San Sebastián |
Donostia / San Sebastián
|municipality of Spain|
|Location of San Sebastián in Spain.|
|Location of San Sebastián in Guipúzcoa.|
|Motto : Very Noble and Very Loyal City of San Sebastián [ citation required ]|
|• Autonomous communication||Basque Country|
|• County||Saint Sebastian|
|• Judicial party||Saint Sebastian|
|• General Meetings||Saint Sebastian|
7 [ 1 ] msnm |
(min: 0, max: 585 [ 2 ] )
|Population||188 240 hab. (2020)|
|• Density||3060,77 hab./km²|
donostiarra [ 3 ] |
easonense ( cult ) [ 4 ]
|Phone Pref.||(+34) 943 and 843|
|Mayor (2015)||Eneko Goia Laso ( PNV )|
|Budget||416 260 408,47 (2017)|
|Patroness||Virgin of the Choir [ 6 ]|
|Extension of the municipality in the province|
San Sebastian (in Basque and cooficialmente, Donostia ) is a city and municipality Spanish located on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and 20 kilometers from the border with France . The city is the capital of the province of Guipúzcoa , in the autonomous community of the Basque Country . The population of the municipality is 188,240 inhabitants (2020), [ 7 ] and its metropolitan area reaches 436,500 ( 2010 ). It is the head of the Basque Eurocity Bayona-San Sebastián, a conurbation of more than 620,000 inhabitants.
Its main economic activities are commerce and tourism, [ 8 ] constituting in the past one of the most famous tourist destinations in Spain . Its landscape, dominated by the bay of La Concha , as well as its modern architectural development that began in the second half of the 19th century , which formed a French and gentrified city, fostered the development of tourist activity on a European scale. This, coupled with international events such as the San Sebastián International Film Festival , the San Sebastian Jazz Festival , the Musical Fortnightor the Horror Film Festival, has given the city an external projection, despite its small size. It was the European Capital of Culture in 2016 along with Wroclaw , Poland .
San Sebastián has different names:
- Saint Sebastian
- It is the official name in Spanish . [ 9 ] Its origin is due to a monastery consecrated to San Sebastián that was in the current location of the Miramar Palace , next to the El Antiguo neighborhood . The medieval town was founded by the Navarrese king Sancho el Sabio around 1180 in the vicinity of the monastery and he established in the letter-town that the town would be called San Sebastián . As the document was written in Latin, the name that appears mentioned is that of Sanctus Sebastianus , which would evolve into romanceuntil giving the name of San Sebastián. San Sebastián has been the official name of the city until 1980 . It is the best known name internationally and from which the names of the city in other languages derive. Thus, the usual denomination in French is Saint-Sébastien and in English Saint Sebastian , without an accent on the a and pronounced by accentuating the syllables. The name in Spanish is usually abbreviated with Sn. Sn. , SS (correct forms), Sn.Sn. , SS , SnSn or SS ( SS was the acronym that appeared in the automobile license plates of Spainregistered in the province of Guipúzcoa until the system was changed in 2000 ).
- It is the official name in Basque . According to the most accepted theory, it is a form derived from the ancient Basque denomination of the patron saint, Done (<lat. Domine) Sebastiáne, in the same way that the Basque forms Donibane (San Juan), Doneztebe (Santesteban) or Donejakue (Santiago ), and the current form was reached through the following steps, as explained by Koldo Mitxelena , a distinguished linguist, more than half a century ago in his book Basque Surnames from 1953: « ... the Basque name of San Sebastián, whose evolution approximate will have been "Donasa (b) astiai, Donasastia, Donastia, Donostia"»(2nd edition, 1955, p. 96). It should not be forgotten that Donosti is used in Basque in two more references to that saint: the hermitage of San Sebastián (in Basque Jaun Donosti ) in Orendain , [ 10 ] and another half demolished of the same name in Arano . Another theory derives the name from Latin: Domine (Saint) Ostium ( Ostia , port; or what is the same, "lord of the port", alluding to Sebastián Mártir ). In any case, the first written reference to this name in Basque is from the 16th century, by Joan Perez Lazarraga from Alava : «Donostiako San Frantziskuan / hacean gizon soldadua».[ 11 ] . Donostia has not been an official denomination until a few decades ago, although it derives the name of the city's inhabitants (Donostiaras) in both Spanish and Basque.
- It is a variant of Donostia. The particular unique item Basque (nominative case) is the suffix - to , added to nouns and adjectives: etxea (the house), etxe handia (the big house), although several nouns, both common and own, possess - to own end , such as Araba (Álava), Frantzia (France), Espainia (Spain), Donostia , gauza (thing), plaza or enparantza (square), gorilla and anaia(brother of a man). One feature of the guipuzcoano dialect is just delete that - to organic in some cases followed by the decline or determinants ( Gauza asko > GAUZ asko -many things- anaia bat > anai bat - a brother; ez dago gorilarik > ez dago gorilik —there are no gorillas—; Italiako > Italiko —from Italy—). For this reason, it is incorrect to eliminate it and use, in Euskara Batua, * Donostiko —from Donostia—, * Donostin—In Donostia— or * Donostitik —from / through Donostia—, instead of, respectively, Donostiako , Donostian and Donostiatik . However, Donosti is a very common denomination, especially when speaking in Spanish.
- Donostia-San Sebastian
- It was the official name between 1980 and 2012 . Due to its null social roots and the confusion that this compound denomination created, the plenary session of the City Council, at the proposal of the municipal government, [ 12 ] unanimously decided to adopt the official bilingual denomination, Donostia / San Sebastián , in order to formalize the exclusive use of Donostia for communications in Basque and San Sebastián for communications in Spanish. [ 13 ]
- La Bella Easo or Easo
- It is a denomination that arose from the belief in past centuries that the ancient Roman city of Oiasso or Easo was located in the location of modern San Sebastián. The name of Easonense used as a cultured variant of Donostia, and currently in disuse, derived from this belief. Recent archaeological findings confirm that the ancient Oiasso was in Irún and not in San Sebastián. As the name Easo inheritance, the IATA code of the airport of San Sebastian is EAS.
- Irutxulo or Hirutxulo
- Which means "three holes" in Basque, is the name that fishermen gave to San Sebastián, since from the sea the city was seen as three entrances or holes: the one formed between Mount Igueldo and Santa Clara Island , the one that it is located between Santa Clara and Mount Urgull and the one located between Urgull and Mount Ulía.
- It is a colloquial and affectionate form that derives from San Sebastián, also widely used by the residents of San Sebastián de los Reyes , Community of Madrid .
The shield of San Sebastián shows, in a field of azure, on waves of azure and silver, a gold brig , with three masses, covered with silver and accompanied by the letters SS, in silver, one in each canton. Silver border with the legend "Won by fidelity, nobility and loyalty", in saber letters. To the ring royal crown.
The flag of the city is white with a blue canton, in a proportion of three parts in length by two in width. It corresponds to the password of the Maritime Province of San Sebastián .
San Sebastián sits on the shores of the Cantabrian Sea , and has several beaches (the best known being La Concha , in the bay of the same name) and a small port sheltered by Mount Urgull . It also has other mountains, both coastal promontories and inland, being its highest peak, Urdaburu (599 meters), in a homonymous exclave , although the top does not belong to the municipal term, giving the maximum altitude of the municipality, of about 585 meters , on the south face of the same mountain, near the top. [ 2 ]Although the relief is rugged, there are some flat areas of a certain width in the valleys and plains, where a good part of the urban nucleus is concentrated.
The altitude of the municipality ranges between 585 meters in the Urdaburu exclave and sea level, although the Igueldo (205 m) and Urgull (127 m) mountains to the west and east of the city stand out. The city rises 12 meters above sea level.
|Northwest: Cantabrian Sea||North: Cantabrian Sea||Northeast: Pasaia|
|West: Orio and Usurbil||East: Renteria|
|Southwest: Usurbil and Lasarte-Oria||About: Hernani||Southeast: Astigarraga|
The city has three urban beaches: Ondarreta, La Concha and La Zurriola, the first two located in La Concha Bay and the third on the other side of the Urumea River. All three are included in the same Environmental Management System, which tries to guarantee a sustainable use of them. [ 14 ]
- La Concha
- it is one of the most famous urban beaches in Spain. It has a length of 1,350 m and an average width of 40 m. Like the other two beaches, its sand is fine. It has 38 outdoor showers, rental of awnings and beach chairs, and shower and changing room services. On the beach are the La Perla spa , the old Royal Bath House and the Real Club Náutico , buildings that, together with the famous railing, the elegant lampposts, two large clocks from the beginning of the century and the Miramar Palace , which It closes it to the west, they make up an elegant and unique beach. [ 15 ]
- located between the Miramar Palace and Mount Igueldo , it is the smallest of the three beaches. With a somewhat more informal air than La Concha, it is a less urban beach. On the promenade that borders it, there are gardens in which there is a statue in honor of the regent María Cristina . It has a length of 600 m . [ 16 ]
- With a length of 800 m, it is the beach most open to the sea and with the strongest waves, so it has become the most frequented by young people and surfers. In 1994 , a remodeling of the beach was carried out, until then practically unusable, with the construction of a breakwater that reduced the danger of the waters and with the general improvement of the quality of the sand and water. Nudism is allowed on this beach since 2004 . [ 17 ]
In addition to these three beaches, the small beach that forms on the island of Santa Clara is also usable , which can be accessed by boat in the summer months, [ 18 ] or by swimming, as it is only 500 m away. of Ondarreta at low tide.
San Sebastián has an oceanic climate of the Cfb type according to the Köppen climate classification and is one of the rainiest cities in Spain , with an annual average of about 1500 mm. The rains are abundant in all the seasons of the year, especially in autumn , having a minimum in summer that is not very remarkable. In 2007, San Sebastián was the city with the most rainfall in Spain, with 1,536.1 millimeters, according to the data available to the National Institute of Statistics , collected in its statistical yearbook . The precipitation in the form of snowthey are scarce (between 1 and 3 days a year, although there are winters like 2004-05 and 2009-10 in which the number of days was greater than 10). In turn, the number of frosts usually varies between 5 and 10 per year. At the end of September and beginning of October there are usually "spring tides" , higher high tides and lower tides than normal.
The temperatures are mild and temperate (with an average of 15 ° C), although in summer and winter the high humidity (around 70-80% most days of the year) causes thermal sensations of greater heat / cold . On days when the south wind blows (which causes the foehn effect), temperatures rise to 20 ° C in the middle of winter and to almost 40 ° C in summer: humidity drops considerably (although this situation of high temperatures in Summer usually lasts a few days or even a few hours, when it is interrupted with a turn of wind to NW component, which comes from the Cantabrian Sea; this phenomenon is the gale and it is accompanied by a sharp drop in temperatures and sometimes by clouds, storms or even sea fog).
In a situation of invasion of cold air from Europe (NE winds), San Sebastián is one of the first cities to notice the cold and is usually one of the most affected Spanish coastal capitals, given its proximity to France . This is because the winds do not have a maritime route and therefore are tempered less than in other cities, so it is not uncommon to see La Concha beach covered in snow. The extreme temperatures recorded at the San Sebastián meteorological observatory range from –12.1 ° C to 38.6 ° C.
These are the average and extreme values of temperatures and rainfall for San Sebastián:
|Average climatic parameters of the San Sebastián Observatory ( Igueldo ) (251 masl) (Reference period: 1981-2019)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||21.0||25.6||28.0||30.5||33.2||38.0||39.0||38.6||36.3||30.0||25.6||22.0||39.0|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||11.0||11.5||13.4||14.5||17.7||20.0||21.8||22.5||21.1||18.5||14.0||11.6||16.5|
|Temp. media (°C)||8.5||8.7||10.3||11.3||14.4||16.9||18.9||19.5||18.0||15.5||11.3||9.1||13.5|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||5.9||5.9||7.2||8.1||11.1||13.8||16.0||16.5||14.8||12.4||8.7||6.6||10.6|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||−10.0||−12.1||−5.5||−0.4||1.6||6.1||9.4||9.4||8.0||0.8||−3.4||−8.4||−12.1|
|Total precipitation (mm)||141.4||110.4||113.2||137.8||119.9||90.4||86.4||116.7||111.4||159.3||168.8||151.1||1506.7|
|Rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||13.2||11.6||12.4||13.4||12.2||10.6||9.8||10.5||10.1||11.8||13.0||12.4||141.1|
|Snowfall days (≥)||1.3||1.6||0.3||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.2||0.5||4.0|
|Hours of sun||98||107||144||157||181||189||196||190||179||140||102||93||1816|
|Relative humidity (%)||75||74||74||77||78||82||82||83||79||75||76||75||78|
|Source: State Agency of Meteorology [ 19 ]|
There is evidence of the existence of Roman settlements (from around 50-200 AD) in the current Old Part of the city, according to excavations carried out in the convent of Santa Teresa, on the slopes of Mount Urgull . [ 20 ] In the same place, remains have been found since the 10th century , therefore prior to the founding of the town and the first written mentions. [ 21 ]
Although its foundation is unknown exactly, the first data is provided by a document - considered false by most historians [ citation needed ] - from the year 1014 by Sancho el Mayor de Navarra , according to which the monastery of San Sebastián is placed in the hands of the abbot of Leyre and bishop of Pamplona. Said document will be confirmed, in 1101 , by King Pedro Ramírez ( Pedro I of Aragón, King of Navarra and Aragon). The first written news of San Sebastián refer to a monastery, located in the neighborhood that is still known today as San Sebastián El Antiguo. That place was originally known, according to some historians, as Izurum. The Spanish term San Sebastián and the Basque word Donostia etymologically refer to said saint; in the case of Basque, from the evolution of the word Donesebastian , from Done (from Latin, Domine) + Sebastian.
In the 11th and 12th centuries , the monastery of San Sebastián El Antiguo, at the same time as a spiritual center, was one of the nascent social and administrative life of the population of this area, which, over time, if not for various vicissitudes that will take place later, would have crystallized in a municipality.
San Sebastián was founded around 1180 by Sancho el Sabio , King of Navarre, to be the seaport of Navarre, and initially it fulfilled its mission as such. Guipúzcoa from the year 1200 surrendered vassalage to the Castilian king Alfonso VIII , enemy of Sancho el Fuerte . Traditionally, there has been a tendency to believe that this change from one kingdom to another occurred through negotiation or pact. However, according to the rereading of known historical sources, it seems that San Sebastián passed to Castile through military conquest. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ]In any case, the merchants of San Sebastián quickly got used to the change, since it went from being the port of a small state with no possibilities of territorial expansion (Navarra), to serving as an outlet to the sea of a monarchy, the Castilian, much bigger, richer and in full expansion.
The Kings of Castile counted in 1248 for the first time with naval forces from San Sebastián, which took part in disabling the squadron of Moors and the Triana bridge , the result of which was the surrender of the city of Seville .
Alfonso VIII swore the charters and began the long series of privileges granted to San Sebastián, some aimed at keeping Navarrese traffic alive and others at preserving a privileged situation for Donostia merchants in the Spanish market. This prosperity is what made it resurface from the multiple fires that it suffered from 1266 on , burning completely six times in two and a quarter centuries.
The Hundred Years' War , the side wars and the evolution of Navarre in the French direction for dynastic reasons brought for San Sebastián, in the second half of the 14th century , a serious consequence: the displacement of the main traffic lines towards Bilbao , replacing San Sebastián as the center of gravity for commercial traffic. In January 1489 a fire reduced the town to ashes. This unfortunate event had as a measure the stone construction of the town. This fire would be the last of the medieval period of San Sebastián.
As of the last quarter of the 15th century , San Sebastián went from being a commercial emporium thanks to its strategic location, to being a military plaza and its main port, Pasajes , from being essentially commercial to fulfilling the functions of a naval base.
Military square: XV-XIX centuries
After the catastrophe of 1489 , rather than a reconstruction of the town, we must speak of a new way of life for the community of Donostia. As of the last quarter of the 15th century , San Sebastián will go from being a commercial emporium, due to its strategic location, to being a military place; and its main port, Pasajes , will go from being essentially commercial, to fulfilling the functions of the naval base of the Cantabrian Squadron, a maritime force that will maintain the fight against the French, Dutch and British squadrons for centuries (until the 19th century ).
This new role of San Sebastián as a fortress, in charge of stopping the attacks of the French, will lead the town to take new paths, for which it won the titles of Noble and Leal. In the period between the Catholic Monarchs and Felipe V , approximately three hundred years, the town suffered numerous sieges. This continuous state of war meant for San Sebastián a strong deterioration of its economy, motivated by the expenses in the fortifications, the maintenance of the garrison and the continuous decline in maritime trade, which, from 1573 , worsened even more, since Seville acquired the monopoly of transactions with America.
After two centuries heroically fulfilling its war mission, Felipe IV granted it the title of City in 1662 . Until its foundation there were only small residential areas in the Antiguo neighborhood, in the Old Town and in the Urumea valley, undertaking a slow growth process until the 15th century .
In 1719 San Sebastián was taken, for the first time, by a powerful French army commanded by the Duke of Berwick , who found himself a weak city in fortifications and a small garrison with a shortage of food and ammunition. The city was occupied by a garrison of 2,000 French soldiers until August 25 , 1721, when it was evacuated by the Treaty of The Hague .
During the War of Independence , San Sebastián was occupied in 1808 by Napoleonic troops. Named José I (José Bonaparte) sovereign of Spain , he entered San Sebastián on June 9 and walked down Calle Narrica, where all the windows remained closed. In June of 1813 , the Allies (the Anglo-Portuguese troops under the direct command of Sir Thomas Graham and having by generalissimo to the Duke of Wellington, with a strong contingent of troops and weapons), besieged the city. After several days of intense bombardment and a failed first assault, the final assault took place on August 31, carried out through the breach in the walls, forcing the French troops to retreat towards the Castle, where they capitulated the September 8 .
The looting of the Anglo-Portuguese troops caused a great fire, from which only thirty-five houses were saved, which served as accommodation for British and Portuguese officers, located on the same street, which today bears the name of 31 de August in honor of being the only street that was saved from the fire. The troops also began the attack on the Castle, as well as the buildings located north of Trinidad Street (churches of Santa María and San Vicente and convents of San Telmo and Santa Teresa).
19th century: towards the Ensanche
After the war, the most representative neighbors met on the outskirts, in Zubieta , and decided to rebuild the city.
In the year 1823, during the invasion known as the One Hundred Thousand Sons of San Luis, despite the poor situation of its defenses, still not completely rebuilt, the city opted for resistance against the French absolutist army. This, instead of a formal siege, opted for a land and sea blockade that lasted from April 9 to September 27, when the city capitulated. [ 25 ]
The division of the kingdom into fifty-two provinces establishes the capital of Guipúzcoa in San Sebastián; Until then this had been rotated between San Sebastián, Tolosa , Azpeitia and Azcoitia , depending on where the meetings of Juntas were held and where the corregidor (representative of the king in the province) resided. After a new transfer to Tolosa (1844), in 1854 San Sebastián was declared the capital of the province. The withdrawal of customs to the Ebro and the closure of San Sebastián as a port enabled for trade with America is decided .
In the province two camps were formed, Carlists and Liberals , the latter partisans of the Constitution . Both defended the fueros , but in different ways. San Sebastián opted for liberalism compared to most of rural Guipúzcoa .
In 1863 , and after an intense debate, the walls were demolished, which limited the development of the city. On May 4 , to the chords of a march expressly held for such an event, the first stone was removed, which, in pieces, was distributed among the guests in the front row.
San Sebastián changed its orientation: after finishing its period as a fortress, it became the capital of the province, beginning its expansion reflected in Antonio Cortázar's plan for the new city.
The Belle Époque donostiarra
On the death of King Alfonso XII of Spain , in 1885 , his widow, Queen Regent María Cristina , moved the court to San Sebastián every summer, residing in the Miramar Palace . The San Sebastián City Council, in recognition of the great work in favor of the city, named her honorary mayor. Later, already in full development of the Ensanche Cortázar, which gave the city its current architectural appeal, the construction of the Casino in 1887 increased the number of vacationers.
From this stage are all the notable buildings of the city (apart from those present in the Old Town, the oldest), such as the Cathedral of the Good Shepherd of San Sebastián , the School of Arts and Crafts (current headquarters of the Post Office ) and the Peñaflorida Institute (later occupied by the School of Industrial Engineers and nowadays by the Koldo Mitxelena Cultural Center), the Miramar Palace , the Victoria Eugenia Theater , the María Cristina Hotel, the villas of the Paseo de Francia or the North Station, as well as the rest of the buildings in the Romantic Area , all of them with a marked French style that earned San Sebastián the nickname of Little Paris or Paris of the South.
In 1914 , and with the start of World War I , San Sebastián became the most cosmopolitan city in Europe . In his Casino all the characters of European life gathered, Mata Hari , Leon Trotsky , Maurice Ravel , Romanones , Pastora Imperio , the famous bullfighter, the ostentatious banker ...; It was the time of Donostia's Belle Époque , and the French operetta company, Russian ballets, opera singers and many other famous artists performed in San Sebastián.
In 1930 , the city hosted the meeting of republican politicians called the Pact of San Sebastián , which had great significance in the subsequent advent of the Second Republic on April 14 , 1931 ; in fact, the first republican government was formed, to a large extent, by the nucleus of politicians participating in the "pact." The choice of the capital of San Sebastian was due, on the one hand, to the city's proximity to the French Republic and to the fact that San Sebastián was the summer capital of the Court. Fernando Sasiaín , host of the Pact, was the mayor of San Sebastián during the Republic.
At the beginning of the Civil War , the Basque nationalist Telesforo Monzón took over the Public Order Commission, created by the Guipúzcoa Defense Board , in which Basque nationalists , republicans , communists and socialists met . Constituted the Government of Euskadi , the 7 of October of 1936 , Telesforo Monzon also occupied the Ministry of the Interior. [ 26 ]
Shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War , San Sebastián fell into the hands of the coup plotters on September 13 , 1936 . The dictatorship kept San Sebastián in the role of Summer Capital City. Franco resided during the months of August from 1940 to 1975 in the Ayete palace , which, bought by the city council, was offered to the general. During that period, the Councils of Ministers were held in that place .
In 1953 , at the initiative of a group of merchants from the city, the San Sebastián International Film Festival was born , with the double objective of extending the summer in the capital of San Sebastian and returning to San Sebastián the cultural activity and glamor lost since the civil War. The success of the first edition led the dictatorship to take over the event, which progressively gained weight and prestige until it became one of the most important cultural events with the greatest foreign projection in Spain, and one of the best film festivals of the world, scene of some historical cinematographic premieres and meeting point of many of the most important stars of the seventh art.
In 1955 , the second and most important process of widening the city began, in what was called Ensanche de Amara , giving rise to a neighborhood of the same name (which alluded to the marshes that existed on said land before its construction). One of the first steps in the construction of the expansion was the transfer of the School of Arts and Crafts and Commerce, located in the center, to some newly built schools, as well as the Peñaflorida Institute, which was renamed the Usandizaga Institute in its section female. It can be considered that the consolidation process of the Amara neighborhood ended in 1993 , with the construction of the Anoeta Stadium and the total renovation of the city's sports complex (located in Amara).
After both extensions, the city consolidated its main axis, around which it continues to expand, although at a much slower rate. Today the priorities of the city are the improvement of the infrastructures (strengthening the airport, better rail communications, improvement of the roads), the regeneration of the suburbs, the maintenance and promotion of tourism, the main source of income, and even A few years ago the fight against ETA terrorism and street violence, which punished the city with intensity. Urban growth aims to be combined with caring for the environment, the fight at the municipal level against climate change and sustainability. As a result of the efforts made in this direction, San Sebastián was awarded in 2008by the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces as the most sustainable city in Spain. [ 28 ]
On the death of the dictator Francisco Franco , a manager chaired by the socialist Ramón Jáuregui was established in 1978 , in charge of directing the municipal institutions until the first municipal elections of democracy, in 1979 . In these elections the PNV was the winner and the first mayor of the new democratic stage was Jesús María Alkain . He was succeeded, in 1983 , Ramon Labayen , also of the PNV, who in turn was replaced by the nationalist Xabier Albistur of Eusko Alkartasuna in 1987 . Under the strongindustrial reconversion that the Basque Country experienced in the 1980s and the climate of internal tension, some reports of the time placed San Sebastián as the city with the highest proportion of drug addicts in the world. [ 29 ] The socialist Odón Elorza , from the Basque Socialist Party , reached the mayor's office in 1991 despite being the candidate of the third most voted force, thanks to the support of the PNV and the PP . The 23 of January of 1995 , on the eve of the municipal elections in May, the terrorist group ETA killed the deputy mayor, Gregorio Ordonez, candidate of the Popular Party . Ordóñez had progressively improved his electoral results in the Basque Country, to the point that the polls gave him the winner. After his assassination, the candidate of the Socialist Party , Elorza, revalidated his position, although the Ordóñez PP list was the most voted, and he held the mayor's office of the city uninterruptedly since then until his defeat in the municipal elections of May 22, 2011.
In 1991 Odón Elorza ( PSE-EE ) became mayor, with the support of the Basque PP and EAJ-PNV. With various pacts (with EAJ-PNV and EA in 1995; with PP in 1999) he remained at the head of the consistory until the local elections of 2011. In 2007, he formed a government with the municipal group of Ezker Batua-Berdeak / Aralar .
In 2011 Bildu's candidate , Juan Carlos Izagirre , was elected mayor with the votes of the 8 councilors of his coalition; the PSE and the PP voted for the socialist candidate, Ernesto Gasco (in total 13 votes) and the PNV voted for its candidate Eneko Goia (6 votes). As there was no absolute majority candidate (14), the candidate from the list most voted by the citizens was elected mayor. By neighborhood, the PSE-EE was the most voted force in Bidebieta , Alza and Loyola ; the PP in Ayete , Centro and Amara , and EAJ-PNV in Ibaetaand Old. The Bildu coalition was the most voted force in the Old Town , Añorga , Igueldo , Inchaurrondo , Eguía , Gros , Ulía and Martutene .
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ-PNV)||35,46%||10||30,13%||9||17,93%||6|
|Euskal Herria Bildu (EH Bildu) / Bildu||21,20%||6||21,24%||6||24,29%||8|
|Socialist Party of the Basque Country-Basque Left (PSE-EE)||17,54%||5||24,92%||7||22,63%||7|
|Popular Party of the Basque Country (PP)||10,76%||3||9,62%||3||18,99%||6|
|Podemos - A-III - HORSE||9,87%||3||7,21%||2||-||-|
|United Left-Greens (EU-B)||-||-||-||-||2,63%||0|
The population of San Sebastián grew progressively throughout the 20th century . Between 1900 and 1930 the growth was regular, doubling in the barely 35 years that separate 1930 from 1965 . This surge in population growth was dampened by lower growth from the decade of the 70s , reaching the population decreased for the first time in the century the late 80s , as a result of the general fall in the birth rate in all the country. [ 32 ]
|Graph of demographic evolution of San Sebastián between 1900 and 2018|
The current population growth is slow, although the phenomenon of immigration , still incipient in the city (immigrants, in 2006, reached 5% of those registered, according to the Promotion Society of the San Sebastián City Council), can Influence a rebound in population growth. According to the latest data, 1 of January of 2009 , the total population of 185,357 inhabitants, of which 97 192 are women (53%) and 86,116 men (47%). [ 33 ]
Municipalities of the metropolitan area
| || || |
in hab / km²
of San Sebastián
|Saint Sebastian||San Sebastián region||186 370||60,89||3060,77||---|
|Irún||Lower Bidasoa||61 855||42,40||1458,54||17 km|
|Rentería||San Sebastián region||39 439||32,26||1222,54||6,9 km|
|Zarauz||Urola Costa||23 118||14,80||1562,03||15 km|
|Hernani||San Sebastián region||20 003||39,81||502,46||6 km|
|Lasarte-Oria||San Sebastián region||18 166||6,01||3022,63||6,7 km|
|Fuenterrabía||Lower Bidasoa||17 049||28,63||595,49||19 km|
|Tickets||San Sebastián region||16 096||11,34||1419,40||4,6 km|
|Andoáin||San Sebastián region||14 659||27,17||539,53||11,6 km|
|Hendaya||Bayonne district ( France )||*16 328||7,95||2053,84||19 km|
|Oyarzun||San Sebastián region||10 199||59,71||170,81||10,6 km|
|Urnieta||San Sebastián region||6242||22,40||278,66||8,1 km|
|Injury||San Sebastián region||6025||8,59||701,40||7 km|
|Usúrbil||San Sebastián region||5919||25,64||230,85||7,6 km|
|Orio||Urola Costa||5026||9,81||512,33||11 km|
|Astigarraga||San Sebastián region||4678||11,91||392,78||5,3 km|
|* The population data corresponds to that of 2015.|
- Alza (in Basque : «Altza»). It is the easternmost neighborhood of the city, bordering the neighboring municipality of Pasajes , and one of the most densely populated. Alza was for a few years an independent municipality, rejoining San Sebastián in 1940 . Mainly rural in nature, it experienced great growth between the 60s and 80s, being the main area of urban expansion in the city with high-rise buildings destined for the immigrant working classes, mainly from other regions of Spain. The current neighborhood of Alza includes only part of the old municipal term of Alza, that is, the part between the AP-8 motorwayand the port of Pasajes, separated from the rest of the city by the connection of the AP-8 with the east of the city. In the coming years, urban planning augurs an important urban development. Population in 2008: 21,500 residents. Within the neighborhood there are also numerous areas or neighborhoods: Alza-Gaina, Arria, Auditz-Akular, Buenavista, Eskalantegi, Herrera, Larratxo, Molinao and Oleta.
- Amara Nuevo (in Basque: «Amara Berri»). The main residential neighborhood of the city, it was built through an expansion towards the 60s . To the south of this neighborhood is the sports city of Anoeta, which includes the Municipal Stadium of Anoeta ( Real Sociedad de Fútbol ). Its catering establishments are also noteworthy. Population in 2007: 26,309 residents.
- Añorga . Neighborhood located on the outskirts of San Sebastián, halfway to the municipality of Lasarte-Oria . It is separated from the urban nucleus and communications with it are problematic due to the N-1 highway. Population in 2007: 2261 neighbors.
- Ategorrieta-Ulia . Residential neighborhood made up of stately villas, occupied in their emergence by the wealthy population of the city.
- Ayete (in Basque : «Aiete»). Eminently residential neighborhood located on a small hill in the center of the city. In this neighborhood are the Ayete Palace (in Ayete Park) and the Arbaizenea Palace . Population in 2007: 12,931 residents.
- Centro (in Basque: «Erdialdea»). It was born in the middle of the 19th century (after the demolition of the walls in 1864 ) and is the result of the merger of two projects signed by the architects Cortázar and Saracibar. From the first, the general plan was taken and from the second, the Boulevard connecting the Old Town and the new Ensanche. Numerous variations were made on this first project (such as the Plaza del Buen Pastor, to shelter the new church of the same denomination; Prim Street, Easo Street, etc. In this area the city center and the « Km0 »of the Gipuzkoan highways (at the intersection of Avenida de la Libertad, one of the most important streets of the city and its economic center, with Calle Hernani). Its orthogonal or grid plan is typical of modernism , which organizes buildings in squares and perpendicular streets. In fact, the center of San Sebastián is considered to be comparable, in architectural terms, with that of Barcelona , Bilbao or Paris . Population in 2007: 23,456 residents.
- Eguía . (in Basque: «Egia»). Separated from the city center by the railroad tracks, it is home to the Cristina Enea parkand the Polloe cemetery. The old Atocha soccer field was located in that neighborhood. Population in 2007: 15,258 residents.
- El Antiguo (in Basque : «Antigua»). Neighborhood that derives from the first settlement next to the old monastery of San Sebastián (in the place where the Miramar Palace is currently located). Initially populated by workers, today it serves as a residential neighborhood, as well as a tourist accommodation in its area closest to La Concha Bay . Population in 2007: 15,271 residents.
- Gros . Neighborhood with a lot of commercial activity located on the east bank of the Urumea River . The expansion of Zurriola beach and the creation of the Kursaal Congress Center and Auditorium have revitalized it economically and socially. Population in 2007: 20,001 residents.
- Ibaeta . Expanding area, both for industrial and housing uses. The university campus of the University of the Basque Country and the technological campus ( Tecnun ) of the University of Navarra are located in this neighborhood. Population in 2007: 8961 neighbors.
- Inchaurrondo (in Basque: «Intxaurrondo»). Divided into its old and new parts (south and north), it concentrates a large part of the San Sebastian population. It is an eminently residential neighborhood located on a small hill, formerly belonging to the municipality of Alza . Population in 2007: 16,424 residents.
- Loyola (in Basque: «Loiola»). In this neighborhood is the Military Government. The banks of the Urumea river near Loyola are in the process of building an extension of their residential nucleus. Population in 2007: 4676 neighbors.
- Martutene . Neighborhood in which the jail of the same name is located. It is being, together with Loyola, object of reforms and improvements. Population in 2007: 2853 residents.
- Miracruz-Bidebieta . It is one of the newest neighborhoods in the city. Bordering Pasajes , it is the subject of various structural reforms aimed at improving its quality of life and services. Population in 2007: 9239 residents.
- Miramón-Zorroaga (in Basque: "Miramon-Zorroaga"). Bordering the municipality of Hernani , in this neighborhood are the San Sebastián Technological Park and the Donostia Hospital. Population in 2007: 1664 residents.
- Zubieta . Shared neighborhood with Usúrbil . This neighborhood is divided between the municipalities of San Sebastián and Usúrbil . In it are the sports facilities of the Real Sociedad de Fútbol , as well as the Hipódromo de San Sebastián .
Other neighborhoods traditionally identified by the people of Donostia are officially considered by the city council as part of the City Center .
- Amara Viejo (in Basque: «Amara Zaharra»). Neighborhood emerged at the end of the 19th century with the development of the railway . The residents of this neighborhood have one of the highest middle ages in the city.
- Miraconcha . (in Basque: «Mirakontxa»). The privileged setting in which it is located (facing La Concha Bay ) has conditioned its configuration, since the end of the 19th century , as a luxury residential area. It is occupied, for the most part, by palaces surrounded by green spaces. Its creation responds to the demand for high-quality secondary residence of the population that was summering in San Sebastián at that time and of its noble classes. In that area is the Municipal Palace of Miramar , a former royal palace.
- Old Town (in Basque: «Parte Zaharra»). Neighborhood that corresponds to the old walled city, and next to which is the fishing port. According to an ancient tradition, its inhabitants are divided into joxemaritarras (those baptized in the church of Santa María) and koxkeros (those baptized in the church of San Vicente). From that neighborhood you have access to Mount Urgull .
- Riberas de Loyola (in Basque: «Loiolako Erriberak»). Between the neighborhoods of Loyola and Amara , it is a recently built neighborhood. Officially it is part of the Amara Nuevo district.
San Sebastián has three enclaves :
- Landarbaso . Rural land located between Astigarraga and Renteria . Populated by a few hamlets that have 19 neighbors.
- Urdaburu . Located next to the Navarran border. It is uninhabited.
- Zubieta . Shared neighborhood with Usúrbil . This neighborhood is divided between the municipalities of San Sebastián and Usúrbil . In it are the sports facilities of the Real Sociedad de Fútbol , a garbage incinerator inaugurated in 2020, as well as the San Sebastián Racecourse .
In addition to these exclaves, the San Sebastián City Council owns the Articuza estate, located in Navarre territory, within the municipality of Goizueta . In it there is a reservoir (it is the rainiest point of the Iberian Peninsula ) and it has great ecological value. [ 35 ] Its surface area is 37 km² (equivalent to more than half of the municipality of San Sebastián).
Despite certain forays into the world of banking in the second half of the 19th century, with the creation of the Banco de San Sebastián (which would later become the Banco Hispano-Americano ) or the Banco Guipuzcoano , the city will not stand out for its banking activity, but will do so in the tourism sector. The choice of the city as a place of rest and summer holidays by the Spanish Royal FamilyIt was the catalyst for the development of tourist activity and its consequent French-style architectural configuration from the demolition of the walls that limited the expansion of the city. Some organizations were created at the beginning of the 20th century to attract tourism, among which the San Sebastián Development Society stands out, created by private initiative for the construction of a luxury hotel (the Hotel María Cristina ) and a theater ( the Victoria Eugenia Theater ). Even today tourism continues to be the main economic activity in San Sebastián, which follows the same strategy of attracting tourists through claims such as summer festivals. [ 36 ]
The commerce sector is also important, a constant throughout the history of the city. [ 36 ] Commercial activity is intense in the Center, especially on Avenida de la Libertad, with a large concentration of banks and important businesses. Family businesses in the center are being progressively relegated by large multinationals, some of which have several stores in the city. The proximity to France attracts many visitors, who fill local shops and supermarkets. As regards the latter, there are four in the city, one in the Amara neighborhood, two in the center and a fourth, the largest, located between the Alza and Inchaurrondo neighborhoods.. In any case, the phenomenon of large stores was late, since the first of them was not opened until 1996 .
Industry, for its part, has little presence in the city and is concentrated in other parts of the province of Guipúzcoa .
During 2010 and 2011, and due to the construction of new road infrastructures such as the GI-40 , GI-41 and the Second Belt of San Sebastián , the Provincial Council of Guipúzcoa was forced to rename the accesses and bypasses of the area metropolitan city. The road accesses to the city are the following:
It connects the western part of the city, specifically the neighborhoods of Errotaburu and El Antiguo with the AP-1 AP-8 . |
In its section between the Ariceta junction and Lasarte-Oria it connects with the NI and the N-634 .
It connects the western part of the city, specifically the neighborhoods of Recalde , Añorga , Ayete , Errotaburu and El Antiguo |
with the AP-1 , AP-8 , GI-20 , NI and N-634 .
It connects the downtown area, specifically the neighborhoods of Martutene (which also serves as a ring road) and Amara |
with the AP-1 , AP-8 , A-15 , GI-131 and NI . It consists of a sub-branch that receives the name GI-41-O that serves as a link with the town of Astigarraga .
|GI-2132||Minor road||It connects the town of Hernani with the San Sebastian neighborhood of Recalde where it connects with the GI-21 . It consists of an urban branch called Paseo del Doctor Begiristain that reaches the Hospital area, the Aiete neighborhood and the Miramón Technology Park .|
|GI-2137||Minor road||It connects the town of Astigarraga with the San Sebastian neighborhood of Martutene . Links to the GI-40|
The city consists of the following ring roads:
|GI-20||Variant of |
It extends throughout the city. It starts at the pk. 12 of the AP-1 AP-8 at the height of Rentería and ends on the same highway at the height of pk. 27 near Ariceta . |
It connects with the GI-11 , GI-31 , GI-40 , GI-131 , GI-636 , AP-1 , AP-8 , NI and N-634 highways .
|GI-40||Connection between |
GI-20 and GI-41
It connects the neighborhoods of Amara , Hospitals and the Miramon Technology Park with those of Martutene , Inchaurrondo and Alza and the town of Pasajes . |
It starts at the Amara junction on the GI-20 and ends at the San Sebastián Este and Inchaurrondo junction , also on the GI-20
| AP-1 AP-8 ||Second Belt |
of San Sebastián
It runs through the lands of Renteria , Oyarzun , Astigarraga , Hernani , San Sebastián, Lasarte-Oria and Usúrbil . |
It has connections to NI , A-15 , GI-20 , GI-41, and GI-131 .
The bike lane , also called bidegorri ("red road" in Basque , because that is the color of the lane), is a means of transport that is growing a lot in the municipality. The network of bike lanes in San Sebastián exceeds 56 kilometers [ 37 ] and it is planned to expand this network to a sufficient length to be able to cycle through the entire city. The project has not been unanimously received: along with those who congratulate themselves on it, there are those who criticize it because it makes parking difficult in the city and creates conflicts with pedestrians in some places. The network of bike lanes reaches the neighboring municipalities ( Lasarte ,Pasaia and Astigarraga ), linking with their own cycling networks.
The urban bus is the main means of municipal public transport in San Sebastián. This service has been in charge, since 1886, by the San Sebastián Tram Company , which operates under the trade name d · bus . In San Sebastián, urban bus use per inhabitant is the highest in Spain, with an index of 153 trips per inhabitant per year in 2015. [ 38 ] The service offers more than 30 lines that cover the entire city and a taxi bus service for the upper neighborhoods or those that cannot be reached by conventional buses. It also has 9 night lines for Fridays and Saturdays at dawn, and booster lines for football and basketball game days.
To get to San Sebastián from other towns in the province, there are numerous intercity bus lines integrated into Lurraldebus , the company dependent on the Department of Mobility and Territorial Planning of the Provincial Council of Guipúzcoa , among which are Autobuses Garayar, Autobuses Interurbanos Interbus, Autobuses La Guipuzcoana, EuskoTren , Herribus, Hijos de Antonio Areizaga, Transportes PESA and TSST. The lines link the capital with the rest of the province and with other cities in the Basque Country such as Bilbao , Lequeitio or Vitoria .
Iberian and international width
The state company Renfe has the North Station as its main station, and also has stations in Martutene , Loiola , Gros , Ategorrieta , Intxaurrondo and Herrera . Two daily Alvia departures from the North Station to Madrid (via Valladolid), as well as various daily Intercity services and other night services, to Madrid (via Pamplona), Barcelona or A Coruña. The Renfe Cercanías trains also stop here , connecting different parts of the city with different towns in Guipúzcoa. The future high-speed train is expected to arrive at this station, 2023. [ 40 ]
However, in 2019 the station will be renovated to accommodate high-speed trains from Paris ; that will be able to reach the municipality once the mixed gauge track is completed , which will also allow regional trains to Bayonne or Bordeaux .
In addition, from 2020 the railway sector will be liberalized for long-distance routes, so there will be more companies operating in the city.
Metric width (Metro Donostialdea)
The metric gauge network is operated by EuskoTren , which centralizes its services at the Amara Station , located in Plaza Easo, and which also has the Errekalde , Añorga , Lugaritz , Anoeta , Loiola , Intxaurrondo , Herrera and Altza stations that They are part of the line of the Metro Donostialdea metropolitan transport service , popularly also called 'topo' due to the fact that a large part of its route is underground. Metro Donostialdea represents the modernization and expansion of the EuskoTren line E2. Trains depart from Amara station in the direction of Lasarte-Oria , Irún and France . The last metro station is Hendaia , so it is usual to take this service to link with the TGV towards Paris .
EuskoTren , the Basque Government and the local corporation have also announced that, before 2019, they will proceed to the construction of an intermodal station between the Cercanías de San Sebastián operated by RENFE and the metro; as well as to extend the line to the city center by 2022, with the creation of the new Centro-La Concha and Benta Berri stations , as well as the renovation and replacement of the current Amara central station .
In total, three lines offer their services in San Sebastián:
Likewise, a modern funicular has been built to go up to the Aiete neighborhood, which connects the Morlans promenade with the Melodi roundabout. [ 41 ] The project has also included an elevator to connect Paseo Pío Baroja and Paseo de Aiete.
The municipality has numerous elevators and escalators and mechanical ramps in the city, to facilitate the movement of residents of the upper neighborhoods, which represent 50% of the population. [ 42 ] It is the 4th city in Spain with the most vertical mobility infrastructure (behind Barcelona , Bilbao and Éibar ). [ 43 ] The city council's vertical mobility plan also has future actions located and ordered by priority to build up to 43 new lifts around the city. [ 44 ]
- Aizkorri-Seminario : Composed of 2 elevators that connect Zarautz and Aizkorri streets.
- Bentaberri : Composed of 2 elevators that connect the Benta Berri square and Aizkorri street.
- Heriz-Seminario (Projected for 2018/19) : It will be made up of 4 elevators that will connect Calle Escolta Real, Camino de Gantxegi and Paseo de Heriz.
- Funicular de Aiete : Connects the Paseo de Morlans with the Paseo de Pío Baroja (Plaza de Lazcano)
- Aiete : It connects the Paseo de Pío Baroja with the Paseo de Aiete.
- Hiru Damatxo : Connects Hiru Damatxo square with Lanberri street.
- Miramón : It connects two areas of Mikeletegi street, next to the Arbide towers.
- Paseo Nuevo : It connects the city's port with the Paseo Nuevo in the Aquarium area.
- Mundaiz-Cristina Enea : It connects the Federico García Lorca promenade, at the height of the Mundaiz bridge, with the Cristina Enea park .
- Deusto-Aldunaenea : It connects the Paseo del Urumea with the University of Deusto.
- Sagüés : Connects the Sagüés area with San Blas street.
- Egia : It connects Luis Martín Santos Square with Baztán Avenue and Kapitaiñene Street.
- Azkuene : Connects the streets of Azkuene with that of Juan Carlos Guerra.
- Herrera Norte : It connects the San Luis Gonzaga square with the Alcalde José Elosegi avenue, next to the Herrera station of the Donostialdea Metro .
- Herrera Sur : It connects the Paseo de Txingurri with the Paseo de Herrera, next to the adif de Herrera station .
- Bertsolari Txirrita-Larratxo : Composed of 2 elevators that connect the Paseo Larratxo with the street Bertsolari Txirrita.
- Leosiñeta-Larraundi (Under construction for 2018) : It will connect Leosiñeta and Larraundi streets. It will serve as a continuation of the Larratxo escalators.
- Buenavista : Composed of 2 elevators that connect Bajo-Berra street with Paseo Berra.
Escalators and escalators
- San Roque : Composed of two ramps and two flights of stairs, only going up. They connect the streets of Amara, Alto de Amara, San Roque and Beloka. They are the oldest in the city.
- Intxaurrondo : Composed of 4 ramps, only uphill. The Zubiaurre walks connect with Zarategi and Calle de los Luisianos, along Calle Lizardi.
- Larratxo : Composed of 3 flights of stairs, only going up. It connects the Txirrita Bertsolari promenade with the Larratxo promenade and Leosiñeta street. It will be continued by the "Leosiñeta-Larraundi" elevator.
The San Sebastian Airport , located in the border town of Hondarribia , has daily flights to Madrid and Barcelona , as well as other occasional destinations. According to AENA, the number of passengers in 2011 was 248 054, there were 9562 operations and 31 966 kg of cargo were transported. [ 45 ] The absence of low-cost lines, as well as its small size and the existence of two nearby airports, limit the possibilities of using the airport. The Guipúzcoa Provincial Council and the San Sebastián City Council are in negotiations with the central government for the extension of the runway. [ 46] IberiaandVuelingcurrently operate.
Art and culture
Festivals are one of the main characteristics of the city. Film and music competitions are numerous in the city, and some of them have great international prestige.
- San Sebastián Musical Fortnight
- Created in 1939 , it is a festival dedicated to classical music. It is the oldest in Spain. Currently it does not last a fortnight, but about a month and a half during the summer period. There are daily concerts both at the Kursaal and at the Victoria Eugenia Theater as well as at other venues, such as Chillida-Leku .
- San Sebastian International Film Festival
- In mid-September each year, the city welcomes the most prominent figures of cinema in one of the most important Film Festivals in the world, created in 1953 and with the highest category (A) of the international circuit of film festivals accredited by the FIAPF . The stars stay at the most important hotel in the city, the Hotel María Cristina , and the ceremonies are held in the Kursaal , separated from the hotel by the Urumea river . Before the inauguration of the new Palacio de Congresos designed by Rafael Moneo , the opening and closing galas took place at the historic Victoria Eugenia Theater. The main film stars of the last 55 years have paraded through the Festival. These include Alfred Hitchcock , Audrey Hepburn , Elizabeth Taylor , Steven Spielberg , Luis Buñuel , Bette Davis , Gregory Peck , Al Pacino , Michael Douglas , Francis Ford Coppola , Anthony Hopkins , Robert De Niro , Bernardo Bertolucci or Woody Allen , whose film Melinda & Melinda ( 2004) had its world premiere at the Festival. Many of those mentioned received the Donostia Award , the annual award of the festival in recognition of their film career.
- San Sebastián International Fireworks Competition
- Created in 1964 , the San Sebastián Fireworks Competition is the oldest in the West and one of the most important in the world. [ 47 ] It is celebrated during the Semana Grande, in mid-August. Every night a different pyrotechnic company launches fireworks from the Alderdi Eder gardens over La Concha bay .
- San Sebastian Jazz Festival
- Also known as Jazzaldia, it was created in 1966 and is currently one of the main ones in Europe. It is the oldest jazz festival in Spain. It is held annually in the month of July , and its usual settings are the Kursaal terraces , Zurriola beach , Trinidad Square in the Old Town, the Kursaal and the Victoria Eugenia Theater .
- It is a theater fair that has been held since 1988 , despite not having been organized for several years. In addition to the plays represented in the theaters of the city, certain theater groups perform in the street, in an attempt to bring the theater closer to the general public. In 2008 it adopted its current name and took a relevant turn towards internationalization.
- Horror and Fantasy Film Week
- Created in 1990 , it is a film competition organized by the San Sebastian city council focused on fantasy and horror films. In it, the Digital + Short Project Award is awarded, among others .
- San Sebastián Film and Human Rights Festival
- Begun in 2003 , films screened at other festivals that are closely related to human rights and all kinds of social issues are premiered or screened there. Organized by the City Council in collaboration with the Secretary of State for Cooperation and various NGOs , it is in full expansion stage. Since 2010 Amnesty International has awarded a special award to one of the feature films presented.
- Street Cinema
- Started in 2003 , an independent audiovisual festival, started with the help of the Arteleku cultural center, which analyzes the massive videographic production of skateboarding and other cultural manifestations in the urban context.
- Surfilm Festibal
- Started in 2003 , it is a young and modern sample of films and shorts shot around surfing , which reinforces the city's attractiveness for organizing and practicing events related to this sport.
San Sebastian 2016
San Sebastián is European Capital of Culture in 2016. [ 48 ] This title was officially awarded on June 28, 2011 , after the evaluation of the final project by the Spanish and European jury in charge of the deliberation. This was the successful culmination of a three-year process that began in 2008 when all political groups in the city supported the initiative of the then socialist mayor Odón Elorza to officially present the city's candidacy. In September 2010 the city passed the first selection phase, [ 49 ]And finally reached the title in June 2011. The San Sebastian capital will explore the role of culture for the regeneration of coexistence and the resolution of social problems derived from terrorism and the political and cultural division of San Sebastian society and, in general, of the Basque society.
- The Euskadi Symphony Orchestra has its headquarters near the health city and the Technology Park.
- The Orfeón Donostiarra is one of the most important choral formations in the world. Its headquarters are located in the Old Town.
- The Easo Choir is the most prestigious male choir in the Basque Country . Its headquarters are in the Ayete neighborhood.
- The Golden Apple Quartet is the best known humorous acapella vocal quartet in the Basque Country and Spain. Founded in 1986 by Loyola Garmendia and Eduardo Errondosoro.
What has come to be called Donosti Sound includes the successful indie-pop / pop-rock groups that emerged in the city during the 80s and 90s . Le Mans , La Buena Vida or Family , often joined by Duncan Dhu ( Mikel Erentxun and Diego Vasallo ), 21 Japonesas , Álex Ubago or La Oreja de Van Gogh , are some of the groups that emerged in San Sebastián around to this musical style, unmistakably marked by the gray weather and the gentrified physiognomy of the city.
- Auditoriums and theaters
- Kursaal Conference Center and Auditorium : an architectural complex that incorporates conference, show and concert halls designed by Rafael Moneo .
- Victoria Eugenia Theater : historic theater inaugurated in 1912 . Some of the most important interpreters of classical music or theater have performed in it. It was the main venue for the Film Festival until 1999 , the year the Kursaal was inauguratedand the theater closed for restoration. It was reopened in March 2007 .
- Principal Theater : it is the oldest of the San Sebastian theaters. Inaugurated in 1843 , it adopted its current appearance at the end of the 19th century . In addition to the usual plays and some of those presented at the Theater Fair, it hosts most of the screenings of the Fantasy and Horror Film Week, the Film and Human Rights Festival and some films of the Film Festival .
- Aquarium : the San Sebastián Aquarium is located on the pier next to Paseo Nuevo. It has a relevant historical collection, as well as a modern extension with a passageway that runs through a large fish tank.
- San Telmo Museum : municipally owned and located in a former 16th century convent. It was reopened in 2011 after long expansion and reform works. It houses pieces of Fine Arts both ancient and from the 20th century, as well as archaeological, ethnographic and design objects.
- Tabakalera : former tobacco factory and current headquarters of the International Center for Contemporary Culture.
- Chillida-Leku Museum : located in the neighboring town of Hernani , it houses the largest collection of works by the sculptor Eduardo Chillida from San Sebastian. It is one of the most important tourist attractions in the city, although it is currently closed due to economic problems, which has caused great controversy.
- Rezola Cement Museum : located in the Añorga neighborhood, in front of the Rezola Cement Factory. Building designed by the architect Luis Peña Ganchegi, its main theme is the importance of cement in Western civilization.
- Eureka Science Museum! : located in the San Sebastián Technology Park (Miramón). A dedicated space for all audiences: it has a permanent exhibition with 160 interactive modules, a next-generation digital Planetarium and a room with roller coaster simulators, F1, flight simulators, etc.
- Culture Houses : municipally owned, these are cultural centers equipped with a library, conference rooms and other equipment distributed throughout the different neighborhoods of the city. The School of Music and Dance is also municipal, which offers non-regulated education.
- Central Library : located in the Town Hall, it is the most extensive library of municipal management.
- Koldo Mitxelena Cultural Center : provincially owned, it is the most important cultural facility in San Sebastián. It has a library, video library, sound library, newspaper library, exhibition rooms, study rooms and reading rooms.
San Sebastián is said to be the city in the world with the highest number of Michelin stars per square meter. In fact, it is the only city in the world, along with Paris , that has three restaurants with three stars, the highest rating. [ 50 ] Thus, gastronomy is one of the main tourist attractions of the city. As representatives of the New Basque Cuisine, prestigious chefs such as Juan Mari Arzak , Pedro Subijana or Martín Berasategui , all three with the respective three Michelin stars already mentioned, have their restaurants in San Sebastián. They are also popular bars pintxos de la Parte Vieja, miniature culinary works of art, of which San Sebastián is a great reference in Spain.
The main festival in the city is the Tamborrada , which is celebrated on January 20 , the day of San Sebastián. The night of the 19 to the 20 January the Plaza of the Constitution of the Old Town is filled with donostiarras around the stage in which lies tamborradaof the Gaztelubide Society, to carry out the raising of the flag and start of the festivities. Throughout the morning of the 20th the Children's Tamborrada parades, with more than fifty children's companies from schools in San Sebastián and throughout the 24 hours that the festival lasts, a hundred adult drummers circulate. On the 20th at midnight, the Unión Artesana raises the flag in the Plaza de la Constitución as the end of the party. It is a festival with historical roots that emerged at the end of the 19th century . The music that is performed, which includes the city's hymn (March of San Sebastián, whose lyrics were the work of Serafín Baroja , father of Pío Baroja , also from San Sebastian ), was written by Raimundo Sarriegui, originally for piano, being later adapted for band).
Between the aforementioned festival of San Sebastián and the carnivals there are different cultural and popular festivals, among which the Boilermakers , which is celebrated on the Saturday closest to the Virgen de la Candelaria , which tries to remember the passage of nomadic tribes, should be highlighted. by San Sebastián. Another of these festivities is celebrated one day after Caldereros, under the name of Iñudes eta Artzaiak, a completely carnival party, where they dress up as mayor, bishop, baker, mikelete, caregivers, shepherds ...
In August, during the week of the 15th ( the Assumption ), the Great Week of Donostia is celebrated, the great summer festival of the city. Among the various activities that are organized, the International Fireworks Competition and the parades of the group of Gigantes y Cabezudos stand out .
At the end of August and beginning of September, the Euskal Jaiak (Basque Festivities) are celebrated, which have been celebrated in different ways and not without interruptions since the 1920s. They are a sum of cultural, sporting and festive events related to Basque culture. that are scheduled throughout the last month of summer. Their highlight is the celebration of the La Concha Flag, the main drifting competition held in the Cantabrian Sea. This exceeds the strictly sports field, since the city is filled with tens of thousands of followers of the participating teams in a party atmosphere. The qualifying rounds are held on a Thursday and the Flag proper the following two Sundays in two rounds. The Euskal Jaiak program includes the celebration of August 31, which commemorates the fire that devastated the city in 1813 , during the War of Independence., which left only one street standing, the oldest in the city: Calle 31 de Agosto, in the Old Town. This anniversary is commemorated with a moving torchlight parade that takes place along the street. Another strong point is the "Sagardo Eguna" (Cider Day) that is usually celebrated on the Saturday before the second Sunday of regattas and that joins a large number of parallel festive activities to the fair itself.
The December 21 is the day of St. Thomas . During this day you can see all over the city stalls of artisan products among which, as the typical food of the day, the talo , the chistorra (or txistorra, in Basque) and the cider stand out . The positions in question are usually located in places such as the Plaza de Guipúzcoa or the Plaza de la Constitución in the city, and are usually staffed by organizations or groups of schoolchildren.
The nightlife of the city is centered in several points: the Old Town, the surroundings of the Calle de los Reyes Católicos next to the Buen Pastor cathedral and the discotheques of La Concha bay and Zurriola beach .
In the Old Town, various groups of young people of all ages are concentrated, many of whom go to the discotheques of La Concha after the closing of the bars in that area. The three discotheques located in the bay welcome all types of public, although they are considered public discotheques with high purchasing power. These three discotheques, mainly those located in the building of the Real Club Náutico de San Sebastián and next to the La Perla spa , host the International Film Festival parties. Other nightlife options are the cafe located in the Victoria Eugenia Theater , the nightclub on the shores of Zurriola beach, the Illumbe Leisure Center formed by the bullring and a shopping center with pubs, restaurants and nightclubs or the aforementioned bars in the city center around the Cathedral.
Education and research
According to data from the City Council Development Society, almost 70% of residents of San Sebastian have studies similar to or higher than high school. 26.6% have a university degree or technical studies. [ 53 ]
Apart from the numerous private religious and secular schools and the public schools and institutes, dependent on the Basque Government, the city's musical tradition highlights the Francisco Escudero Conservatory of Music , created in 1879 and which has a remarkable library musical with one of the most important historical backgrounds in the country.
As far as university higher education is concerned, four universities and a higher conservatory are present in the city.
- University of the Basque Country : in San Sebastián is the Guipúzcoa Campus of said public university, in the neighborhoods of Ibaeta and Benta Berri.
- University of Navarra : this private university located in Pamplona teaches engineering at the Tecnun de San Sebastián .
- University of Deusto : built in 1956 , the San Sebastián Campus offers different university degrees.
- Mondragón University : this private university has a pioneering Faculty of Gastronomic Sciences ( Basque Culinary Center ) in San Sebastián .
- Musikene : Higher Music Center of the Basque Country , created in 2002 .
Scientific research is developing considerably mainly in three nuclei. In the San Sebastian campus of the University of the Basque Country , where the Faculty of Chemical Sciences, the Polytechnic University School are based and near which is the Tecnun, the Higher Technical School of Engineering of the University of Navarra , is the Nanogune, nanotechnology research center , and a joint research center of the Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) and the University of the Basque Country. Likewise, the campus is home to the Donostia International Physics Center .
Another research nucleus is the Miramón Technology Park, located near the Ayete neighborhood in a natural environment. Several companies dedicated to scientific and technological research and the Center for Technical Studies and Research of Guipúzcoa (CEIT) have their headquarters there, and it is expected that new companies will be set up in Miramón in the coming years. [ 54 ] In addition to this scientific aspect, the area of Miramón also houses the headquarters of the General Councils of Guipúzcoa and soon the new headquarters and auditorium of the Orfeón Donostiarra . [ 55 ]
The sports city of San Sebastián, located in the Amara neighborhood, is Anoeta, where the Anoeta Stadium (which replaced, in 1993 , the Atocha Soccer Field ), the Anoeta Velodrome , an Olympic swimming pool, a swimming pool leisure facilities, several multi-purpose sports courts, a sports complex, three frontons, a gym, a mini-stadium, the Ice Palace, a hotel, as well as a circuit for skateboarding . It is one of the most complete sports complexes in Spain. Likewise, there are other sports centers distributed throughout the respective neighborhoods (Antiguo, Ibaeta, Gros, Altza, ...). The Hipódromo de San Sebastián, also called Hipódromo de Lasarte, is located in the neighborhood ofZubieta . It is the most important racetrack in Spain together with the Hipódromo de la Zarzuela , in Madrid . It was created in 1916 .
La Real Sociedad or "La Real", founded in 1909 as a direct successor to the San Sebastián Cycling Club , is the San Sebastián soccer team . He was champion of the League on two occasions, has won other trophies such as the Copa del Rey and has been on the verge of winning other national and international championships on several occasions. After a few decades of football in the 1st division, the city club played in the 2nd division from the 2007–-2008 season until they achieved promotion, becoming 2nd division champion in the 2009-2010 season, so from the 2010-2011 season is once again in the 1st division.
The football field of La Real is theAnoeta Stadium , but the training sessions take place in the Zubieta facilities that the club owns in the Zubieta neighborhood .
In the same way, the Lengokoak Kirol Elkartea Sports Society is one of the clubs agreed with the Royal Society that makes the greatest contribution of players to said club, an entity that will celebrate its fiftieth anniversary in 2013 and has been faithfully linked to the club since its foundation. reference of Guipúzcoa. Among the renowned athletes forged in the Lengokoak we can highlight Luis Miguel Arconada and Javier Urruticoechea, both becoming international figures of the goal. David Zurutuza, current Blue and White midfielder, also had his origin in SD Lengokoak KE
In the field of basketball, the main club is the San Sebastián GBC . The 23 of maypole of 2006 , at the Polideportivo Jose Antonio Gasca de Anoeta, Bruesa GBC, professional San Sebastián Gipuzkoa Basket Club team secured their promotion of the LEB-1 league (which became champion) to the league ACB , with which San Sebastian basketball once again placed a local team in the main Spanish league and the second most important in the world. That year, the team moved to the Plaza de Toros de Illumbe , a venue with a capacity of 11,000 spectators, which was reconditioned as a basketball court. After consummating its descent to LEB-1 league in April of 2007He turned back to the top flight in June of 2008 . With the sponsorship of Seguros Lagun Aro, the San Sebastian club has settled in the ACB League, in which it competes in the 2011-2012 season for the fourth consecutive season, having played the Copa del Rey for the first time.
The CD Fortuna KE is a sports club founded in 1911 dedicated to promoting grassroots sport. It has numerous sports sections and organizes the popular Behobia-San Sebastián pedestrian race . In 2003 he was awarded the Citizen Merit Medal .
The Atletico San Sebastián is a sports club founded in 1958 with great tradition and social acceptance in the city. It has men's field hockey and women's athletics teams among the elite of Spanish sport. In the past, its men's basketball and rugby sections were also at the top level.
The Bera Bera RT is a sports club founded in 1986 . Its men's rugby teams stand out: Pegamo Bera Bera who plays in the Spanish Rugby League and the women's handball team, Bera Bera Handball , which is in the Spanish women's handball league and has twice been champion of the Division. of Honor of feminine handball and four times of the Glass of the Queen .
The Club Deportivo Egia Handball , which is based in the Egia neighborhood, is the handball club with the longest tradition in the city. It has men's teams in various categories, from cadet to senior.
The Donostiarra rowing currently has the drifter of the Donostiarra club as its main representation , although in other modalities the historic Ur-Kirolak and Donostia Arraun Lagunak are still fully active .
- San Sebastián Hippodrome Gold Cup : The Gold Cup is the most important prize held at the San Sebastián Racecourse. It is celebrated in the month of August, as all the equestrian activity in Spain is concentrated in the San Sebastian racecourse during the summer season.
- Clásica de San Sebastián : one-stage cycling event that begins and ends in San Sebastián (also called Clásica San Sebastián-San Sebastián ). It belongs to the UCI WorldTour .
- La Concha flag : it is the most prestigious trawler test. It is celebrated in September.
- Behobia-San Sebastián : Organized by the CD Fortuna KE, the Behobia - San Sebastián is a popular pedestrian race that takes place in November. It takes place on a 20 km route that begins at the border with France (Behobia) and ends in San Sebastián. The B / SS summons each edition more than 100,000 spectators who, under any weather condition, make the race an important sporting and cultural event.
San Sebastián is an important tourist destination both in Spain and in Europe. International journalistic references to the tourist benefits of the city are common. In fact, and as an example, San Sebastián was chosen by the English newspaper The Guardian as "one of the five best summer cities" in the world, along with Berlin , Stockholm , New York and Amsterdam . [ 56 ]
One of the main tourist attractions of the city is gastronomy. So are the summer festivals ( Jazz , Musical Fortnight and Cinema ). La Concha bay , bordered by its characteristic railing, is the tourist symbol of San Sebastián. In the center of the bay is the pearl of La Concha , which is the island of Santa Clara .
Next to Ondarreta beach, and following the promenade that borders the bay to the end, you reach the Peine del Viento , a sculptural ensemble made by Eduardo Chillida and turned into another of the symbols of the city. Moving west along the Paseo de La Concha is the unique Miramar Palace , built in English style by the Spanish Royal House in 1893 and sold to the City Council in the 1970s. The palace gardens, open to the public, offer spectacular views of the bay, as does the Monte Igueldo Amusement Park , a small amusement park from the early 20th centuryfrom which you get splendid views of the bay. From the Peine del Viento to Mompás, a land exit to the sea under Mount Ulía at the eastern end of the city, crossing the bay of La Concha, the small port, the Paseo Nuevo, the mouth of the river and the Paseo de la Zurriola beach, you can walk a promenade of about seven kilometers in length without crossing a single traffic light.
The walks through the center of the city, the so-called Romantic Area of the Belle Époque , whose main streets are fully pedestrianized, and next to the Urumea river , are another of the strong points of the tourist offer of San Sebastián. The buildings of the Guipúzcoa Provincial Council (inspired by the Paris Opera building ), the Buen Pastor Cathedral and the Post Office buildings and the Koldo Mitxelena Cultural Center, located in the same square, or the Town Hall (old casino). In the old part, the San Telmo Museum , the Church of Santa María and the parish of San Vicente are noteworthy . Next to the mouth of the river are the Victoria Eugenia Theater and theHotel María Cristina , which make up one of the most attractive monumental complexes in the city. Crossing the river over the María Cristina bridge , the most attractive of San Sebastian's bridges, you will find the North Station and the purely French-style villas located on the river's edge.
The city of San Sebastián is twinned with nine cities. [ 57 ]
- Daira de Bojador , Saharawi refugee campin Tindouf ( Algeria )
- Encarnacion de Díaz , Jalisco , Mexico
- Marugame , Japan
- Plymouth , United Kingdom
- Reno , EE. UU.
- Trento , Italy
- Wiesbaden , Alemania
- Batumi, Georgia (1987)
- Stepanakert, Artsaj (2014)
- Articles about San Sebastián in Spanish Wikipedia
- Municipalities of Spain by population
- Donostia University Hospital
European Capital of Culture
together with Breslavia
- State Meteorological Agency (ed.). «San Sebastián» . Altitude data for San Sebastián on the AEMET weather forecast page from the Geographic Nomenclature of municipalities and population entities of the National Geographic Institute :  .
- National Geographic Institute (IGN) (ed.). "Topographic map of Spain from the National Geographic Institute" . Retrieved October 1, 2016 .
- Celdrán Gomáriz, Pancracio (2004). Dictionary of Spanish place names and their names (5th edition). Madrid: Espasa Calpe. p. 706. ISBN 978-84-670-3054-9 .
- easonense. (Usual Dictionary, Royal Spanish Academy)
- From the Black Virgin to the one of the Choir
- «Royal Decree 636/2016, of December 2, by which the population figures resulting from the revision of the Municipal Register referring to January 1, 2016 are declared official» . www.boe.es . Retrieved December 17, 2016 .
- Section of Economy of Geography and history of Donostia-San Sebastián (referenced on August 29, 2007)
- Toponym in Spanish according to the Royal Spanish Academy : Spelling of the Spanish language . Madrid: Espasa, 1999. ISBN 84-239-9250-0 ; "Appendix 3", pages 133-155.
- San Sebastián de Orendain Hermitage, called Jaun Donosti (Señor San Sebastián) in Basque. Website of the Guipúzcoa Provincial Council
- Transcription of the Lazarraga manuscript
- Bildu proposes that the name of the city be Donostia / San Sebastián , El Diario Vasco, December 13, 2011
- Modification of the official name of the municipality of Donostia-San Sebastián. , Official Gazette of Guipúzcoa, August 7, 2012.
- Information on the beaches of the San Sebastián City Council (referenced on August 29, 2007)
- Information on La Concha Beach from the San Sebastián City Council (referenced on August 29, 2007)
- Information on Ondarreta Beach from the San Sebastián City Council (referenced on October 7, 2007)
- Information on Zurriola Beach from the San Sebastián City Council (referenced on August 29, 2007)
- Information on the Island of Santa Clara from the San Sebastián City Council (referenced on August 29, 2007)
- Igueldo «Data from the State Meteorological Agency: Normal climatological values in the meteorological station of San Sebastián (Igueldo)» .
- Unsain, JM (2008): San Sebastián, maritime city. San Sebastián: Naval Museum ISBN 978-84-930344-8-1 . P. 164-7 or.
- Gipuzkoa Virtual Museum
- In the book Collection of medieval documents of the Gipuzkoan villas (1200-1369) Archived on December 3, 2013 at the Wayback Machine , written by G. Martínez Díez, E. González Díez and FJ Martínez Llorente (San Sebastián: Diputación Foral de Guipúzcoa, 1991. p. 173) there is a document that was found in the Vargas Ponce collection of the Real Academia de Madrid. It is about the transcription that the sailor and politician José de Vargas Ponce made in 1805 of a document dated in 1332 and that was in the Guetaria archive and which has disappeared (the archive was burned during the First Carlist War). This document bears the title "Transfer of the jurisdiction of San Sebastián taken at the request of the council of the town of Guetaria" and it says the following: «(...) Don Alfonso de Castillea, may God forgive, may the said town conquered (...) » . The historian Idoia Arrieta analyzed the original transcript and noticed that the document bears another title: «1202-1332 Guetaria SS. Part of the Jurisdiction of SS And in the preamble the conquest of SS is taken for granted "and inside, on the left side of the first page, it reads, handwritten (presumably by Vargas Ponce himself):" Ojo conquest of SS »Idoia Arrieta Elizalde: « Ezkutatu digutena: Donostiaren konkista » , BERRIA, 2011-04-08.
- Arrieta, Idoia: "Presentation of the hidden document of the conquest of San Sebastián: the trajectory of research and the historical-critical contribution" (pp. 227-248). In: 1512. The Basque territories and the Navarrese State. Proceedings of the II Congress of Historians of Navarre . San Sebastián: Vaccine, 2011.
- Since 1999 he was a senior tenant of the King of Navarre Don Juan de Vidaurre. Despite the fact that San Sebastián was lost, his performance must have satisfied Sancho the strong, since he retained royal favor and was tenant in other Navarrese towns (OLAIZOLA, JM; URZAINQUI, T .: La Navarra maritime . Pamplona: Pamiela , 1998. p. 225.
- Diario Vasco , September 20, 1985
- Carlos Guinea Suárez , Víctor Pradera , Madrid 1953
- Diario Vasco : Unexpected change in mayor 1947
- FEMP Sustainability Awards , May 2008
- Ridruejo, Carmelo C. (April 29, 1984). "San Sebastián has the highest proportion of the population addicted to drugs in the world . " Pamplona , Navarra : The Country . Retrieved June 1, 2015 .
- "Eneko Goia, new mayor of San Sebastián" . The world . June 13, 2015 . Retrieved February 7, 2019 .
- Ministry of the Interior (ed.). "Results of the municipal elections of San Sebastián in 2019" . Retrieved May 24, 2015 .
- According to data from the National Institute of Statistics
- Demographic information by province capitals as of January 1, 2006 from the National Institute of Statistics (referenced on August 30, 2007)
- Diario Vasco (10-17-10): Do you know what neighborhood you live in?
- Information on Articuza del Ayuntamiento de San Sebastián Archived on October 25, 2007 at the Wayback Machine . (referenced August 29, 2007)
- Section of Economy in Geography and History of Donostia-San Sebastián (referenced on August 29, 2007)
- «The Aiete bidegorri raises the number of bidegorri kilometers to 58» . News from Gipuzkoa . July 30, 2017 . Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
- Number of users of urban buses in San Sebastián in 2015 http://www.dbus.eus/es/noticias/incremento-de-viajes-en-dbus-en-el-ano-2015/
- «Inaugurated the new Donostia bus station» . Eitb . February 5, 2016 . Retrieved February 5, 2016 .
- News published in El Diario Vasco , February 19, 2017
- «The works of the elevator between Morlans and Aiete will begin in March and will last nine months» . The Basque Newspaper . October 22, 2016 . Retrieved May 18, 2017 .
- «The walk of Heriz tops the list of priorities of the Vertical Mobility Master Plan» . The Basque Newspaper . September 23, 2017 . Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
- «Pamplona is the sixth city with the highest number of vertical mobility infrastructures» . Culture and Society Institute - University of Navarra . September 23, 2015 . Retrieved September 23, 2017 .
- «The Vertical Mobility Plan prioritizes the intervention areas in the city» . October 5, 2017 . Retrieved October 7, 2017 .
- News published in El Diario Vasco , November 23, 2006
- News published in El Diario Vasco , June 28, 2006
- San Sebastián will be Cultural Capital 2016
- San Sebastián 2016, among the six finalists for European cultural capital , El País , September 30, 2010.
- News item published on the website donostiasansebastian.com , November 18, 2006 (referenced on August 5, 2007)
- S. Pellegrino Awards to the 50 best restaurants in the world , 2013 contest
- News published in El Diario Vasco , August 2007
- News published in El Diario Vasco , September 24, 2006
-  The Basque Journal . Retrieved July 20, 2008.
-  El País (Basque Country edition)]. Retrieved July 20, 2008.
- April 21, 2007. The Guardian . Retrieved February 5, 2008.
- Donostiako Udala-San Sebstián City Council (ed.). "Twin Cities" . Archived from the original on February 23, 2010 . Retrieved March 15, 2010 .