comparative introduction . Buske Verlag, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-87548-518-9
- Albert Gier : Orientation Romance Studies. What she can do, what she wants . Rowohlt, Reinbek 2000, ISBN 978-3-499-55607-4
- Günter Holtus , Michael Metzeltin , Christian Schmitt (eds.): Lexicon of Romance Linguistics (LRL) . 12 volumes. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1988-2005.
- Gerhard Ernst, Martin-Dietrich Gleßgen, Christian Schmitt et al. (Eds.): Romance language history . 3 volumes. de Gruyter, Berlin 2003–2008.
- Trudel Meisenburg / Christoph Gabriel: Romance Linguistics . 1st edition. UTB / BRO, Paderborn 2007
- Hans Robert Jauß , Erich Köhler, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht (eds.): Outline of the Romanesque literatures of the Middle Ages (GRLMA). 11 volumes. Winter, Heidelberg 1972-1993.
- Wolf-Dieter Lange, Burghard Baltrusch et al. (Ed.): Critical Lexicon of Contemporary Romance Literature (KLRG). Narr, Tübingen 1990ff.
- Daniela Pirazzini: Theories and Methods of Romance Linguistics . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2013.
- Wilhelm Theodor Elwert : The Romance languages and literatures. An overview . Beck, Munich 1979, ISBN 978-3-406-05721-2
- Rainer Hess, Gustav Siebenmann, Tilbert D. Stegmann: Literary Studies Dictionary for Romanists (LWR), 4th, revised. u. exp. Francke, Tübingen 2003 (= UTB 1373), ISBN 978-3-8252-1373-2
- Romance Bibliography / Bibliography romane / Romance Bibliography . Niemeyer, Tübingen 1961ff. (previously Journal for Romance Philology (ZrP) Supplements , Halle / Saale, then Tübingen 1875ff .; reporting period 1875–1913; 1924ff.)
- apropos - [Perspectives on Romania]
- Germanic-Romance monthly
- Lendemains. Etudes comparées sur la France. From 2000 to 2012 continued by Wolfgang Asholt and Hans Manfred Bock . Edited by Andreas Gelz, Christian Papilloud. Gunter Narr, Tübingen 
- Promptus - Würzburg contributions to Romance studies
- Quo vadis, Romania? Journal for current Romance studies
- Romance linguistics review
- Romance Philology
- Romanesque research. Quarterly for Romance languages and literatures
- Romance Studies 
- Romance journal for the history of literature / Cahiers d'Histoire des Littératures Romanes
- Romance studies in the past and present
- Romance yearbook
- The Romanic Review
- Vox Romanica
- Journal of Romance Philology
History of science
- Hans Helmut Christmann : Romance studies and English studies at the German university in the 19th century. Their development as a subject and their relationship to German and classical philology . Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz 1985, ISBN 978-3-515-04465-3
- Eugenio Coseriu , Reinhard Meisterfeld: History of Romance Linguistics . 4 vol. (Vol. 1 from the beginnings to 1492, vol. 2 from Nebrija to Celso Cittadini, vol. 3 from 1601 to 1818, vol. 4 from 1818 to Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke). Narr, Tübingen 2003-2008.
- Klaus-Dieter Ertler (Hrsg.): Romance studies as a passion. Great moments in recent specialist history . LIT Verlag, Münster 2007, ISBN 978-3-8258-0273-8
- Frank Estelmann, Pierre Krügel, Olaf Müller (eds.): Traditions of Entbegrenzung. Contributions to the history of romance science . Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 978-3-631-50388-1
- Stefan Gross: Ernst Robert Curtius and the German Romance Studies of the Twenties. On the problem of national images in literary studies . Bouvier, Bonn 1980, ISBN 978-3-416-01583-7
- Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht : On the life and death of the great Romanists. Biographical sketches by Carl Vossler , Ernst Robert Curtius , Leo Spitzer , Erich Auerbach , Werner Krauss . Hanser Verlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 978-3-446-20140-8
- Frank-Rutger Hausmann : "Devoured by the vortex of events", in: German Romance Studies in the " Third Reich " . Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 978-3-465-03584-8
- Frank-Rutger Hausmann : “Also a national science? The German Romance Studies under National Socialism ”, in: Romance Journal for Literary History No. 22 (1998). Pp. 1–39 and 261–313, here online (PDF; 10.7 MB)
- Willi Hirdt (Ed.): Romance Studies. A Bonn invention . 2 vols. Bouvier, Bonn 1993, ISBN 978-3-416-80605-3
- Peter Jehle: "Periodization issues in the recent history of Romance studies", in: Grenzgang Nr. 8 (2001): pp. 32–44
- Gerdi Seidel: On the life and survival of a 'luxury subject'. The early years of Romance studies in the GDR . Synchron Wissenschaftsverlag der Authors, Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 978-3-935025-79-9
On the crisis and the development prospects of Romance studies
- Romance Journal for the History of Literature No. 29, Issue 3/4 (2005): issue “Romance Studies 2006: Revisionen, Positions, Visionen”,
- Border crossings. Contributions to a modern Romance studies No. 23 (2005): "Romance Studies and Society: Future of Romance Studies - Romance Studies of the Future",
- Quo vadis, Romania? Journal for a current Romance studies No. 29 (2007): “New challenges for Romance studies”,
- Romanesque research. Quarterly journal for Romance languages and literatures 120.3 (2008): “Forum” for the future development of Romance studies,
- Wolfgang Dahmen , Günter Holtus , Johannes Kramer et al. (Eds.): The meaning of the Romance languages in the Europe of the future . Narr, Tübingen 1996 (= Romanistic Colloquium IX), ISBN 978-3-8233-5073-6
- Kian-Harald Karimi: “Les liaisons se portent en tout sens - On the encyclopedia of a cultural studies Romance studies”, in: Journal for Romance Philology . Vol. 122, Issue 1 (2006). Pp. 1-16.
- Maria Lieber / Harald Wentzlaff-Eggebert: German-language Romance studies - for whom? . Synchron Wissenschaftsverlag der Authors, Heidelberg 2002, ISBN 978-3-935025-32-4
- Fritz Nies / Reinhold R. Grimm (eds.): An "impossible subject". Balance sheet and perspectives in Romance studies . Narr, Tübingen 1988, ISBN 978-3-87808-698-7
- Link catalog on Romance Studies at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Romanistik.de: Open, moderated platform for German-language Romance studies
- German Romanists Association (DRV)
- Specialized Information Service Romance Studies - literature research and supply, discipline-related information on Open Access and research data management .
- The following explanations are based on the literature given in Section 3, unless otherwise stated
- Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada, the affairs of Spain
- Harald Haarmann : World history of languages. From the early days of man to the present. CH Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-69461-5 , pp. 134-135
- Andrés de Poza: On the ancient language, populations, and regions of Spain. 1587
- Wolfgang Sykorra : Friedrich Diez 'Etymological Dictionary of Romance Languages and its Sources. Romance studies and preparatory work 47th Romance studies at the university: Bonn 1973
- Older editions under "Archive", mostly free of charge, as .pdf on the publisher's website, each text can be called up individually