Russia - Rusia
Russia ( in Russian Россия , romanization Rossíya ) [ n. 1 ] or, formally, [ n. 2 ] Russian Federation [ n. 1 ] ( in Russian Российская Федерация , Romanization Rossíyskaya Federátsiya ) is the largest country in the world . The Russian Federation has an area of 17,098,242 km² , [ 4 ] equivalent to one-ninth of the planet's mainland, and with a great variety of reliefand ecosystems . Its capital is the federal city of Moscow .
The form of government is the semi-parliamentary republic made up of eighty-five federal subjects , and it is the ninth most populated country in the world with 146,904,396 inhabitants [ 12 ] . It occupies all of North Asia and about 40% of Europe (mainly Eastern Europe ), [ n. 3 ] making it a transcontinental country . There are eleven time zones in Russia , from UTC + 2 to UTC + 12 . [ n. 4 ]Russia has the world's largest reserves of energy and mineral resources yet to be exploited, and is considered the largest energy superpower . It has the largest reserves of forest resources and a quarter of the fresh , unfrozen water in the world.
Russia is the country that borders the largest number of countries, a total of sixteen, [ n. 5 ] and the one with the longest borders. It borders the following countries (starting from the northwest and going counterclockwise): Norway , Finland , Estonia , Latvia , Belarus , Lithuania , [ n. 6 ] Poland , [ n. 6 ] Ukraine , [ n. 7 ] Georgia , [ n. 8 ]Azerbaijan , Kazakhstan , the People's Republic of China , Mongolia and North Korea . It has territorial waters limits with several of the above, with Japan and with the United States (specifically, with the state of Alaska ). It also borders the limited recognition states Abkhazia , South Ossetia and the Union of People's Republics (New Russia) . The coasts of Russia are washed by the Arctic Ocean , the northern Pacific Ocean and inland seas such as the Baltic , theBlack and Caspian .
The history of Russia begins with the East Slavs . The Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. C .. [ 12 ] It was founded and led by a noble warrior class of Vikings (called Varangians) and their descendants. The first state of the East Slavs, the Kievan Rus , emerged in the 9th century and in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity , a product of the Christianization carried out by Cyril and Methodius , sent from the Byzantine Empire.. Then began a synthesis of the Byzantine and Slavic cultures that would define the Russian during the following millennium. [ 13 ] Later, the Kievan Rus disintegrated into many small feudal states , of which the most powerful was the Principality of Moscow , which became the main force in the process of Russian reunification and the struggle for the independence against the Golden Horde . Moscow gradually reunited the surrounding Russian principalities and began to dominate in the cultural and political legacy of the Kiev Rus. In the eighteenth centuryd. C., the country expanded through conquest, annexation and exploration to become the third largest empire in history, the Russian , by extending from Poland , in the west, to the Pacific Ocean and Alaska .
Russia has had power and great influence in the world: first, at the time of the Russian Empire ; later, as the dominant country of the Soviet Union (USSR), the first and largest of the constitutionally established socialist states and a recognized superpower ; and, currently, as the Russian Federation. It has a long tradition of quality in all aspects of the arts and sciences. [ 12 ] The Russian Federation was founded in 1991 , upon dissolution of the Soviet Union , and is recognized as the heir to its legal personality. [ 14 ]Its economy has one of the highest growth rates in the world. It is the eighth country by nominal GDP and the sixth by GDP ( PPP ), with the third largest military budget in the world. It is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons countries and possesses the largest arsenal of weapons of mass destruction in the world. [ 15 ] Russia is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council , a member of the G20 , APEC and the SCO , and has a lot of influence in the countries that were former Soviet republics., and even more so in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) member countries.
Former Russia, East Slavs and Kiev Rus
Before the century I , the vast lands of southern Russia were populated by several towns , very scattered throughout the vast territory, as the protoindoeuropeo and Scythian . From the 3rd to the 6th centuries , the steppes were ravaged by successive waves of nomadic invasions , led by warlike tribes who, like the Huns and Avars , would often continue their advance into central and western Europe .
From the 5th to the 7th centuries , the Dyákovo (Дьяковская культура) culture, which was in the middle of the Iron Age , occupied the area of the Upper Volga , the Valdai and the Oká River basin . The Dyákovo culture consisted of Finno- Ugric-speaking people , the ancestors of the Meria , Muromian , Meshchiorá, and Vepsian peoples (also called Chud ). All Finno-Ugric regional toponymy and its hydronymic character point to this culture; an example is the Yauza River , a tributary of the Moscova, and perhaps also Moscova himself.
The Khazars were the main commercial connection between the Baltic region and the Abbasid Muslim empire , based in Baghdad . They became important allies of the Byzantine Empire and waged a series of successful wars against the Arab caliphates .
At this time, the term "Rhos" or "Rus" was applied first to the Varangians and then also to the Slavs who inhabited the region. In the 10th and 11th centuries , medieval Kiev Rus or Russia became the largest principality in Europe and one of the most prosperous, due to diversified trade with both Europe and Asia. The opening of new trade routes with the East at the time of the Crusades contributed to the decline and fragmentation of the principality at the end of the 12th century .
In the 11th and 12th centuries , constant incursions by nomadic Turkish tribes, such as the Cumans and Pechenegs , led to the mass migration of Slavic populations from the fertile south to the more forested regions of the north - Opolie . The medieval states of the Republic of Novgorod and the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal emerged as successors to the Kiev Rus . Meanwhile, the middle course of the Volga River came to be dominated by the Muslim state of Volga Bulgaria . Like many other parts of Eurasia , these territories were invaded by the Mongols, who founded the state of the Golden Horde , which would plunder the Russian principalities for more than three centuries. About half of the Russian population perished during the Mongol invasion; Later known as the Tatars , the Mongols ruled the southern and central extensions of Russia, while the current territories of Ukraine and Belarus were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland , thus dividing the Russians in two: Belarusians in the north and Ukrainians. in the west.
As in the Balkans , the nomadic movement retarded the economic and social development of the country. However, the Republic of Novgorod and the city of Pskov retained some degree of autonomy during the time of Mongol rule, and were largely able to avoid the atrocities that affected the rest of the country. In 1240 , the Republic of Novgorod, led by Alexander Nevsky ( 1220 - 1263 ), repelled attempts by the Germanic Crusaders to colonize the region.
Principality of Moscow and Russian Zarato
Unlike its spiritual director, the Byzantine Empire , Russia, ruled from Moscow , was able to revive and organize its own war of reconquest; it defeated its enemies and, through annexation , regained territories that it had lost. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 , Muscovite Russia remained the only operating Christian state on the eastern European frontier, and thus acquired the right to claim the legacy of the Eastern Roman Empire . Still under the rule of the Mongol-Tatars, the Duchy of Moscow began to assert its influence in Western Russia at the beginning of the 14th century . Spiritual revival, supported by theOrthodox Church and Saint Sergius of Radonezh , helped the Duchy of Moscow to defeat the Mongols at the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380 .
Ivan IV "The Terrible" ( 1530 - 1584 ) put an end to the control of the invaders, and consolidated regions near Moscow with the Russian name Zarato . Ivan IV was the first to adopt the title of tsar (the first to adopt the title of " Grand Prince of All Russia" had been Ivan III ).
At the beginning of the 16th century , the Russian state set as its main goals to recover all the territories lost as a result of the Mongol invasion and to protect the southern border area against attacks by the Crimean Tatars (the Russo-Crimean wars ) and some Turkish peoples. . The hidalgos, receiving a lordship from the sovereign, were forced to serve in the army. The manor system became the basis for noble cavalry. In 1547 , Ivan IV was officially crowned the first Tsar of Russia. During his reign, Ivan IV annexed regions of Kazan and Astrakhan , among other places, and transformed Russia into a statepoly-ethnic . He promulgated a new code of laws (the Sudébnik of 1550 ), established the first feudal representative body (the Zemski Sobor ) and introduced local self-management in rural areas. At the end of the century, Russian Cossacks founded the first settlements in Western Siberia . The reign of Ivan IV was also marked by the long and unsuccessful war against the coalition of Poland , Lithuania and Sweden , a war caused by the trade routes of the Baltic Sea .
Ivan IV carried out a series of purges in the feudal aristocracy, probably caused by betrayal by Prince Andrei Kurbski , and it was because of these purges that Ivan IV was called "The Terrible." After his death, military failures, epidemics, and poor harvests weakened the state, and the Crimean Tatars burned Moscow. The death of Ivan's children plus the famine that occurred from 1601 to 1603 led to civil war and foreign intervention. [ 16 ]
In the middle of the seventeenth century there were Russian settlements in Eastern Siberia and on the Chukchi peninsula taking advantage of the Amur River . In 1648 , the Russian navigator Semion Dezhniov discovered the strait that separates Siberia from Alaska , which would be explored in 1728 by the Danish navigator Vitus Bering , after which it would be named.
Peter I the Great , who ruled the Russian Zarathus , defeated the Swedish Empire during the Great Northern War , and forced it to cede Western Karelia and Ingria (two regions lost to Russia during the Age of Instability ), and Livonia (present-day Southern Estonia and Northern Latvia ). This ensured the Russian Empire's access to the sea and maritime trade in Ingria. Peter I founded in 1703 a new capital, Saint Petersburg, and he was largely responsible for introducing Western European culture into Russia through his reforms.
After these reforms, Russia gained power in Europe. Catherine the Great , who ruled between 1762 and 1796 , continued the efforts of Peter I and made Russia one of the great European powers. As examples of European participation in the 18th century , the Polish War of the Succession and the Seven Years' War stand out . After the division of Poland, Russia acquired the significant western territories, which were mainly populated by people of Orthodox religion . As a result of the wars against the Ottoman Empire, Russia moved its borders to the Black Sea, aiming to protect the Christian region of the Balkans from the Turks. In 1783 , Russia and the Georgian Kingdom (which was almost totally devastated by the Persian and Turkish invasions) signed the Treaty of Georgiyevsk (city located in Stavropol Krai ) according to which Georgia ( Kingdom of Kartli-Kajetia ) received the protection of Russia .
In 1812 , Napoleon invaded Russia, having gathered almost half a million soldiers: some, French, and others, from the countries conquered in Europe. However, after taking Moscow, he was forced to retreat to France . Almost 90% of the invading forces perished in the battles with the Russian army by the guerrillas and by the harsh winter. The Russian armies finished the persecution of the enemy occupying its capital: Paris . The officers of the Napoleonic wars brought the ideas of liberalism to Russia and even sought to reduce the powers of the tsar during the aborted rebellion of the Decembrists in 1825., which was followed by several decades of political repression. Another result of the Napoleonic wars was the constitution of Bessarabia and Finland in the Russian Empire, as well as the creation of the Zarato of Poland . The permanence of serfdom in Russia and the conservative policies of Nicholas I of Russia slowed the development of the Russian Empire in the mid- 19th century . As a result, the country was defeated in the Crimean War ( 1853 - 1856 ) by an alliance of major European powers Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire and Piedmont-Sardinia .
The successor of Nicholas I of Russia , Alexander II ( 1855 - 1881 ), was forced to undertake a series of comprehensive reforms and issued a decree in 1861 abolishing serfdom . The great reforms of the reign of Alexander II increased the development and attempts of the capitalist Sergei Witte towards industrialization. There was a phenomenon of Slavophilia , especially due to the victory of Russia in the Russo-Turkish War , a victory that forced the Ottoman Empire to recognize the independence of Romania and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, and the autonomy of Bulgaria .
The failure of the reforms and the suppression of the agrarian as a consequence of the growth of the liberal intelligentsia fostered the continuity of the problems. Shortly before World War I , the position of Tsar Nicholas II and his dynasty seemed precarious.
The Russian government did not want war, but it perceived that if it did not take part in it, it would have to accept German hegemony in Europe. Upper-class and bourgeois Russians assisted in the regime's war effort. Farmers and workers, on the other hand, collaborated with much less enthusiasm in the face of the situation. Germany had a leading army in Europe and enormous industrial power, with Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire among its allies. Consequently, Russia was forced to fight in three other wars and the English war simultaneously. Under these circumstances, the Russian effort in the war was very great. Having won several major battles in 1916, the army kept its distance when the revolution broke out , partly for economic reasons, but mainly because public mistrust was increased by corruption and betrayal. Many stories were made up or greatly exaggerated, such as the belief that a mystic, Grigori Rasputin , had great political influence within the government. What mattered, however, was that the rumors were believed.
In 1917, the so-called February Revolution marked the first stage of the Russian revolution: it caused the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II , ended the Russian Romanov monarchy and led to the formation of a Russian Provisional Government .
After the failure of the July Days 1917, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (actually called Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) fled to Finland for security reasons. There he wrote Государство и революция ( The State and the Revolution ), a work with which he called for a new form of government, based on workers' assemblies ( soviets ) and instituting the Soviet power elected as revocable by them at all times. Lenin returned to Petrograd in October, and encouraged the revolution with the slogan "All power to the Soviets!" On November 6, 7 and 8, Lenin led the overthrow of the provisional government from theSmolny Institute . At the end of the Russian Revolution of 1917, a Marxist political faction called on the Bolsheviks to seize power in Petrograd and Moscow under the leadership of Lenin. The storming and capitulation of the Winter Palace on the night of November 7-8 marked the beginning of Soviet rule .
Tsar Nicholas II and the royal family were executed, thus ending the last Russian dynasty. For a time, a rumor was believed that the family's youngest daughter, Anastasia , had survived, a rumor that has been disproved by recent research.
Revolution of 1917 and the end of the Tsarist era
Despite the rapid industrialization of Russia, only a small part of the population, mainly noblemen and some industrialists, had good living conditions. The peasants were poor and, despite the agrarian reform of Alexander II, it was very difficult for them to access ownership of the land. Successive defeats in the First World War and the general discontent of the population caused a deterioration of the internal economy, which led to social chaos, several revolts and revolutionary attempts in 1905 and 1917.
The end of the Tsarist era began with the revolution of 1905 . Russia was unexpectedly defeated by Japan , which was a small and technically weak country, and this terrified Tsar Nicholas II and diminished his popular acceptance. Also, in 1905 a group of workers appealed to the Tsar himself (instead of to the Imperial Palace in Saint Petersburg) demanding economic and social reforms. The movement was violently repressed by the imperial troops: 200 protesters were killed and 800 wounded. That episode was known as " Bloody Sunday ", and from then on the first soviets (councils) were formed .
The power of the Soviets and the influence of the 1905 revolution faded in the following years. However, with the entry of Russia into the First World War, the living conditions of a large part of the population drastically worsened, which created the conditions for new revolts, which would give rise to the February Revolution of 1917 that overthrew the monarchy.
After the February Revolution, the Social Revolutionaries , the Mensheviks , the cadets and the Bolsheviks tried to find - separately - new forms of government for Russia that gave rise to a short republic of Western inspiration, whose top leader was Aleksandr Kérensky . This new order did not prosper, mainly due to the opposition of the Russian leaders of the new republic to Russia abandoning the war, which favored the Bolsheviks, who, despite being a political minority among the parties of the time, were the only firm supporters of that abandonment.
This is how the October Revolution , of Bolshevik inspiration, was created , and the subsequent seizure of power by the Soviets led by Lenin and Trotsky , who founded the Communist Party of the Soviet Union , with which the first steps towards the formation of of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics .
Following the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly Russia by the Bolsheviks in Russia he broke one civil war (1917- 1922 ) between supporters of the Bolshevik Revolution ( Red Army of Workers and Peasants ) and opponents ( White Army ), supported the latter at times by various foreign powers. To win, Lenin adopted war communism , and confiscated agricultural production to supply the soldiers. With the victory of the Red Army, large private companies were closed, such as the Smirnoff company .
The Soviet Union is the successor to the Russian Empire. The last Tsar, Nicholas II, ruled until March 1917 and was executed with his family the following year in Yekaterinburg . The Soviet Union was founded in December 1922 under the name of the Union of Soviet Republics of Russia (familiarly known as Bolshevik Russia ), Ukraine , Belarus and Transcaucasia , the first three governed by Bolshevik parties and the last by the Menshevik.
Revolution and founding of the Soviet state
Modern revolutionary activity in the Russian Empire began with the Decembrist Revolt of 1825 , and although serfdom was abolished in 1861 , it was on terms unfavorable to the peasants, and served to stir up the revolutionaries. A parliament, the Imperial Duma of Russia , was established in 1906 after the 1905 Revolution, but political and social unrest continued, and it was aggravated during World War I by military failure and food shortages in the major cities.
The spontaneous popular uprising in St. Petersburg, in response to the wartime declining economy and morale, culminated in the overthrow of the imperial government. The Autocracy czarist was overthrown by the February Revolution and replaced by the Russian Provisional Government , whose leaders thought to establish a liberal democracy in Russia and continue participating on the side of the Triple Entente in World War One . At the same time, to ensure the rights of the working class , workers' assemblies ( soviets). The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin who returned from exile in April, pushed for socialist revolution both in assemblies and in the streets, and overthrew the Provisional Government in November 1917. [ 17 ]
In January 1918, the new Bolshevik government dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly , democratically elected in November 1917, triggering a long and bloody Russian Civil War (1918-1921), during which the first Soviet constitution was approved , and in the one that there was foreign intervention in various regions of Russia. After the Polish-Soviet War , which lasted from 1919 to 1921 , at the beginning of that last year the Treaty of Riga was signed , with which the disputed territories of Belarus and Ukraine were divided.between Poland and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic .
Unification of the Soviet republics
On December 29, 1922 , a conference of plenipotentiary delegations of the RSFS of Russia, the RFSS of Transcaucasia , the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR approved the Treaty of Creation of the USSR and the Declaration of the Creation of the Soviet Union. , and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was founded . These two documents were confirmed by the first Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union and signed by the heads of delegations: Mikhail Kalinin , Mikhail Tsjakaya, [ 18 ] Mikhail Frunze ,Grigori Petrovski and Aleksandr Cherviakov , on December 30, 1922. On February 1, 1924 , the Soviet Union was recognized by the first world power of the time: the British Empire .
Already in the early days of Soviet power, in 1917, the intensive restructuring of the country's economy, industry and politics began. A large part was carried out according to the Initial Bolshevik Decrees, documents of the Soviet government signed by Lenin. One of the most prominent advances was the GOELRÓ plan , which called for a profound restructuring of the Soviet economy based on the electricity supply throughout the country. The realization of the plan began in 1920 , its development extended over a period of 10 to 15 years, and included the construction of a network of 30 regional power plants and ten large hydroelectric plants., as well as the electrification of numerous industrial companies. The plan became the prototype for the subsequent Five-Year Plan , which actually culminated in 1931 , during the leadership of Joseph Stalin .
After the economic policy of the Bolsheviks during the civil war, [ 19 ] the Soviet government allowed during the 1920s some private companies to coexist with nationalized industry . Similarly, the total requisition of food surpluses in the countryside was replaced by taxes on food. [ 20 ] Although some of these measures were discussed by Soviet leaders, they were considered necessary to prevent a resumption of capitalist exploitation. in the Soviet Union. Economic affairs formed the backdrop to the power struggle that broke out between the Soviet leaders after Lenin's death in 1924 . Gradually consolidating his influence and isolating his rivals within the party, Joseph Stalin became the leader of the Soviet Union in the mid-1920s.
In 1928 , Stalin introduced the First Five-Year Plan aimed at building a socialist economy. [ 21 ] This, unlike the internationalism expressed by Lenin and Trotsky during the revolution, underpinned socialism in the country. The state took control of all existing companies and undertook an intensive program of industrialization . In the agrarian sphere, collective farms were founded throughout the country. The policy of forced collectivization caused a famine in which there were millions of deaths, with particular intensity in Ukraine, in what was known as the Holodomor or Ukrainian genocide. TheSoviet famine of 1932-1933 affected the major grain-producing areas of the USSR, in particular the then Soviet republics of Ukraine and Kazakhstan , as well as the North Caucasus and the Volga River region , [ 22 ] the southern Urals and Western Siberia . [ 23 ] [ 24 ] The social disorder continued in the 1930s . The Great Purge of Stalin expelled from the party many " old Bolsheviks»Who had taken part in the revolution with Lenin. Meanwhile, millions of Soviet citizens were imprisoned and sent to forced labor camps . [ 25 ] Despite the confusion in the mid-1930s, the Soviet Union developed a powerful industrial economy years before World War II .
Russia in WWII
In the 1930s there was the greatest cooperation between Western countries and the Soviet Union. In 1933 , diplomatic relations were established with the United States . Four years later, during the Spanish Civil War , the Soviet Union actively supported the Second Spanish Republic in its fight against the Italian and German fascists . [ 26 ] However, after Great Britain and France signed the Munich Accords with Nazi Germany , the Soviet Union also made economic and military deals with it: theRibbentrop-Molotov Pact , which involved the compromise of peace between the two countries, and led to the invasion of Poland and the occupation of Lithuania , Latvia and Estonia . [ 27 ] In late November 1939 , unable to force Finland through diplomatic means to move its border 25 kilometers from Leningrad , Stalin ordered the Winter War . Although it has been debated whether the Soviet Union intended to invade Nazi Germany once it was strong enough, Germany itself broke the treaty and invaded the Soviet Union in 1941.. The Red Army stopped the Nazi offensive at the Battle of Stalingrad ( 1942 - 1943 ), and marched through Eastern Europe to Berlin , until the surrender of Germany in 1945 . [ 28 ] The Soviet Union also took part in the defeat of Japan by invading the Manchuria region three months after the war in the west ended. Although ravaged by war, the Soviet Union emerged from the conflict as the largest recognized military superpower .
The Soviet republics lost approximately 27 million people . During the postwar period, the Soviet Union maintained strictly centralized control, aided the reconstruction in the Eastern Bloc countries by becoming satellite Soviet states, founded the Warsaw Pact in 1955 , later the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance , the provided aid to the finally victorious Communists in China , and saw their influence grow in other parts of the world. Meanwhile, the mounting tension of the Cold War made her at odds with those who had been her wartime allies: the United Kingdom and the United States.
The post-Stalinist Soviet Union
Joseph Stalin died on March 5, 1953 . In the absence of an acceptable successor, the highest officials of the Communist Party chose to collectively rule the Soviet Union, even though there was a power struggle behind the appearance of collective leadership. In 1956 , Nikita Khrushchev , who had won the power struggle in the early 1950s, denounced the repression carried out by Stalin. [ 29 ] At the same time, Soviet military force served to quell the nationalist uprisings in Hungary and Poland that same year. [ 30 ]
During this period, the Soviet Union continued to be aware of its vast scientific and technical potential, and took advantage of it. He launched the first artificial satellite in 1957 : Sputnik 1 . That same year, the dog Laika was the first living being to travel to space. In 1961 , with Vostok 1 , Yuri Gagarin was the first human to orbit the Earth . In 1963 , aboard Vostok 6 was the first female crew member of a vehicle in outer space: Valentina Tereshkova . In 1965 , one person was the first towalk in that medium : Alexei Leonov .
Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration were generally unproductive, and foreign policy with China and the United States deteriorated, leading to the break with China . Khrushchev was removed from office in 1964 .
After Khrushchev's expulsion, another period of collective command followed, lasting until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the pre-eminent figure in Soviet political life. Brezhnev was president during the Détente period , and at the same time, he increased the Soviet military force. The concentration of weapons contributed to the end of Détente , which happened in the late 1970s; another factor was the war in Afghanistan .
At that stage, the Soviet Union maintained parity with the United States in the realm of military technology, but this expansion eventually brought the economy to a standstill. In contrast to the revolutionary spirit that accompanied the birth of the Soviet Union, the predominant tendency of the Soviet leadership after Brezhnev's death was aversion to change. The period of Brezhnev's leadership was called " Brezhnevian stagnation ."
After some experiments with economic reforms in the 1960s, the Soviet leadership returned to established means of economic administration. Industry made slow but steady profits during the 1970s, while agricultural development continued to lag: there was not enough grain to feed the growing population, and it had to be imported. Due to the poor quality of its processed material, the export was limited to the raw material . [ 31 ] This circumstance led to a negative balance of payments and a trade deficit, [ 32 ] and the economy was seriously affected.
Gorbachev's reforms and the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Two phenomena characterized the next decade: the increasingly evident collapse of the economic and political structures of the Soviet Union, and the attempts at a piecemeal set of reforms to reverse that process. After the rapid succession of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko , transitional figures with deep roots in the Brezhnev tradition, Mikhail Gorbachev was appointed President of the Soviet Union . Gorbachev began to implement significant changes in the economy, and also in the leadership of the Communist Party. [ 33 ] The transparency policy allowed public access to information after decades of strict government censorship, and also advocated for transparency in the management of Soviet leaders.
In the late 1980s , the republics that made up the Soviet Union legally began a movement towards a declaration of sovereignty over their territories, citing Article 72 of the Constitution of the USSR , which indicated the right of self - determination of the Soviet republics. On April 7, 1990, a law was approved by which a republic could separate if more than two-thirds of its residents voted in favor of it in a referendum.. Many first liberalized Soviet-era elections for their own national legislatures in 1990, and advanced legislation that contradicted the laws of the Soviet Union - a situation that became known as the "War of Laws." [ 34 ] In 1989 , the RSFS of Russia, which was then the largest (with about half the population), called a new vote to establish a Congress of the People's Deputies of the Soviet Union .
On June 12, 1990, the Russian Congress of People's Deputies approved the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian RSFS . [ 35 ] On July 11, 1990, during the XXVIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union , Borís Yeltsin announced his departure from the CPSU . He ran as an independent in the first multi-party elections , held on June 12, 1991, and became president of the Russian RSFS by obtaining 57% of the votes. The period of legal uncertainty continued during 1991 when the component republics gradually became independent in practice.
The referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on 17 of March of 1991 , with the majority of the population voted for the preservation of the Soviet Union in nine of the republics fifteen . The referendum gave Gorbachev a secondary push and, in July 1991 , the New Union Treaty was designed and agreed to for eight republics that would have been inclined to turn the Soviet Union into a much more flexible federation. The signing of the treaty, however, was interrupted by the August 1991 coup attempt directed against Gorbachevby extremist Marxist members of the government and the KGB , which sought to reverse Gorbachev's reforms and reassert central government control over the republics. After the blow failed, Yeltsin emerged as a hero as Gorbachev's power waned. The political balance shifted appreciably towards the republics. In August of 1991 , Latvia and Estonia immediately declared restoration of full independence (following the example of Lithuania in 1990 ), while the other 12 republics continued discussing new models of weaker increasingly Union.
The 8 of December of 1991 , the presidents of the RSFSR , Ukrainian SSR and Byelorussian SSR signed the Treaty of Belavezha which declared the Soviet Union dissolved , establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in place. As doubts remained about the authority of the Belavezha Treaty to dissolve the Soviet Union, on December 21 , 1991 the representatives of all Soviet republics except the Republic of GeorgiaEven the republics that had signed the Belavezha Treaty, signed the Almá-Atá Protocol , which confirmed the dismemberment and dissolution of the USSR and once again proposed the establishment of the CIS . The Almá-Atá summit also agreed on several other practical measures as a consequence of the extinction of the Soviet Union. The 25 of December of 1991 , Gorbachev yielded to the inevitable and resigned as president of the Soviet Union, declaring the Soviet Union dissolved. He transferred the powers, which have since passed to Boris Yeltsin , the president of Russia. The next day, theSupreme Soviet of the USSR , the highest governing body in the Soviet Union, recognized the collapse of the nation and dissolved. This is generally recognized as the final dissolution of the Soviet Union as a state. Many organizations such as the Soviet Armed Forces and the police were preserved until the beginning of 1992 , but were progressively eliminated and / or withdrawn or absorbed by the newly independent states.
In the mid -1990s , Russia was a multiparty democracy, but it was difficult to secure a representative government because of two structural problems: the confrontation between the president and parliament, and the anarchic party system. Although Yeltsin won prestige abroad to the show as a democrat to weaken Gorbachev, his conception of the presidency was very autocratic, acting either as his own prime minister (until June of 1992 ) or naming for such position to people you trust , regardless of parliament.
Meanwhile, the excessive presence of tiny parties and their refusal to form coherent alliances left the legislature ungovernable. During 1993 , the dispute between Yeltsin and parliament culminated in the constitutional crisis in October . This reached its critical point when, on October 3 , Yeltsin commanded the tanks to bombard the Russian parliament. With this momentous (and unconstitutional) step of dissolving parliament by gunfire, Russia had not been so close to civil strife since the 1917 revolution . From then on, Yeltsin had complete freedom to impose a constitution with strong presidential powers, which was approved in a referendum in December1993 . However, the December vote also marked an important advance by communists and nationalists, reflecting the growing disenchantment of the population with neoliberal economic reforms .
Despite coming to power in a general atmosphere of optimism, Yeltsin would never regain his popularity after supporting Yegor Gaidar's economic "shock therapy" : end of Soviet-era price controls, drastic cuts in public spending and openness to the economy. foreign trade in 1992 . The reforms immediately devastated the quality of life of the great majority of the population, especially in those sectors that benefited from controlled wages and prices, subsidies and the welfare state of the socialist era. Russia suffered an economic recession in the 1990s more severe than the Great Depression that hit the United States or Germany in the early 1930s . 
The economic reforms consolidated a semi criminal oligarchy rooted in the old Soviet system. On the advice of Western governments, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund , Russia would embark on the largest and fastest privatization ever carried out by a government in all of history. By the mid-1990s, commerce, services and small industry were already in private hands. Almost all large companies were acquired by their former directors, spawning a class of nouveau riche close to various mafias or Western investors. [ 37 ]At the base of the system, due to inflation or unemployment, many workers ended up in poverty, prostitution or crime.
In spite of everything, a supposed return to the command economy seemed almost impossible, counting on the unanimous rejection of the West. The Russian economy found the end of the ordeal with the recovery from 1999 in part thanks to the rise in oil prices, its main export even far from Soviet production levels.
After the financial crisis of 1998, Yeltsin was in the twilight of his career. Just hours before the first day of 2000 , he resigned by surprise leaving the government in the hands of his prime minister, Vladimir Putin , a former KGB official and head of his successor agency after the fall of communism. In 2000, the new president easily defeated his opponents in the presidential elections on March 26 , winning in the first round. In 2004he was reelected with 71% of the votes and his allies won the legislative elections, despite the reluctance of national and foreign observers about the cleanliness of the elections. International concern became even more apparent in late 2004 over notable progress in tightening the president's grip on parliament, civil society, and regional representatives. [ citation required ]
In the 2007 Russian legislative elections the United Russia party (Conservative and Nationalist with a centrist base ), which unconditionally supports Putin and the course of development taken since he came to power, won 64.30% of the votes, which that was considered like support of the Russians to the said political and economic course.
In Russia's 2008 presidential elections , United Russia party candidate Dmitry Medvedev , supported by then-President Vladimir Putin , won by a wide margin [ 38 ] his opponents at the polls. Medvedev took office in May of 2008 .
On March 4, the 2012 Russian Presidential Elections were held to designate the successor of Dmitri Medvedev in office, resulting in the winner being the candidate for the United Russia party , Vladimir Putin who took office on May 7, 2012 for a period age six, while his predecessor in office, Dmitry Medvedev, was appointed as the new Prime Minister of Russia , a position also known as Prime Minister.
The 18 of March of 2014 to the Russian Federation annexed the partially recognized republic of Crimea , containing the old subdivisions of Ukraine : the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city with special status of Sevastopol . As a result of this, two new federal subjects were formed: the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. [ 39 ]
The 27 of March of 2014 was approved the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 (called territorial integrity of Ukraine) in response to the crisis in Crimea. Adopted by 100 countries, the resolution affirmed the commitment of Nations United to recognize Crimea as part of Ukraine, rejecting the referendum on political status.
government and politics
According to the Constitution , which was adopted in a national referendum on December to December of 1993 after the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis , Russia is a federation and semi - presidential republic , where the President is the head of state and president of the government (Prime Minister ) is the head of government . The Russian Federation is constituted as a representative democracy . The executive power is exercised by the government. The legislative branch is the responsibility of both chambers of theFederal Assembly . The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the fundamental law of the country and the social contract for the people of the Russian Federation.
The federal government is made up of three areas:
- Legislative : The bicameral Federal Assembly , made up of the State Duma (lower house) and the Federation Council (upper house), adopts federal laws, declares war , approves treaties, handles finances, can pass an impeachment by which it can remove the president.
- Executive : The president is the commander-in-chief of the army, can veto bills , appoints the Cabinet and other officials, who administer and enforce federal laws and regulations.
- Judicial : The Constitutional Court , the Supreme Court, the Supreme Court of Arbitration and lower-level federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the Federal Assembly on the recommendation of the President, interpret laws and can abolish laws if they deem them unconstitutional .
According to the Constitution, constitutional justice in court is based on the equality of all citizens, judges are independent and only subject to the law, trials are open and the accused is guaranteed defense. Since 1996 , Russia has established a moratorium on the application of the death penalty , although this has not been abolished by law.
The president is elected by popular vote for a six-year term (since the 2008 constitutional amendments; current term is four years) with the option of being elected for a second consecutive term (there is no restriction on the total number of times the same person can be elected). Government ministries are made up of the Prime Minister (Prime Minister) and his Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers, and other individuals; all are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister with the requirement of the consent of the State Duma. The legislative is the Federal Assembly consisting of two chambers; the State Duma with 450 deputies and the Federation Council with 178 representatives. The main parties, the only ones represented in the State Duma, are United Russia , the Communist Party of the Russian Federation , theLiberal Democratic Party of Russia and Fair Russia .
|CESCR||CCPR [ 43 ]||CERD [ 44 ]||CED||CEDAW [ 46 ]||CAT||CRC||MWC||EARL [ 50 ]|
|Signed and ratified, signed, but not ratified, neither signed nor ratified, No information, has agreed to sign and ratify the body in question, but also recognizes the competence to receive and process individual communications from the competent bodies.|
The Russian Federation is recognized in international law as a continuity of the legal personality of the former Soviet Union . [ 51 ] Russia continues to implement the commitments of the Soviet Union, had assumed the permanent seat of the Soviet Union in the United Nations Security Council , as well as membership in other international organizations, in addition to the rights and obligations under the treaties. international, property and debt. The foreign policy of Russia is multifaceted. Russia maintains diplomatic relations with 178 countries and has 140 embassies. Russia's foreign policy is directed by thePresident and implemented by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs .
As one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Russia plays an important role in the maintenance of international peace and security, and plays an important role in resolving international conflicts by participating in the Madrid Quartet , in the six-party talks. gangs with North Korea , promoting a solution to the Kosovo conflict and resolving nuclear proliferation issues. Russia is a temporarily suspended member of the G8 , Council of Europe , OSCE and APEC , in addition to playing a leadership role in regional organizations such as the CIS , EurAsEC ,OTSC , and OCS . Russia, together with Belarus , form the so-called State of the Union . President Vladimir Putin advocated a strategic alliance with greater integration in various dimensions including the establishment of the four common spaces between Russia and the European Union .
The defense of Russia is guaranteed by the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation , a state military organization which, according to Federal Law № 61-ФЗ of May 31, 1996 "On Defense" serves to reject attacks directed against the Russian Federation. , for the armed defense of the integrity and inviolability of the territory of the Russian Federation, as well as for the performance of tasks in accordance with federal constitutional laws, federal laws and international agreements of the Russian Federation. Russia has the third largest military spending in the world, behind the United States and China.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the President of the Russian Federation (currently Vladimir Putin ), and the Ministry of Defense serves as their administrative body. Today the active troops are approximately 1,037,000 and all available men in total number 3,037,000.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation have three main branches: the Land Forces , the Navy , and the Air Force . In addition, there are three independent bodies of the three previous branches: the Strategic Rocket Forces , the Space Forces and the Airborne Troops .
The Russian Federation consists of a large number of different political subdivisions, making a total of 85 constituent components ( federal subjects ).
There are 21 or 22 republics within the federation (the number depends on how Crimea is recognized ; although most countries in the world consider it as an autonomous republic within Ukraine , it is currently under the absolute sovereignty of Russia and where the The vast majority of its population is of Russian descent, as is its language. Reason for which in the plebiscite of membership, it largely won its annexation to Russia), who enjoy a high degree of autonomy over most internal issues and these They correspond to some ethnic minorities typical of Russia (although they are not always the majority in that territory). Each republic has its own constitution .
The remaining territory consists of 9 krais (territories), 46 regions known in Russian as oblasts , 4 autonomous districts, and one autonomous region ( Jewish Autonomous Region ). Apart from this, there are two or three federal cities , Moscow , Saint Petersburg and Sevastopol (the latter is a disputed sovereignty; most countries in the world consider it as a city with special status in Ukraine, due to the same situation faced by the Republic of Crimea ).
The governors of the federal subjects are elected by direct suffrage ( presidential or semi-presidential system ) or, if the federal subject so decides, through its parliament ( parliamentary system ).
In 2000 the federal districts were created , which currently number eight. Each one brings together the various federal subjects described above, in order to better administer and manage the powers of the federal government throughout the country.
Each federal district is run by a R plenipotentiary epresentative of the president of the Russian Federation to ensure compliance with federal actions in each of the federal subjects of the federal district office.
The Russian Federation stretches across most of the northern supercontinent Eurasia so there is a great variety of landscapes and climates. Most of the landscape consists of huge plains, both in the European part and in the Asian part that are widely known as Siberia. These plains are predominantly steppe to the south and dense woodland to the north, with tundra along the north coast. Mountain ranges are found along the southern borders, such as the Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrús , the highest point in Russia at 5642 m) and the Altai , and in the eastern part, such as the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes above Kamchatka. Notable are the Ural Mountains in the central part which are the main division between Europe and Asia .
Russia has an extensive coastline of 37,653 kilometers [ 4 ] that stretches along the Arctic and Pacific Oceans , as well as bordering inland seas such as the Baltic , Black and Caspian Seas . The smallest seas are part of the oceans; the Barents Sea , White Sea , Kara Sea , Laptev Sea and Sea of Eastern Siberia are part of the Arctic, whereas the Bering Sea , the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japanthey belong to the Pacific. Russia's main islands are found in the archipelago of Novaya Zemlya , Franz Josef Land , New Siberian Islands and Kuril Islands , in addition to Wrangel Island and Sakhalin .
Many great rivers flow through the plains, ending up on the Russian shores. In Europe these are the Volga , Don , Kama , Oká and the Northern Dviná , while other rivers originate in Russia, but flow into other countries, such as the Dniéper and the Western Dviná. In Asia there are the Ob , Irtysh , Yenisei , Angara , Lena and Amur rivers . The main lakes include Lake Baikal , Lake Ladoga, and Lake Onega .
The 2 as August as 2007 two submersibles Russian "Mir" made a dive in the Arctic Ocean at the North Pole , and installed in the background a Russian flag and a capsule with a message for future generations. This unprecedented expedition pursued, among other objectives, to verify whether the underwater Lomonosov and Mendeleev ranges are the natural extension of the Russian continental shelf, a hypothesis that, if confirmed, would allow Moscow to claim exclusive rights over the exploitation of mineral resources in the future. in this area.
| Norway |
|Mar de Kara||Laptev Sea|
| Estonia |
| Mar de Bering |
( United States )
| Georgia |
|Kazakhstan|| China |
Sea of Japan
( Japan )
In Russia there is a great variety of climates, however, in general terms, it is considered that the continental climate predominates , characterized by great thermal variability, with predominantly tundra, taiga and steppe biomes . The area that corresponds to the Caucasus has a temperate climate . In Siberia , summers are hot, with temperatures up to 30 ° C and humidity, and winters are freezing, with world records in Oimiakón of −71.2 ° C. The precipitations , commonly, are low, except in the form of snow.
The economic crisis that affected all post-Soviet countries in the 1990s was worse than the Great Depression in Western European countries and the United States in the 1930s . Even before the financial crisis of 1998 the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Russia decreased to half the levels of the early of 1990. With the start of the new century, the rising prices of oil, increased investment in the Foreign consumption, higher domestic consumption, and better political stability reinforced Russia's economic growth. Late 2007the country was enjoying its ninth year of continuous growth, averaging 7% since the financial crisis of 1998 . In 2007 Russia's GDP was two trillion 76 billion USD ( PPP est. ), The sixth largest in the world, with growth of 8.1% from the previous year. The growth is mainly due to non-tradable goods and services for the domestic market, compared to the extraction of oil and other minerals and exports. The median salary in Russia was about $ 640 a month in early 2008 , compared to $ 80 in 2000 . Approximately 14% of the inhabitants lived below the poverty line in 2007, much less compared to 40% in 1998. Unemployment in 2007 was 6%, while in 1999 it was 12.4%.
Russia has the world's largest natural gas reserves, the second largest coal reserves, and the eighth largest oil reserves. It is the first exporter of natural gas and the second of oil, natural gas, metals and wood make up 80% of Russia's exports. However, since 2003 , exports of natural resources began to decline in importance for the economy, as the market strengthened considerably. Despite high prices, oil and gas only contribute 5.7% to Russia's GDP, with the government forecasting 3.7% for 2011. Russia is considered to be far ahead of most resource-rich countries in its economic development, with a long tradition in education, science and industry. The country has the highest number of higher education graduates than any other European country.
The country's economic development is geographically uneven, with the Moscow region contributing disproportionate amounts to GDP. Much of Russia, especially rural communities in Siberia, lag far behind. However, the middle class grew from just eight million people in 2000 to 55 million in 2006 . Russia has the second highest number of billionaires in the world, after the United States, with 50 billionaires in 2007 out of a total of 110.
The inflation rose to 12% at the end of 2007 , compared with 9% in 2006. This trend continued in the first quarter of 2008, mainly due to rising food prices. Infrastructure, outdated and inadequate after years of neglect, is seen as an obstacle to economic growth. The government plans to invest a trillion dollars in infrastructure until 2020 .
According to preliminary estimates from the 2010 census, the resident population of the Russian Federation on January 1 , 2010 was 142 million people. In 2007 the population decreased by 237,800 people, or 0.17% (in 2006- in 532 600 people, or 0.37%). Immigration grew by 50.2% in 2007 to reach 274,000. Most of the immigrants came from the CIS and were Russian or Russian-speaking. Furthermore, there are an estimated 10 million illegal immigrants from the former Soviet republics in Russia. The Russian Federation is a diverse and multi-ethnic society, home to 160 distinct ethnic groups and indigenous peoples. Although Russia's population is relatively large, the population density is low due to the vast expanse of the country. Density is highest in the European part of Russia, near the Ural Mountains and in southwestern Siberia.
73% of the population lives in urban areas. According to the 2002 census , the two largest cities in Russia are Moscow (10,126,424 inhabitants) and Saint Petersburg (4,661,219). Eleven other cities have between one and two million inhabitants: Yekaterinburg , Novosibirsk , Nizhny Novgorod , Kazan , Chelyabinsk , Omsk , Perm , Rostov-on-Don , Samara , Ufa and Volgograd .
Russia's population was 148,689,000, its peak in 1991 . The number of deaths in 2007 exceeded the number of births by 477,700. In 2006 it exceeded 687 100. According to data published by the Federal State Statistical Service, mortality in Russia fell by 4% in 2007 , compared to 2006, reaching about 2 million deaths, while the birth rate grew 8.3% year-on-year to 1.6 million births. The main causes of the decline in Russia's population are a high death rate and a low birth rate. While Russia's birth rate is comparable to other European countries (11.3 births per 1000 people in 2007 compared to an average of 10.0 per 1000 for theEuropean Union ) its population decreases at a higher rate due to the considerably higher mortality rate (in 2007, in Russia 14.7 per 1000; in the European Union an average of 10.0 per 1000). However, according to the estimates of the Russian Ministry of Health, the death rate will be the same as the birth rate for the year 2011 , as the birth rate increases and mortality falls.
Russia's 160 ethnic groups speak about 100 languages. According to the 2002 census , 142.6 million people speak Russian, followed by Tatar with 5.3 million and German with 2.9 million. Russian is the only official language at the state level, but the Constitution grants the republics of Russia the right to declare their native language co-official alongside Russian. Despite the spread, the Russian language is homogeneous in Russia. Russian is one of the most widespread languages in Eurasia and the most widely spoken Slavic language. Russian belongs to the Indo-European language family and is one of the living languages of the subgroup of East Slavic languages, along with the Ukrainian , Belarusian and Russian . Written examples of Old East Slavic date from the 10th century onwards.
More than a quarter of the world's scientific literature is published in Russian. Russian is used to encode and store universal knowledge: between 60% and 70% of all world information is published in English and Russian. The Russian language has great regional importance, particularly in the former Soviet Republics . It is one of the six official languages of the UN , and one of the six working languages in the OSCE . The year 2007 was designated the International Year of the Russian Language . [ 54 ]
According to the Sociological Research Center of the Lomonosov Moscow State University , 50.6% of adults consider themselves adherents of the Russian Orthodox Church , while 43.3% consider themselves simply Christian. [ 58 ] Although the Russian Orthodox are predominant, other Christian communities such as the Armenian Orthodox , Catholics , Protestants , Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses also exist in smaller numbers. According to a 1997 law on religion, the four traditional religions of Russia are the Russian Orthodox Church , theIslam , Buddhism and Judaism . All other religions must meet a series of requirements for registration and the right to preach. It is estimated that there are around 15 million Russian Muslims, making Islam the second religion with the most adherents in Russia. The Buddhism , especially type Tibetan or Lamaism is the majority in some regions of southern Russia, especially Buryatia , Kalmykia , Tuva and Yakutia . Pagan cults are practiced in rural areas of Siberia and Chukotkaand shamanists syncretically with religions such as Buddhism and Christianity . Russia is the sixth country with the highest number of Jews after Israel , the US , Canada , the UK and France . There are also small communities of Hare Krishnas and Neopagans . There is also a much higher percentage of atheism than the international average, partly a consequence of the past Soviet policy that, based on the communist texts of Karl Marx , discouraged religion.
In the 2002 census , 329 cities in the Russian Federation had more than 50,000 inhabitants; 166 had more than 100,000 inhabitants; 75 more than a quarter of a million; 34 more than half a million; and 13 cities already had more than a million inhabitants. The main cities are:
|The 20 most populous cities in Russia|
| ||Position||City||Federal Subject||Population||Position||City||Federal Subject||Population|| |
|1||Moscow (Europe)||Moscow Oblast||12 108 257||11||Rostov del Don (Europa)||Óblast de Rostov||1 048 124|
|2||Saint Petersburg (Europe)||Leningrad Oblast||4 600 276||12||Ufá (Europe)||Bashkortostán||1 030 812|
|3||Novosibirsk (Asia)||Novosibirsk Oblast||1 409 137||13||Volgogrado (Europa)||Volgograd Oblast||1 015 617|
|4||Yekaterinburg (Asia)||Sverdlovsk Oblast||1 343 839||14||Perm (Europa)||Krai de Perm||986 497|
|5||Nizhny Novgorod (Europe)||Óblast de Nizhny Novgorod||1 271 045||15||Vorónezh (Europe)||Voronezh Oblast||847 620|
|6||Boiler (Europe)||Tatarstan||1 136 566||16||Sarátov (Europe)||Saratov Oblast||827 193|
|7||Samara (Europe)||Samara Oblast||1 133 754||17||Tolyatti (Europa)||Samara Oblast||721 752|
|8||Omsk (Asia)||Omsk Oblast||1 127 675||18||Krasnodar (Europe)||Krai de Krasnodar||713 426|
|9||Chelyabinsk (Asia)||Chelyabinsk Oblast||1 095 909||19||Barnaul (Asia)||Altai Krai||625 679|
|10||Krasnoyarsk (Asia)||Krai de Krasnoyarsk||1 052 218||20||Yaroslavl (Europa)||Óblast de Yaroslavl||606 888|
|Russian Census (2010)|
Classical music and ballet
The numerous ethnic groups of Russia have their characteristic traditions in folk music . Music in 19th century Russia was defined by the tension between the classical composer Mikhail Glinka and his followers , who defended the Russian national identity and added religious and folk elements to their compositions, and the Russian Musical Society led by composers Anton and Nikolai Rubinstein , who defended the conservative point of view. The late romantic tradition of Tchaikovsky , one of the most prominent composers of the romantic erawhose music would be known and loved for its distinctive Russian character as well as its rich harmonies and soulful melodies, was introduced in the 20th century by Sergei Rachmaninov , one of the last great standard bearers of the romantic style of European classical music.
World renowned composers of the 20th century include Skriabin , Stravinsky , Rachmaninov , Prokofiev , and Shostakovich . For most of the Soviet era, music was scrupulously examined and kept within the conservative, accessible idiom in accordance with the Stalinist policy of socialist realism. Russian conservatories nurtured generations of world-renowned soloists. Among the best known are violinists David Óistraj and Gidon Kremer , cellist Mstislav Rostropovich , pianists Vladimir Horowitz ,Sviatoslav Richter and Emil Guilels , and vocalist Galina Vishnévskaya .
The Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky composed the most famous ballet works in the world: Swan Lake , The Nutcracker and The Sleeping Beauty of the Forest . During the early twentieth century , Russian dancers Anna Pavlova and Vátslav Nizhinski became famous, and businessman Sergei Diaghilev and his Russian ballets traveled abroad influencing the development of dance worldwide. Soviet ballet maintained and perfected the traditions of the 19th century, and the choreography schools of the Soviet Union produced stars of international fame one after another, including Maia Pleisetskaya , Rudolf Nureyev , and Mikhail Barishhnikov . The Bolshoi Theater in Moscow and the Mariinsky Ballet in St. Petersburg remain famous throughout the world.
Russian literature is considered one of the most influential and developed in the world, contributing many of the best-known literary works. Russian literary history dates back to the 10th century , and from the early 19th century a native tradition emerged, developing the greatest writers of all time. This period and the Golden Age of Russian poetry began with Aleksandr Pushkin , considered the founder of modern Russian literature and frequently described as the Russian Shakespeare . Among the most renowned Russian poets and writers of the 19th century are Yevgueni Baratynski , Mikhail Lermontov , Leo Tolstoy ,Nikolai Gogol , Ivan Turgenev and Fyodor Dostoyevsky . Ivan Goncharov , Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin , Anton Chekhov , Alekséi Písemsky, and Nikolai Leskov made lasting contributions to Russian prose. Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky in particular were titanic figures to the point that many literary critics characterized one or the other as the greatest novelist who ever lived.
In the 1880s Russian literature began to change. The era of the great novelists was over and short stories and poetry began to be the dominant genres for the following decades known as the Silver Age of Russian poetry. Previously dominated by realism, Russian literature between 1893 and 1914 was dominated by symbolism. Prominent writers of this period include Valery Bryusov , Andrei Bely , Vyacheslav Ivanov [ 59 ] Aleksandr Blok , Nikolay Gumilyov , Dmitry Merezhkovsky , Fyodor Sologub , Anna Akhmatova ,Ósip Mandelshtam , Marina Tsvetáyeva , Leonid Andréyev , Iván Bunin y Máximo Gorki .
After the Russian revolution of 1917 and the civil war, cultural life was in chaos. Some entrenched writers left Russia, while a new generation of talented writers was emerging who sympathized with the revolution. The most enthusiastic united in organizations with the aim of creating a new and distinctive proletarian culture for a new state. In the 1920s writers enjoyed broad tolerance. In the 1930s, censorship was hardened in line with Stalin's policy of socialist realism . After his death there was a thaw in the restrictions, which were lowered. In the 1970s and 1980s, writers increasingly ignored the guidance of socialist realism. The main writers of the Soviet era are Vladimir Mayakovsky , Yevgeny Zamyatin , Isaak Babel , Ilf and Petrov , Yury Olesha , Vladimir Nabokov , Mikhail Bulgakov , Boris Pasternak , Sergei Yesenin , Mikhail Sholokhov , Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn , Yevgeny Yevtushenko and Andrei Voznesensky .
Whereas in the industrialized countries of the West, moving images were initially considered a cheap form of recreation and leisure for the working class, the production of Russian cinema stood out from the revolution of 1917 by exploring editing as the form primary of cinematographic expression. Russian and later Soviet cinema was at the core of the invention in the immediate aftermath of the 1917 revolution, resulting in world-renowned films such as Battleship Potemkin . The filmmakers of the Soviet era, notably Sergei Eisenstein and Andrei Tarkovsky, they would become the most innovative and influential cinematographers in the world.
Lev Kuleshov , Eisenstein's professor, cinematographer and theorist, formulated the innovative process called montage at the world's first film school, the Pan- Russian Gerasimov University of Cinematography in Moscow. Dziga Vértov , whose Cine-Ojo theory that the camera, like the human eye, is better at exploring real life, had a major impact on the development of documentary-making and film realism. In 1932 , Stalin made socialist realism state policy, which stifled creativity, despite which many Soviet films were artistically successful, for example Chapayev (about Vasili Chapayev), When the storks of Mikhail Kalatózov and Balada pass over a soldier by Grigori Chujrái . Leonid Gaidai's comedies of the 1960s and 1970s were immensely popular, the catchwords of which are still in use today. 1969 was the year of the release of the film White Sun of the Desert by Vladimir Motyl , [ 60 ] with which the osterns genre began . [ 61 ] One of the traditions of thecosmonauts is to see this film before each trip to space. [ 62 ]
The 1980s and 1990s were crisis years for Russian cinema. Despite the recently acquired freedom of expression, state subsidies were drastically reduced, reducing the number of films produced. In the early years of the 21st century the audience increased with the subsequent prosperity of the industry thanks to rapid economic development. Production levels reached those of the United Kingdom and Germany. [ 63 ] If in 1996 box office revenues were about 6 million dollars, in 2007 they were 565 million (37% more than in 2006). [ 64 ]Russian cinema continues to gain international recognition. The Russian Ark ( 2002 ) by Aleksandr Sokúrov was the first feature film consisting of a single unedited shot.
Early Russian painting focuses on iconography and frescoes inherited by Russians from Byzantium . As Moscow's power increased, Feofan Grek and Andrei Rubliov are the code names associated with the beginning of a distinctively Russian art. The Imperial Academy of Arts was created in 1757 , with the aim of giving an international role and status to Russian artists. Notable portrait painters from the Academy include Ivan Argunov to, [ 65 ] Fyodor Rokotov, [ 66 ] Dmitri Levitsky and Vladimir Borovikovsky. Realism flourished in the 19th century and the realists took on the Russian identity. Russian landscapes of wide rivers, forests, and glades among birch trees, as well as a genre of energetic scenes and robust portraits of his contemporaries affirmed a sense of identity. Other artists focused on social criticism , depicting the conditions of the poor and caricaturing authority while critical realism flourished under the reign of Alexander II .
After the abolition of serfdom in 1861 some artists focused on the circle of human suffering. Artists sometimes created extensive campaigns to describe dramatic moments in Russian history. A group of artists called Peredvizhniki (itinerant) broke with the Academy and started an art school free of its restrictions. His paintings had deep social and political significance. Notable royalists include Iván Shishkin , Arjip Kuindzhi , Iván Kramskoi , Vasili Polénov , Isaak Levitán , Vasili Surikov , Víktor Vasnetsov and Ilya Repin. In the 1830s the Academy sent painters abroad to complete their studies. Among these Aleksandr Ivanov and Karl Briullov were more talented, standing out in the historic romantic campaigns. The styles of Russian painting at the end of the 19th century were intimately linked to the daily life of Russian society.
The term Russian avant-garde encompasses a broad and influential trend in modern art that flourished in Russia from about 1890 to 1930. The term covers many different, but inextricably linked, art movements of that time, such as Neo-Primitivism, Suprematism , Constructivism , Rayonism, and Futurism. Russian . Notable artists of this era include El Lissitzky , Kazimir Malevich , Vasili Kandinsky , Vladimir Tatlin , Aleksandr Rodchenko, and Marc Chagall.among others. The Russian avant-garde reached its peak of creativity and popularity in the period between the revolution of 1917 and 1932, when avant-garde ideas collided with the recently emerged conservative Stalinist guideline of socialist realism .
In the late 1920s the strict politics of socialist realism enveloped the visual arts in the same way as literature and the cinematograph, and the avant-garde soon faded. Some artists such as Ernst Neizvestny , Ilyá Kabakov , Mikhail Shemiakin , Érik Bulátov and Vera Mujina combined innovation with socialist realism. They employed techniques as varied as primitivism , hyper-reality , the grotesque, and abstraction.But they shared a common dislike for the canons of socialist realism. Some Soviet artists did very patriotic and anti-fascist work in the 1940s . The events and battles of the Great Patriotic War were described with poignant patriotism and after the war the sculptors made many monuments dedicated to the war dead, the most prominent of which had great restrained solemnity. In the 20th century many Russian artists worked in Western Europe, due in part to the traumas of the revolution. Russian artists such as Vasili Kandinski , Marc Chagall and Naum Gabothey spread their work and ideas internationally. These Russian artists studied in different countries, in Paris and Munich and their involuntary exile spread the impact of Russian art globally.
Video art is very popular in modern Russia. Russia is one of the priority markets for YouTube. [ 67 ] The most popular episode of the Russian animated television series " Masha and the Bear " has more than 3 billion views. [ 68 ] Especially popular is the channel "+100500", which hosts video reviews for funny videos, and BadComedian , which reviews popular movies. Many Russian movie trailers were nominated in "Golden Trailer Awards". [ 69 ] [ 70 ] Many videos of Nikolay Kurbatov, Russian publisher, poet and publicist, the founder of the poetics of the trailer and the construction of the trailer dialogue [ 71 ] were uploaded to the big YouTube channels, were used as the main trailers and entered in the book of records. [ 72 ] [ 73 ]
Winter sports are the most popular in Russia. The ice skating and ice hockey are very popular as entertainment and sports as spectator sports. The Russian ice hockey team won the world championship in 2008 , while the Continental Hockey League has expanded to several Eastern European countries. In figure skating, Russia has such outstanding athletes as Yevgueni Pliushchenko . The ski cross country had great popularity as a leisure sport during the Soviet era, although its popularity has declined in recent years.
Among other sports, athletics is very popular, in almost all its facets. In tennis, María Sharápova , Marat Safin and Yevgueni Káfelnikov (in tennis) have stood out , who have achieved first place in the world ranking. In gymnastics stand Alexei Nemov , Aliya Mustafina and Svetlana Khorkina , who have achieved medals of gold, silver and bronze medals in various gymnastics competitions, including the Olympics.
After the demise of the Soviet Union, soccer has come to the fore, becoming one of the dominant disciplines. There are internationally known clubs, such as Spartak Moscow (nine-time Russian league champion); The CSKA Moscow (champion of the UEFA Cup in 2005 ), the Zenit St. Petersburg ( who won the same tournament in 2008 ) and champion of the European Super Cup the same year and Rubin Kazan (champions of the Russian Premier League in 2008 ).
The Russian team is considered the official successor to the Soviet Union team , so all the achievements that this nation achieved are officially inherited by Russia. Throughout its history it has participated in eleven World Cups of this sport, eight times as the Soviet Union (Sweden 58, Chile 62, England 66, Mexico 70 and 86, Spain 82 and Italy 90) and four as the current Russia (USA 94, Korea-Japan 2002, Brazil 2014 and as host in 2018). His best performance as a Soviet Union was to have achieved fourth place in the 1966 edition ; and with the name of Russia it reached the quarterfinals of the 2018 edition. He has attended the European Championship of Nations 11 times, being champion of the first edition in 1960 and runner-up in 1964, 1972 and 1988 as the Soviet Union. His best participation as Russia was in 2008, where he managed to get third place.
Russia has produced two great footballers who are part of the history of world football, such as Lev Yashin , who is considered the best goalkeeper of all time; and Oleg Salenko , who owns the historic record of 5 goals in the same game, achieved on June 28, 1994 against Cameroon at the World Cup in the United States.
The rugby is also one of the sports that gradually has been gaining popularity among young people. During this year she managed to be invited to the Rugby 7 World Tour in Hong Kong, and her XV team known as the Bears played the 2011 Rugby World Cup , but ended up being defeated in her 4 group C matches against experienced teams such as Ireland. , Australia, the United States and Italy.
The volleyball Russian is one of the most important worldwide both its male and female branch.
The chess is another sport that is practiced, could be considered the national sport. Russia has the honor of having the largest number of world champions (many of whom are under the flag of the Soviet Union, but were born in present-day Russian territory): Mikhail Botvínnik , Vasili Smyslov , Boris Spaski . In this discipline, Garry Kasparov and Anatoli Karpov are the best known chess players in the world in contemporary times, since both have won the World Chess Championship . After the Chess Schism there have been more Russian champions like Vladimir Krámnik .
In cycling, Russia has five of the best cyclists of recent years in the figures of Vladimir Karpets , Vladimir Yefimkin , Pavel Tonkov , Yevgueni Berzin and Denís Menshov . They also stand out in track cycling , a modality in which they have won several world championships .
On December 2, 2010, FIFA announced that Russia won the bid to organize the 2018 Soccer World Cup , in which it prepared 12 venues that gave life to the largest soccer event on the planet. The host cities were: Moscow (two stadiums), Kaliningrad , Samara , Saint Petersburg , Yekaterinburg , Rostov-on-Don , Sochi , Krasnodar , Nizhny Novgorod , Kazan , Saransk and Volgograd . In handball it had its golden age in the 90s with several European and world titles.
In soccer, Russia hosted the 2018 Soccer World Cup , which began on June 14 and ended on July 15.
- Portal: Russia . Content related to Russia .
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- From Chapter 1 of the Constitution of Russia: "The names" Russian Federation "and" Russia "are equivalent." (English, Russian, French, German).
- The Spanish version used by official Russian bodies to translate the endonym Rossíyskaya Federátsiya in a politically correct way is "Russian Federation" , instead of "Russian Federation". This is because, unlike what happens in the Russian language , the adjective "Russian" in Spanish does not distinguish between Russians as an ethnic group ( русские : rússkie ) and the multi-ethnic group of the inhabitants of Russia ( россияне : rossiyane ). The origin of this distinction dates back to the 18th century AD. C. InIn 1721 , Tsar Peter I of Russia proclaimed himself emperor and changed the official name of the country: from " Russian Zarato " ( Rússkoie Tsarstvo : the country of the Russian people ) to " Russian Empire " ( Rossíyskaya Impériya , poly-ethnic in character) , and the informal of Rus for the current one of Rossíya .
- The western enclave of Kaliningrad is sometimes considered part of Central Europe .
- As of October 26, 2014, Russia will go into winter time indefinitely , and there will be 11 time zones. [one]
- Not counting the States with limited recognition of Abkhazia , South Ossetia and the Union of People's Republics , including two countries that share maritime borders with Russia.
- Lithuania and Poland border the Kaliningrad enclave .
- Including the limited recognition state of New Russia ( Donetsk and Lugansk respectively) and the disputed Crimean peninsula .
- Including States with limited recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
- The people who answered this option, claimed to be spiritual people.
- The figure includes all the different currents of Islam : unspecified Muslims (4.7%), Sunni Muslims (1.7%) and Shiites (0.5%)
- «The Constitution of the Russian Federation - Chapter 3. The Federal Structure, Article 68». constitution.ru (en inglés). Consultado el 22 de abril de 2015.
- «Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 1 January 2017 (в разрезе субъектов Russian Federation суб tierrasектов Росктов Росктов Росктов Росктов Росктов Russian Federation and Federal Land Distributions) . Rosreestr (in Russian) . Retrieved December 5, 2020 .
- "The Russian Federation: General Characteristics" (in English) . Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011 . Retrieved April 5, 2008 .
- CIA. "Russia - Geography - World Book of Facts" . Retrieved January 30, 2017 .
- “Estimation of the resident population as of January 1, 2020 and on average for 2019” [Población estimada a 1 de enero de 2020 y en promedio para 2019] (XLS) . Russian Federal State Statistics Service (en ruso) . Consultado el 21 de junio de 2020 .
- State Statistics Service of Ukraine (February 21, 2014). "Population as of January 1, 2014 and average population in 2013"