Santiago de Nueva Extremadura
|Capital of Chile|
From top to bottom, from left to right .
1st row: Panoramic of Santiago. 2nd row: Statue of the Immaculate Conception in the Sanctuary of Cerro San Cristóbal , and Sanhattan , the main financial district of the city. 3rd row: Neptune Fountain on the Santa Lucía hill , and the National Library . 4th row: Central houses of the University of Chile and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile , the main academic centers of the country. 5th row: Palacio de La Moneda , seat of the executive branch of Chile.
Location of Santiago in Chile
|Entity||Capital of Chile|
|• Region||Metropolitan of Santiago|
|• Communes||40 communes|
|• Foundation||Of February 12 of 1541 by Pedro de Valdivia (480 years old) [ n1 ]|
|• Name||Santiago de Nueva Extremadura|
|• Total||837,89 km²|
|• Media||520 m s. n. m.|
|Weather||Continentalized Mediterranean Csa|
|• Total||6 257 516 [ N 2 ]|
|• Density||8497 hab / km²|
Santiaguino, -na |
|IDH (2021)||0.832 (1st) - Very high|
|Time zone||UTC–4 (Abr. - Sept.)|
|• in summer|| |
UTC–3 (Sept. - Abr.)
|Telephone prefix||56 2|
|Patron (a)||Saint James the Greater|
|Official Web site|
|Member of: Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities , Mercociudades|
Santiago , also called Santiago de Chile , is the capital and main city of Chile and of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago , of which it is also the geographical center and whose population is mostly concentrated in the city. Located on the banks of the Mapocho River , Santiago was founded by the Spanish conqueror Pedro de Valdivia , under the name of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo (in honor of the apostle Santiago, thus becoming the capital of the Government of Nueva Extremadura ) [ 6 ]In the 16th century. It is currently the economic and administrative center of the country, as well as being the largest urban agglomeration with the largest number of population - 7.1 million inhabitants - in the national territory.
The city is home to the country's main public, commercial, cultural and financial organizations (government palace, judicial branch and a series of international organizations), with the exception of the National Congress , [ 7 ] the Navy , the National Fisheries Service and the Ministry of Cultures, Arts and Heritage , located in the city of Valparaíso . It is also the headquarters of Cepal .
Although it is generally conceived as a single city , Santiago does not constitute a single administrative unit, but is part of the territory of at least 43 communes , of which 28 are completely within the urban radius and 15 municipalities outside of it, but all are closely connected. through modern highways and avenues. Most of the metropolis is within the province of Santiago , and parts of it are in communes belonging to other provinces of the Metropolitan Region, mainly San Bernardo and Puente Alto .
Santiago is approximately at coordinates Cape Town and Sydney ) and an average altitude of 567 m asl [ 8 ] With an area of 837.89 km² , [ 2 ] Santiago had a population of 6,257,516 inhabitants in 2017, which was equivalent to 35.6% of the country's total population. [ N 2 ] Santiago is the seventh most populous metropolitan area in Latin America , also the seventhmost populous city in Latin America and the southern hemisphere [ 9 ] and, according to some estimates, one of the 50 urban agglomerations most populated of the world . [ 10 ] With its more than 6 million inhabitants, it is the most populated urban nucleus in Chile, far ahead of Greater Valparaíso , Greater Concepción , the La Serena-Coquimbo conurbation , the metropolitan area of Temuco and Antofagasta , which they are the next most populated.(a similar latitude that
Santiago is routinely positioned as a leading city in Latin America in a series of social, economic and environmental factors. The Chilean capital is the second most competitive city in Latin America, surpassed only by São Paulo , [ 11 ] [ n 3 ] and the third with better quality of life (the second in South America and the 90th in the world) [ 12 ] and the safest in Latin America. Furthermore, it is considered an Alpha- »class global city , [ 13 ] and the 53rd city with the highest income in the world, with a GDP( PPA ) of 91 000 million USD in 2005 and an estimated 160 000 million USD by 2020. [ 14 ]
Also in 2012 it was ranked as the third most competitive city , also the third Latin American and the 68th mundial- [ 15 ] [ 16 ] and in 2013 was ranked as the most intelligent city in the region. [ 17 ] Finally, according to a global study released by the Economist Intelligence Unit, Santiago would be the second best Latin American city to live in. [ 18 ]
Origins and foundation
According to archaeological research, it is believed that the first human groups settled in the Santiago basin around the 10th millennium BC. C. [ 20 ] These groups were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the mountain melts. Around the year 800 of our era, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities next to the Mapocho River , mainly of corn , potatoes and beans., and the domestication of the auquénidos of all the zone.
The peoples established in the areas belonged to groups Picunches (name given by Chileans) or Promaucaes (name given by Incas), subjected to the Inca Empire from the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 16th century . The Incas established some mitimaes in the valley , the main one being installed in the center of the current city, fortresses such as the Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill . [ 20 ] The area would have served as a base for Inca expeditions to the south and as a road junction for the Inca Trail .
After being sent by Francisco Pizarro from the government of Nueva Castilla and making a long journey from Cuzco , the Extremaduran conqueror Pedro de Valdivia arrived in the Mapocho Valley on December 13 , 1540 . The hosts of Valdivia camped next to the waters of the river, on the slopes of the Tupahue hill and slowly began to establish relations with the Picunche settlers who inhabited the area, after which Valdivia summoned the caciques of the valley to a parliament where he explained his intention to found a city in the name of King Carlos I of Spain , which would be the capital of his government ofNew Extremadura . Seeing the Spanish military superiority over the Incas, they would have accepted and even recommended the founding of the town on a small island located between two arms of the river next to a small hill called Huelén . [ 21 ]
The 12 of February of 1541 , Pedro de Valdivia formally founded the city of "Santiago of the New End", the official name of the city in honor of the Apostle Santiago , patron saint of Spain , near the Huelén hill, renamed "Saint Lucia" by the conqueror. Following colonial rules, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new city to the builder Pedro de Gamboa , who designed the city in the form of a checkerboard : In the center of the city he designed a Plaza Mayor , around which several lots were selected for the Cathedral , the jail and the governor's house; In total, eight blocks were built from north to south and ten from east to west, and each lot (a quarter of a block) was handed over to the colonizers, who built houses of mud and straw.
However, the foregoing contrasts with the anthropological evidence: the alignment of the Plaza de Armas , the Santa Lucía hill and the El Abanico hill , with the sunrise during the summer solstice , and the San Cristóbal hill that cuts the profile of the El Plomo - Littoria hills during the winter solstice , [ n 4 ] is a physical, concrete and indisputable fact. [ 22 ]
What caught my attention is why Valdivia made a mistake in putting the Plaza where it is not the center, he should have placed it in the middle, it is like that in all cities, well, he did not put it, the Plaza already It existed, it was called 'Kancha', just like a soccer field and it was Inca, and before the Incas it was already a ceremonial sector due to these calendrical alignments. Santiago in the background is not 500 years old, Santiago is 2000 years old [...] Pedro de Valdivia did not discover it, because he knew he was coming here, he already knew when he left Cusco that there was a town here that was an Inca administrative center here in the Valley [...] Pedro Gómez de Don Benito also came as his assistant, who had come with (Diego de) Almagro six years before and had passed through Santiago.Researcher Alexis López Tapia to El Mercurio . [ 22 ]
The researcher Rubén Stehberg from the National Museum of Natural History and Gonzalo Sotomayor from the Andrés Bello University gathered the evidence from the research presented in 1976, plus historical documents, and to this they added new evidence that would show that, under the old town of Santiago, there would be an Inca city, a vestige of the occupation of the Tawantinsuyu in the middle courses of the Mapocho and Maipo rivers. [ n 5 ] The occupation counted on kings and authorities along the valleys until reaching Mapocho, but these would have been killed during the conquest of Diego de Almagro. The Inca city of Mapocho was compared, according to writings demonstrated in the study, as another version of the Inca capitalCuzco , a place where mining and agriculture thrived. Consequently, it becomes clear that Pedro de Valdivia did not really found Santiago, but traveled directly to populate it and take possession of the city. [ 23 ] [ 24 ]
Months later, Valdivia left together with his soldiers towards the south, to continue the War of Arauco . Santiago was left unprotected, which was taken advantage of by the indigenous hosts of Michimalonco , who attacked the incipient city. The November of September of 1541 , the city was attacked, but the 55 Spaniards of the garrison managed to defeat the attackers. Apparently, the resistance was led by Inés de Suárez , Valdivia's partner. Santiago was slowly rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción , where in 1556 the Royal Audience of Chile was founded.. However, the constant danger that Concepción faced, due on the one hand to its proximity to the war conflict and on the other to a succession of devastating earthquakes, did not allow the definitive establishment of the Royal Court in Santiago until 1607, reaffirming its role as capital. .
Despite the fact that Santiago was on the verge of disappearing due to the indigenous attack, an earthquake and a series of floods , the city began to rapidly populate. Of the 126 stables designed by Gamboa, forty had already been occupied in 1558 , and all of them by 1580 , [ 25 ] while the nearby lands were home to tens of thousands of head of cattle . In the architectural field, the first important buildings of the city began to be built, highlighting the beginning of the stone construction of the first cathedral in 1561 and of the church of San Francisco in 1572, both constructions being made mainly in adobe and stone.
A series of disasters would put in check the development of the city during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: An earthquake in 1575 , epidemic of smallpox in 1590 , overflowings of the Mapocho in 1608 and 1618 and finally, the earthquake of the 13 of maypole of 1647 , where more than 600 people died and more than five thousand victims were left. [ 25 ] These events would not stop the growth of the capital of the Captaincy General of Chile , at a time when all the power of the country was concentrated around thePlaza de Armas Santiago.
In 1767 , the Spanish magistrate Luis Manuel de Zañartu , began some of the main architectural works of the colonial period: the Calicanto Bridge , which allowed the city to be efficiently linked with La Chimba , north of the river, and the beginning of the constructions of the cutwaters to avoid the overflows of the Mapocho. Although the bridge managed to be built, the cutwaters were constantly destroyed by the river. In 1780 , the governor Agustín de Jáuregui hired the Italian architect Joaquín Toesca , who would design, among other important works, the facade of the Cathedral, thePalacio de La Moneda , the design of the San Carlos canal and the definitive construction of the tajamares, during the government of Ambrosio O'Higgins , these being definitively inaugurated in 1798 . [ 26 ] The government of the viceroy of Peru created the opening of the road to Valparaíso in 1791 , which would allow the connection of the capital with the main port of the country.
Capital of the Republic
The 18 of September of 1810 , was proclaimed the First National Board of Government in Santiago, fact with which it was begun the process of independence of Chile . The city, which would become the capital of the new nation, would be shaken by various events, especially due to the military actions that would occur in its vicinity.
Although some institutions such as the National Institute and the National Library were installed in the Old Homeland , these were closed after the patriot defeat in the battle of Rancagua in 1814 . The realistic government would last until 1817 , when the Army of the Andes achieved victory in the battle of Chacabuco , reinstating the patriotic government in Santiago. Independence, however, was not assured and the Spanish army obtained new victories and by 1818It was heading towards Santiago, but the cargo would be definitively stopped in the plains of the Maipo River, during the Battle of Maipú , on April 5 , 1818 .
With the end of the war, Bernardo O'Higgins assumed as First Dictator of the new Chilean state. During the so-called New Homeland , the closed institutions are reopened and the General Cemetery is inaugurated , the works of the San Carlos canal are finished and in the southern arm of Mapocho, known as La Cañada , the passage of the waters was closed, turning it into a promenade tree-lined, known as the Alameda de las Delicias .
Two new earthquakes struck the city: one on November 19 , 1822 and another on February 20 , 1835 . These two facts, however, did not prevent the city from continuing to grow rapidly: in 1820 , it had 46,000 inhabitants, [ 25 ] in 1854 the population was 69,018 inhabitants, and in the 1865 census it was 115,337 inhabitants. [ 27 ]This significant increase was generated mainly by growth towards the southern and western suburbs of the capital and in part towards La Chimba, thanks to the division of the old properties existing in the area. This new peripheral development caused the end of the traditional checkerboard structure that governed the city center.
The city of the 19th century
During the so-called Conservative Republic , various institutions were created, mainly educational in nature, such as the University of Chile and the Quinta Normal de Agricultura . The canals that ran through the city for the evacuation of sewage disappeared giving way to the sewerage system , to which the first gas, drinking water and public lighting networks were added , and in 1851 the first telegraphy system was established with Valparaíso. However, a tragic event mourned the city when more than 2000 people died in the fire of the Church of the Company on December 8 ,1863.
A new impulse in the urban development of the capital took place during the so-called Liberal Republic and the administration of the city mayor, Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna , among whose main works stood out the remodeling of the Santa Lucía hill , which went from being a garbage dump to a park adorned with neoclassical architectural works , the creation of a path that surrounded the city, which at that time had an extension similar to the current commune of Santiago , and the remodeling of the Alameda. This avenue was established as the central artery of the city thanks to the development of various palacessmall ones built by the oligarchy benefited by the economic boom derived from the mining of copper and saltpeter . Many of the main urban works were financed by voluntary contributions from illustrious residents, highlighting works such as the Municipal Theater , the Equestrian Club or the current O'Higgins Park , built by the philanthropist Luis Cousiño in 1873 . [ 29 ]
The city quickly became the main hub of the Chilean railway system , the main means of transportation for more than a century. The first railway arrived in the city on September 14 , 1857 and in 1884 the Central Station of Santiago was inaugurated . A thousand private vehicles and five hundred rental vehicles circulated in Santiago in those years and 45,000 people used the tram every day . [ 25 ] The first telephones were installed during the 1880s and in less than ten years there were more than 1,200 lines.
At the end of the century, rainwater collection systems were built to prevent flooding in the center and the Mapocho canalization works would begin, for which it was necessary to demolish the cutwaters and the Calicanto Bridge, which occurred on August 10 from 1888 . By then, Santiago had a population of close to 256,000 inhabitants, spread over an area of 3,766 hectares. [ 25 ] Many of these inhabitants lived in poor neighborhoods, excluded from the urban development promoted by the oligarchy, outside the edges of the city such as in the western neighborhoods of Yungay and Chuchunco . [ 20 ]
The Santiago del Centenario
With the advent of the new century , the city began to experience various changes related to the strong development of the industry . Valparaíso, which until now had been the economic center of the country, is slowly beginning to lose prominence to the detriment of the capital. Already in 1895 , 75% of the national manufacturing industry was located in the capital and only 28% in the port, and by 1910 , the main banks and commercial stores were installed in the streets of the city center, leaving Valparaíso.
The promulgation of both the Autonomous Commune law and the decree for the creation of municipalities would allow the creation of various administrative divisions in the Department of Santiago , in order to improve local administration. Maipú , Ñuñoa , Renca , Lampa , and Colina would be created in 1891 , Providencia and Barrancas in 1897 ; and in 1901 , Las Condes . In the department of La Victoria , Lo Cañas would originatein 1891, which would be divided into La Granja and Puente Alto in 1892. In 1899, La Florida was born and in 1925, La Cisterna .
The Cerro San Cristobal began in this period a long process of improvement. In 1903 an astronomical observatory was installed and the following year the first stone of the Marian sanctuary was placed on its summit, which is characterized by the 14-meter image of the Virgin Mary , visible from various points of the city. [ 21 ] However, the idea of reforesting it would not be fulfilled until a few decades later.
With the desire to celebrate the Centennial of the Republic in 1910 , various urban works were carried out. The railway network was expanded, allowing the connection of the city with its nascent suburbs, through the bypass railway and the one that led to the Cajón del Maipo , while a new railway station was built in the north of the city: the Mapocho Station. . In the land gained by the Mapocho canalization, the Forest Park was created and the new buildings of the Museum of Fine Arts , the National Boarding School and the National Library were inaugurated.. In addition, the sewerage works, which covered about 85% of the urban population, would be completed. [ 20 ]
At the end of 1920 , the census estimated a population in Santiago of 507,296 inhabitants, which was equivalent to 13.6% of the total population of the country. This figure represented an increase of 52.47% with respect to the 1907 census , that is, an annual growth of 3.3%, almost three times more than the national figure. This growth is mainly explained by the arrival of peasants from the south who came to work in factories and railways under construction. However, this growth was experienced in the periphery and not in the urban area itself.
In these years, the city center was consolidated as a purely commercial, financial and administrative neighborhood, with the establishment of various portals and stores around Ahumada Street and the Civic District in the immediate surroundings of the Palacio de La Moneda. This last project meant the construction of various modernist buildings for the establishment of the offices of ministries and other public services, [ 30 ] giving the starting point for the construction of mid-rise buildings. On the other hand, the traditional inhabitants of the center began to emigrate outside the city to more rural sectors such as Providencia andÑuñoa , who welcomed the oligarchy and professional European immigrants , and San Miguel for middle-class families. In addition, in the periphery various villas began to be built for the associates of various trade union organizations of the time. Modernity expanded in the city, with the appearance of the first cinemas , the extension of the telephone network and the inauguration of Los Cerrillos Airport in 1928 , among other advances.
The sense of an era of economic growth reflected in technological advances was in stark contrast to the lower social classes. The growth of previous decades turned into a population explosion unprecedented since 1929 . The Great Depression caused the collapse of the northern nitrate industry , leaving 60,000 unemployed, which added to the fall in agricultural exports, totaled nearly 300,000 unemployed nationwide. These, for the most part, saw the big city and its booming industry as the only chance to survive. Many migrants came to the city with nothing and thousands had to survive on the streets due to the impossibility of renting a room. Diseases spread andtuberculosis claimed the lives of hundreds of homeless people. Unemployment and the cost of living increased significantly, while the salaries of Santiago residents fell.
The situation would only change several years later with a new industrial boom promoted by CORFO and the expansion of the state apparatus starting in the late 1930s . At this time, the aristocracy lost much of the power it held and the middle class, made up of merchants, bureaucrats and professionals, acquired the leading role in national politics. In this context, Santiago begins to develop towards the masses, while the wealthy classes tend to take refuge in the upper neighborhoods of the capital. Thus, the old walks of the wealthy class, such as the Cousiño Park and the Alameda, lose hegemony in front of popular recreation areas, such as the National Stadium that emerged in 1938 .
The Greater Santiago
|Relative growth of Santiago, by communes [ 20 ]|
In the following decades, Santiago continued to grow unstoppably. In 1940 , the city had 952,075 inhabitants, in 1952 this figure reached 1,350,409 inhabitants, and the 1960 census totaled 1,907,378 inhabitants of Santiago. This growth was reflected in the urbanization of the rural sectors of the periphery, where middle and lower class families settled with stable housing: in 1930, the urban area had an area of 6,500 hectares , which in 1960 reached 20,900 and in 1980 at 38 296. Although most of the communes continued to grow, this was concentrated mainly in peripheral communes such as Barrancas al poniente, Conchalíto the north and La Cisterna and La Granja to the south. The lower classes settled through illegal occupations ("land grabs"), of which the most emblematic were Poblaciones Recabarren (1947), Zañartu (1947), Los Nogales (1948) and La Victoria (1957), although There was also the purchase of sites since the 1930s and access to social housing built by the State and social security funds. [ 31 ] In the case of the upper class, they began to approach the foothills of Las Condes and La Reina.. The center, on the contrary, lost inhabitants leaving more space for the development of commerce, banking and government activities.
This growth was carried out without any type of regulation and only began to be applied during the 1960s with the creation of various development plans for Greater Santiago , a concept that reflected the new reality of a much larger city. In 1958 the Intercommunal Plan of Santiago was launched , which proposed the organization of the urban territory, setting a limit of 38,600 urban and semi-urban hectares, for a maximum population of 3,260,000 inhabitants, the construction of new avenues, such as Avenida Circunvalación Américo Vespucio and the 5 Panamericana route , the expansion of the existing ones and the establishment of «industrial cordons». The celebration ofThe 1962 Soccer World Cup gave a new impetus to the improvement works in the city. In 1966 , the Santiago Metropolitan Park was created on the San Cristóbal hill and the MINVU began the eradication of callampas populations and the construction of new homes such as the San Borja Remodeling , in whose vicinity the Diego Portales Building was built .
In 1967 , the new Pudahuel International Airport was inaugurated and, after years of discussion, in 1969 the construction of the Santiago Metro would begin , the first stage of which would run under the western section of the Alameda and which would be inaugurated in 1975 . The Metro would become one of the most prestigious buildings in the city and in the following years it would continue to expand, reaching two perpendicular lines at the end of 1978 . Telecommunications would also have an important development, reflected with the construction of the Entel Tower , which since its construction in 1975It would be one of the symbols of the capital as it was the tallest structure in the country for two decades.
After the coup of 1973 and the establishment of the military dictatorship , urban planning was not great changes until beginning of the 1980s , when the government adopted an economic model neoliberal and the role of organizer goes from the state to the market. In 1979 the regulatory plan was modified, extending the urban radius to more than 62,000 ha for real estate development, causing a new uncontrolled expansion of the city, reaching 40,619 ha in extension at the beginning of the 1990s , especially in the area of La Florida , which in the census of 1992it became the most populous commune in the country, with 328,881 inhabitants. Meanwhile, a strong earthquake struck the city on 3 of March of 1985 , although caused little victims, left numerous victims and destroyed many old buildings.
The city in the early 21st century
With the beginning of the Transition in 1990 , the city of Santiago already exceeded four million inhabitants, who preferably lived in the south: Florida was followed in number of inhabitants by Puente Alto and Maipú . Real estate development in these communes and others such as Quilicura and Peñalolén was largely due to the construction of housing complexes for middle-class families. Meanwhile, high-income families advanced towards the foothills and the so-called Barrio Alto , to the communes of La Reina , Las Condes , Vitacura andLo Barnechea , and also towards the north of Santiago, specifically the commune of Huechuraba . On the other hand, although poverty began to decline considerably, the strong dichotomy between the thriving globalized city and the marginal neighborhoods scattered throughout the capital remained.
The Avenida Providencia area was consolidated as an important commercial hub in the eastern sector and by the 1990s , this development spread to the Barrio Alto, which became an attractive pole for the construction of high-rise buildings. The main companies and financial corporations settled in the area, giving rise to a modern and thriving business center known as Sanhattan . The departure of these companies to the Barrio Alto and the construction of shopping centers around the entire city, caused a crisis in the historic center, which had to reinvent itself: its main shopping streets became pedestrian promenades, such as Paseo Ahumada, and tax benefits were instituted for the construction of residential buildings, attracting mainly young adults.
In these years, the city began to face a series of problems generated by the disorderly growth experienced. The air pollution reached critical levels during the winter months and a layer of smog was installed over the city, so the authorities had to establish legislative measures for industries and vehicle restrictions on cars. To this was added that the great extension of the city made the transport system collapse. The Metro had to be considerably expanded by extending its lines and creating three new lines between 1997 and 2006 in the southeast sector, while a new extension to Maipú was inaugurated in 2011., leaving the metropolitan railway with a length of 105 km . The new Line 6 was inaugurated in November 2017, joining the commune of Cerrillos with the commune of Providencia, in addition to Line 3 that was inaugurated in January 2019, joining the communes of Quilicura, Conchali, Independencia, Santiago, Ñuñoa and La Reina. . In the case of buses , the system underwent an important reform in the early 1990s with the so-called "Yellow Micros" and then in 2007 with the establishment of a transport master plan known as Transantiago - now the Metropolitan Mobility Network.-, which has faced a series of problems since its inception since because the change was implemented abruptly, it did not have a favorable effect on the daily lives of the people living in the capital. [ 32 ]
As it enters the 21st century , Santiago persists in its accelerated development. Several urban highways have been built, the Civic District was renovated with the creation of the Plaza de la Ciudadano and the construction of the Bicentennial Park City begins to commemorate the bicentennial of the Republic. The development of high-rise buildings continued in the eastern sector , which culminated in the opening of the Titanium La Portada and Gran Torre Santiago skyscrapers in the Costanera Center real estate complex.. However, socioeconomic inequality and geo-social fragmentation remain two of the most important problems, both in the city and in the country.
The 27 as February as 2010 a strong earthquake was felt in the capital, causing various damage to old buildings; however, some modern buildings were left uninhabitable, generating a wide debate about the actual application of the mandatory anti-seismic standards in the modern architecture of Santiago. [ 33 ] Symbol of this was the "Don Tristán" building, located in the Maipú commune, which had to be demolished just after the earthquake. [ 34 ] [ 35 ]
In the coming years, the development of various new projects in multiple areas is expected, especially in transportation. The remodeling of the international airport is expected by 2021 and an expansion of rail services, including various projects currently under evaluation, such as a tram network in Las Condes , commuter trains to Lampa and Padre Hurtado ( Melitrén ) and a high-speed train. connecting to the capital of the Valparaiso and Vina Mar. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] [ 38 ] Two newUrban highways , Vespucio Oriente and Costanera Central , are in the bidding process. [ 36 ] The Santiago Metro will continue its expansion with the opening of five lines between 2017 and 2026, doubling its length from 115 km to more than 210 km.
In mid-October 2019 , the city was greatly affected by the start of the protests in Chile that year , triggered by a generalized civil unrest as a result of numerous social and political problems, among them, the persistent unequal conditions in the country since the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet . Due to the disturbances that occurred that day, public transport services such as the Metro and buses of the Metropolitan Mobility Network were interrupted., which produced that the majority of the santiaguinos had to mobilize on foot by the city. Later, throughout the protests, many sectors were the epicenter of social discontent, among which are: Lo Hermida, Villa Francia, Plaza de Maipú, Plaza de Puente Alto and Plaza Ñuñoa, among others. However, the sector that presented the highest concentration of demonstrations and media notoriety was the Plaza Baquedano , renamed " Plaza de la Dignidad"by the protesters. In addition to the multiple arsons, the destruction of public and private property, the looting of commercial stores, and the barricades, various exhibitions and cultural interventions were held in the city center, demonstrating the protesters' discontent with the government of Sebastián Piñera , such as the intervention of the façade of the Gabriela Mistral Cultural Center, located a few blocks from Plaza Baquedano, with posters that made reference to the protests and their causes; various lines in which you could read slogans such as "Evade" (alluding to evade the public transport fare, whose rise was the trigger for the protests), "Renuncia Piñera" and "It's not 30 pesos, it's 30 years" ( alluding to the 30 years of democracy, since the end of the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet in which the problems made visible by the protests have persisted); casseroles ; projections made by the Delight Lab group at the Torre Telefónica showing the word "DIGNITY"; and the reproduction through loudspeakers of the song " The right to live in peace ", in protest of the violence exerted by the Carabineros against the protesters that was reflected in several cases of human rights violations .
Being located on the 33 ° south parallel , Santiago is at a similar length to the cities of Cape Town in South Africa ; Perth , Adelaide and Sydney in Australia ; Mendoza , Rosario and Buenos Aires in Argentina , Uruguay and the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil . Being also located on the 70th meridian west , the city is on the same longitude as the territory of Nunavut , and the city of Quebecin Canada ; the states of Maine and Massachusetts of the United States , Española Island of the Dominican Republic ; Aruba , Venezuela , Colombia , part of the state of Amazonas in Brazil , the Department of Loreto in Peru and some sections of Argentina . [ 39 ]
Although sometimes there is confusion, Santiago is not the midpoint of Chile; If only the continental territory is considered, it is the Playa Blanca spa , located in the Coronel commune, the Biobío region . [ 41 ] If the national territory is considered from the northern limit with Peru to the southern end of the Chilean Antarctic Territory , the midpoint is in Punta Arenas . [ 42 ] [ 43 ]
Geology and relief
The city of Santiago is located mainly on a plain known as the " Santiago basin ." This basin is part of the Intermediate Depression and is delimited by the Chacabuco mountain range in the north, the Andes Mountains in the east, the Paine narrowness in the south and the Costa Cordillera in the west. This basin is approximately 80 km long in a north-south direction and 35 km from east to west. [ 44 ]
During the Neoproterozoic ―1 000 Ma. ― There was the supercontinent Rodinia , which began to fragment into small continental masses ―750-600 Ma―. Already 550 million years ago, one of these fragments - Gondwana - had formed. It is during this period, however, that while Gondwana continued to form, its tectonic activity on the west bank (in the same period when it diverged from the Laurentia continent that led to the formation of what is now the Pacific Ocean ) led to the formation of the Terra Australis Orogen , a process in which several orogenic events occurred during the Middle Permian . [45 ] During this orogen, several lands are added to the continental edge, such as the Chilenia terrain , which makes up the current territory made up of the intermediate depression and the central Chilean mountain range. [ 46 ]
With the subduction processes of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate - which began at the end of the Paleozoic - an accretion process begins at the continental edge, which forms the "accretionary complexes of the Upper Paleozoic", continental masses from the seabed that make up what is the coastal half of the north and center of the country. [ 47 ] [ 48 ]
The origin of the intermediate depression, which gives space to the geographical area where the city of Santiago sits, has been under discussion. Specialists indicate a part that is derived from the interaction of geomorphology Andes with the failure of San Ramon , [ 49 ] [ 50 ] while another position indicates that the major source is the product of the differential erosion caused by the drainage network during the Neogene - the last 10 and 4 million years. [ 51 ] Evidence has emerged to support the latter argument. [ 52 ]
During the last millions of years, the current geomorphology was taking shape. The quaternary glaciation affected the topology of the central zone of the country, forming moraines in the region . [ 54 ] [ 55 ] were able to distinguish only two periods of glaciation in the valley of the Maipo River and the Andean section against Santiago. [ 56 ]
Currently, Santiago lies mainly in the plain of the basin, with an altitude between 400 meters in the westernmost areas and reaching 540 in the Plaza Baquedano , [ 57 ] presenting some hills in the Cerrillos sector . The metropolitan area has surrounded some of these island hills , such as Cerro Santa Lucía , Cerro Blanco , Calán , Cerro Lo Aguirre and Renca , which at 800 meters above sea level is the highest pointfrom the city. To the southwest of Santiago, there is a rocky cordon of several island hills, within which the Chena hill stands out . Towards the west there are also some of the main heights of the Cordillera de la Costa, such as the Roble Alto hill with 2 185 meters of altitude, being the Maipo river area the only one in which the mountain range loses altitude.
During the last decades, urban growth has expanded the city limits towards the eastern sector, approaching the Andean foothills, inhabiting the existing debris cones . Even in areas such as La Dehesa , Lo Curro and El Arrayán , the 1,000 meter altitude barrier has been exceeded. [ 57 ] Some low-lying foothills emerge from the Andes and enter the basin, as is the case of the mountain range of Cerro La Pirámide and Cerro San Cristóbal , in the northeastern sector of Santiago.
The geological faults present in the area are the San Ramón fault and the Los Angeles - Infiernillo fault . [ 52 ] [ 58 ] The rocks in Santiago are mainly quaternary, but rocks from also exist in the Upper Cretaceous (formation The Chilcas) and the Lower Cretaceous (formation of the Prado), but also can distinguish plutonic rocks of the Upper Cretaceous and Middle-Lower Cretaceous. [ 52 ]
To the east, the so-called Sierra de Ramón rises massively , a mountain chain formed on the foothills of the foothills due to the action of the Ramón fault , reaching 3,296 m asl on the Ramón hill . Twenty kilometers further to the east, is the Andes mountain range with its chains of mountains and volcanoes, many of which exceed 6,000 m asl and in which some glaciers remain . The highest is the Tupungato volcano with 6 570 m asl , [ 59 ] located near the Tupungatito volcano., 5,913 m asl . Towards the northeast, there are Nevado El Plomo , with 6 070 m asl , and El Plomo hill , with 5 424 m asl . [ 59 ] Meanwhile, to the southeast of the capital, are located the Nevado Los Piuquenes , 6 019 m asl , the San José volcano , 5 856 m asl , and the Maipo volcano , 5 323 m asl . Of these peaks, both Tupungatito and San José and Maipo are active volcanoes .
The city of Santiago is located in the hydrographic basin of the Maipo River , which covers an area of approximately 15,380 km² . The main channel is born in the mountain range to the southeast of Santiago, on the slopes of the homonymous volcano and descends through the mountain range in the form of a canyon known as the Cajón del Maipo . Three important tributary channels converge in this area: the Volcán river that rises under the San José volcano and has some hot springs such as Baños Morales , the Yeso river in whose upper channel the El Yeso reservoir is located, which is the main drinking water reserve for the entire Metropolitan Region, and the Colorado River . After leaving the area of the foothills, the Maipo enters the Santiago basin, approaching the urban radius of the city, marking the border between the municipality of Puente Alto and the newly incorporated municipality of Pirque . Subsequently, the river moves away to the southwest, being of great importance for agricultural development in rural areas around Santiago, to finally continue its way to the Pacific Ocean , ending in the town of Llolleo , in the V Region of Valparaíso .
However, the most important river for the city is the Mapocho River , on whose banks the city was forged in colonial times. The Mapocho is the main tributary of the Maipo, joining it in the El Monte sector , to the southwest of the conurbation, after its long journey since its source. The river arises from the confluence of several estuaries in the northeastern Andes of the Metropolitan Region and later descends to the plain through gorges in the foothills and penetrates directly into the eastern part of the city. The Mapocho crosses in an east-west direction about twenty metropolitan communes before leaving through the Pudahuel areaand then go through agricultural areas until reaching El Monte. The river regime is mixed, varying between snowy in the highest areas and rainy-snowy in the lower ones; During the year, its flow can vary between 13.6 m³ / s in November and 2.3 m³ / s in April . [ 60 ]
In order to be able to have water closer to the agricultural development of the basin, several irrigation channels were built during the 19th century that connected the Mapocho with the Maipo, as is the case of the San Carlos channel and the Las Perdices channel . Other channels were built to channel rainwater from the mountain range, such as the Aguada ditch .
|Climograph of Santiago|
| temperatures in ° C • precipitation totals in mm |
Source: Meteorological Chile (1981-2010) [ 61 ]
The climate of the city of Santiago corresponds to a temperate climate with winter rains and a prolonged dry season, [ 62 ] better known as the continentalized Mediterranean climate , (Csb according to the Köppen Climate Classification ). Among the main climatic characteristics of Santiago is the concentration of about 80% of rainfall during the southern winter months ( June to August ), and late autumn and early spring, with between 50 and 100 mm. with an annual total of 342 mm. These precipitations are rain, because the snow levelIt is normally around 1800 meters above sea level in winter and occasionally drops below 1000 meters above sea level, [ 63 ] so the city is only sporadically affected by snowfall . In the period between 2000 and 2017, thirteen snowfalls have been registered and only two have been measured in the central sector (2007 and 2017). The recurrence or periodicity of the snowfalls that affect the center of Santiago ranges between one and four years, but with high variability. The amount of snow registered in Santiago on July 15, 2017 ranged between 3 cm in Quinta Normal and 10 cm in La Reina (Tobalaba). It is observed that nine out of ten events that recorded snow in Santiago have occurred under cold or neutral La Niña conditions . [ 64]
This amount of rain contrasts with the figures for the months corresponding to a very dry season, produced by an uninterrupted anticyclonic dominance for about seven or eight months, mainly during the summer , between December and March . In this season, the falling water does not exceed 4 mm on average.
Temperatures vary throughout the year, going from an average of 20 ° C during January to 8 ° C during June and July . In the summer, Santiago is hot, with temperatures easily reach 32 ° C during the afternoon, with a record high of 38.3 ° C on January 26 of 2019 , [ 65 ] [ 66 ] [ 67 ]While the nights are usually pleasant and warm, dropping below 15 ° C at dawn. On the other hand, in the autumn and winter months, the maximum temperature often falls below 10 ° C and even 7 ° C and the minimum is somewhat lower than 2 ° C on average and even frequently falls below 0 ° C, especially during the early morning, with a record low of -6.8 ° C in 1976 (recorded in Pudahuel). [ 68 ] Normal temperatures recorded between 1969 and 2017. Historical temperatures to date.
|Average climatic parameters of Santiago (Quinta Normal station)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||38.3||36.2||36.2||33.9||31.6||27.3||28.4||31.0||32.6||33.1||34.9||37.3||38.3|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||30.1||29.4||27.4||22.3||18.1||15.5||14.3||16.2||19.6||22.8||26.1||28.7||22.7|
|Temp. media (°C)||21.2||20.2||18.1||14.3||11.1||8.4||7.7||9.2||11.0||14.8||17.6||20.0||14.2|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||13.4||12.7||10.2||6.5||4.8||2.9||1.6||3.8||5.7||8.4||10.3||12.2||7.7|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||7.2||6.2||0.0||-1.0||-1.6||-3.3||-3.5||-3.4||-2.6||-0.3||3.1||1.0||-3.5|
|Total precipitation (mm)||0.3||1.7||3.8||12.1||41.2||80.7||101.1||55.8||22.5||11.4||9.1||2.1||341.8|
|Rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||1||2||2||5||7||8||6||6||6||4||3||2||52|
|Snowfall days (≥ 0.2 cm)||0||0||0||0||0||0||2||1||0||0||0||0||3|
|Hours of sun||362.7||302.3||272.8||201.0||135.0||104.0||125.7||141.2||176.0||248.0||306.0||347.2||2721.9|
|Relative humidity (%)||57||60||65||71||80||84||84||81||78||71||63||58||71|
|Source: temperatures recorded between 1969 and 2017 by the Meteorological Directorate of Chile [ 66 ]|
|Source # 2: World Meteorological Organization [ 69 ] , Weatherbase [ 70 ]|
|Average climatic parameters of Santiago ( Pudahuel station )|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||39.3||37.2||36.8||34.5||31.1||26.7||28.2||29.9||32.9||33.3||35.2||37.1||39.3|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||30.0||29.5||27.5||23.2||18.6||15.3||14.1||16.5||19.0||22.4||25.9||28.6||22.4|
|Temp. media (°C)||20.5||19.6||17.4||13.6||10.5||8.1||7.5||8.9||11.1||14.0||16.9||19.4||14.0|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||12.1||11.5||9.8||6.3||3.9||1.8||0.6||2.5||4.8||7.2||9.1||11.0||6.7|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||2.7||4.7||2.1||-2.6||-5.9||-6.5||-6.8||-6.2||-4.5||-2.8||0.7||3.3||-6.8|
|Source: temperatures recorded between 1969 and 2017 by the Meteorological Directorate of Chile [ 71 ]|
|Average climatic parameters of Santiago ( Tobalaba station )|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||37.4||35.6||36.6||33.2||31.0||26.8||28.0||30.2||32.4||32.2||34.2||35.8||37.4|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||29.7||29.2||27.2||23.0||18.5||15.6||14.1||16.6||19.0||22.2||25.7||28.4||22.5|
|Temp. media (°C)||24.8||23.8||22.2||18.4||13.5||9.8||7.6||8.9||12.9||17.8||20.9||23.5||14.3|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||13.5||12.9||10.4||8.6||6.4||4.2||1.9||3.3||5.8||8.1||10.1||12.3||7.8|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||5.2||3.8||1.0||-2.1||-3.8||-4.6||-5.2||-4.1||-1.6||-1.6||0.0||0.6||-5.2|
|Source: temperatures recorded between 1969 and 2017 by the Meteorological Directorate of Chile [ 72 ]|
Santiago's location within a watershed is one of the most important factors in the city's climate. The coastal mountain range serves as a "climatic screen" by opposing the spread of marine influence, which contributes to the increase in annual and daily temperature oscillation (the difference between daily maximum and minimum temperatures can easily exceed 15 ° C) and maintaining a low relative humidity , close to an annual average of 70%. [ 62 ]In addition, it prevents the entry of air masses except for some low coastal cloudiness that penetrates the basin through the river valleys. The prevailing winds have a direction from the southwest, with an average intensity of 20 km / h, especially during the summer since calm prevails in the winter .
The city of Santiago is located in a sclerophyllous ecological zone known as Chilean scrub , which has been strongly modified due to the use of soils for agricultural purposes or for urban expansion. This has produced a rapid degradation of the soils and their erosion , [ 73 ] which has generated a process of desertification , aggravated by the use of groundwater for human consumption, forest fires and the drying of swamps, among others. [ 74 ] Despite this, there are still some strongholds of great importance for biodiversity, such as theQuebrada de la Plata or Quebrada de Ramón , [ 75 ] to which are added the protected wild areas located in the interior sectors of the Andes.
Within the city, meanwhile, the number of green areas reached by 1992 an area of 2,686 public and 2,625 private hectares, equivalent to 2.5% of the consolidated urban area. Considering these figures, the average for each santiaguino was 5.7 m² of green area, below the 9 m² recommended by the WHO. However, this figure is much lower today: while the city grows about 1000 hectares a year, only 8 hectares of green areas are created. To this must be added the fact that of the number of hectares of green spaces, half corresponds to island hills that have little or no vegetation. Thus, discounting these areas, the figures would approach 1.5 m² of green areas per inhabitant. The figures also vary greatly depending on the area of the city: while in the eastern sector it reaches 20 m² per inhabitant, in the southern sector they barely exceed 1 m². [ 74 ]
A serious environmental problem that Santiago suffers corresponds to the existing air pollution . The cloistering of the city produces the accumulation of a layer of smog over the city since the last decades, which is aggravated during the winter months due to various climatic phenomena such as thermal inversion and the coastal trough and the considerable reduction in masses circulating air in the basin. This, added to the cold of the season, produces a considerable increase in respiratory diseases, mainly in infants and the elderly, which even collapse the health care system in Santiago.
This pollution has various toxic chemical components, such as SO 2 , CO , O 3 and NO 2 , added to the various types of particulate matter in suspension (49% produced by mobile sources and 29% by stationary sources). The accumulation levels of these substances are measured by seven air quality monitoring stations installed between 1988 and 1977 throughout the city. [ 76 ]The measurements of these stations added to the meteorological analyzes allow the authorities in charge to decree extraordinary measures to reduce pollution, which are called "environmental alert", "environmental pre-emergency" and "environmental emergency". In recent years, levels of environmental pollution have dropped considerably: in 1989 , the average level of respirable particulate material was 103.3 μg / m³, while in 2004 the figure reached 60.9 μg / m³, which it is still well above the 50 µg / m³ standard set by the government. In the case of the finest particulate matter (PM 2.5) the figures show a reduction from 68.8 to 29.3 μg / m³ in the same period,to 9 in 2004, pre-emergencies from 37 to 4 and emergencies from 4 to none. [ 76 ]
The waterways also have high degrees of contamination, mainly due to the deposit of industrial waste and sewage . The Maipo river and the Aguada ditch are the most affected channels, but in recent years various initiatives have emerged to reduce these problems. Various treatment plants have been built and in 2006 their coverage already reached 75% of urban wastewater. [ 77 ] Finally, the city produces great light pollution , which has affected and practically made it impossible to work in various astronomical venues located within the city.
Politic and government
Unlike other large cities and metropolitan areas in the world, Santiago lacks a metropolitan government in charge of its administration, which is currently distributed by various authorities, which complicates the functioning of the city as a unitary entity. [ 78 ]
With the current territorial structure of the country, it is divided into three levels ( regions , provinces and communes ), but Santiago does not fit perfectly with any of them. Although the Santiago Metropolitan Region was created in 1976 to encompass a metropolitan area created two years earlier, from the old province of Santiago , it includes a series of locations far from the main city, such as Melipilla or Talagante . At the provincial level, Greater Santiago exceeds the limits of the current Province of Santiago , including those of the Cordillera, Maipo , Talagante and Chacabuco . At the communal level, the city is made up of about thirty of these.
In general, two types of organs are those that intervene in the administration of the city. On the one hand, there are thirty-seven municipalities , in charge of the local administration of each commune, and directed by a mayor and advised by a council , elected by popular vote. The person in charge of the superior administration of the Metropolitan Region is the Regional Government , made up of the Regional Council , also elected by popular vote, and the Mayor , who is appointed directly by the President of the Republic., (this last position will be replaced by that of Regional Governor who will be elected by popular vote in the April 2021 elections that will also define the mayors of the communes), the same Mayor is responsible for the government of the region, as natural representative and immediate of the President of the Republic , acting in general, within his possibilities, as coordinator for matters that affect various communes. Since October 30, 2019, the position of Metropolitan Mayor of Santiago has been held by Felipe Guevara Stephens , who took office with the aim of retaking control of public order in the midst of the social outbreak of 2019 .
When the Metropolitan Region of Santiago was created, the figure of provincial governor was not created for the province of Santiago, and instead the Mayor himself was in charge. In 2001 , the position of "Provincial Delegate" was created, which exercises the functions of a governor, representing the Mayor, although it has a practically ceremonial role, with less power than the country's provincial governors themselves.
In colonial times , the person in charge of local administration was the City Council , which changed its name to Municipality with the Constitution of 1823 . Since 1833 , the entire city and the localities of the department were administered by the same municipality, which began to be called the "departmental municipality", and which was presided over by the provincial mayor . The election of the municipal (3 mayors and aldermen) was introduced in 1876 .
Over the years and the constant expansion of the city, it was necessary to divide the territory in order to improve administration and increase local participation in decision-making. In 1891 , the Law of Organization and Attributions of the Municipalities was enacted (better known as the Autonomous Commune Law ), which in the case of Santiago stipulated the creation of 10 districts, made up of a "local board" of three elected municipalities and that together they would make up the municipality. The Decree for the Creation of Municipalities definitively divided the departments into new municipalities that grouped one or more sub-delegationsaway from the departmental head. The municipality of Santiago was made up of the districts of Santa Lucía, Santa Ana, Portales, Estación, Cañadilla, Recoleta, Maestranza, Universidad, San Lázaro and Parque Cousiño. In addition, other rural municipalities were created around the city: Ñuñoa , Maipú , Colina , Lampa and Renca , which, over the years, would continue to be subdivided into new municipalities.
Later, with the Constitution of 1925, the commune emerged in Chile as the territorial division of a municipality. In this new constitutional framework, the commune –administrative division– is equivalent to the subdelegation –political division–. In 1927 , he joined the department of Santiago that of La Victoria , who was to head the city of San Bernardo , and 10 urban communes suppress and creates commune of Santiago , administered by the homonymous municipality. In the following decades, four new departments were created ( San Bernardo , Talagante , Puente Alto andPresidente Aguirre Cerda ), creating new urban centers, while several of the rural communes are reached by the expansion of the Santiago city.
With the regionalization process of the 1970s , the departments were abolished, organizing the country, at the local level, in communes administered by municipalities; In addition, in 1974 the Santiago Metropolitan Area was created , which included the old province of Santiago , excluding the department of San Antonio , and whose government and administration regime would be established by a special law. In 1976 , the Metropolitan Area formally became the current Santiago Metropolitan Region .
At the beginning of the 1990s, it began to formally speak of Greater Santiago as the conurbation made up of the group of communes in the province of Santiago plus San Bernardo and Puente Alto , which had been completely united to the urban area of Santiago. In 2005, the National Institute of Statistics included for the first time within the urban area of Santiago the commune of Padre Hurtado , in the province of Talagante , plus some territories adjacent to the city belonging to the communes of Pirque and San José de Maipo.. In the following decade, the growth of the city towards the north expanded the urban area towards the province of Chacabuco . For the 2017 census, the INE added as part of the conurbation the areas of Valle Grande , Chicauma and Estación Colina of the Lampa commune , and Las Canteras and Chamisero of the Colina commune , in addition to the Peñaflor commune , in the Talagante province.
Communes of Greater Santiago
According to the National Institute of Statistics , Greater Santiago has an area of 83,789 hectares, distributed among forty communes in the Metropolitan Region. [ 2 ] Of these, twenty-seven are completely urbanized and the remaining partially. The forty communes that currently make up Greater Santiago are:
- In the province of Santiago , the contiguous urban area of the 32 communes that make it up. [ N 6 ]
- In the province of Chacabuco , part of the communities of Hill [ n 7 ] and Lampa [ n 8 ]
- In the province of Cordillera , the whole of Puente Alto , the urban area of Pirque in the commune of the same name, [ n 9 ] and the towns of La Obra and Las Vertientes , belonging to the commune of San José de Maipo .
- In the province of Maipo , the commune of San Bernardo ; [ N 10 ]
- In the province of Talagante , the urbanized areas of the communes of Padre Hurtado and Peñaflor .
Capital of Chile
Since its founding, Santiago has been the main city in Chile. During the colonial era, the governor of the Kingdom of Chile maintained his residence in front of the Plaza de Armas, without prejudice to the fact that Concepción was the center of military actions at the beginning of the Arauco War , with the governor spending long periods in that city. The second Royal Audience had its headquarters in the city from 1609 to 1811 , being reopened during the Reconquest ( 1814 - 1818 ).
With the independence of the country, the capital remained in Santiago, where the new political institutions settled. The representative bodies of the three powers of the State remained in Santiago since that time, with the exception of the National Congress that met in Valparaíso during 1828 and was transferred to that city in 1990 in order to promote the decentralization of power. Despite this, a good part of the political activity continues to take place in Santiago, which is why on several occasions the possibility of returning the Congress headquarters to the national capital has been debated. [ 79 ]
The vast majority of national public services and State institutions have their headquarters in Santiago, with very few exceptions, among which are the Commander in Chief of the Chilean Navy , the Undersecretariat of Fisheries and Aquaculture , the National Fisheries Service , the National Customs Service and the National Council for Culture and the Arts , located in Valparaíso, the Forest Institute , in San Pedro de la Paz ; and the Chilean Antarctic Institute , in Punta Arenas .
In Santiago is the Palace of the Courts of Justice of Santiago , a building that houses the Supreme Court of Justice of Chile , the Court of Appeals of Santiago and the Martial Court of the Army , Air Force and Carabineros . It is located in the commune of Santiago , on Compañía Street, between Morandé and Bandera , in front of Montt Varas Square .
Symbols of the city
Santiago received the title of city on February 12 , 1552 by the Spanish Empire ; With this title, the city needed a coat of arms that represented the honors granted by the monarchy. Thus, the emperor Carlos V granted the shield corresponding to the city, on April 5 of the same year. The certificate that granted this honor said:
[...] inasmuch as Alonso de Aguilera, Procurator General of the provinces of Chile, on behalf of the city of Santiago, [...] and begged us that in that name, that in compliance with the aforementioned, we would send signals for weapons to the said city, according to how the other cities and towns of our Indies had them or as our mercy was; And we, complying with the aforementioned, we had it for good, and hereby we do mercy, we want and we command that now and from now on the said city of Santiago has and has for its known arms a shield that there is on it a lion of its color with his sword drawn in his hand in the field of silver and Orla 8 scallops of gold field blue, according to that here it is painted and figurative, in a shield like this one; Which said weapons we give to said city with its weapons and currency.
Shield between 1863 - 1913
This shield was used during colonial times, but during the 19th century it lost its use and in 1863 a new emblem was adopted which consisted of a coat of arms that contained in its upper half some hills and in its lower part a field of azure that represented the sea, featuring in the center a band with the word "Mapocho"; the emblem had notable similarities to the coat of arms of the municipality of Los Andes . There were also numerous variants of the shield, in which some colors were altered, the lower field was changed for a panoramic view of the city, or laurel wreaths were added to both sides of the shield and even a star at its upper end. [ 81 ]This shield would last until 1913 , the year in which the shield of Hispanic origin was re-adopted. [ 80 ] Later, a flag composed of two vertical stripes in blue and gold would be adopted, on which the coat of arms is imposed.
With the expansion of the city and its subsequent division into communes, they adopted their own emblems, leaving the use of both the shield and the flag for the city and the commune of Santiago .
| Santiago Population [ n 11 ] |
(percentage of the total population, 2017) [ 82 ]
According to the data collected in the 2017 census carried out by the National Institute of Statistics , the population that made up the metropolitan area of Santiago reached 6,257,516 inhabitants, equivalent to 35.6% of the national total and 87.98% of the regional total. [ n 2 ] This figure reflects the broad growth in the city's population during the 20th century : in 1907 there were 383,587 inhabitants, 1,010,102 in 1940 , 2,009,118 in 1960 , 3,899,619 in 1982 , 4,729,118 in 1992 and 5,428,590 in 2002 . [ 83 ]
Santiago's growth has undergone various changes throughout its history. In its early years, it had a growth rate of 2.68% per year until the seventeenth century , subsequently dropping to figures of less than 2% per year until the beginning of the twentieth century . In the middle of that century there was a demographic explosion that is explained by the fact that, as the capital, it successively absorbed the migration from the mining camps in northern Chile during the crisis of the 1930s and the population coming from the rural sectors between the 1940s and 1960s , mainly. The large amount of migration added to the highThe fertility rate at that time was reflected in annual growth figures that reached 4.92% between 1952 and 1960 . However, since the end of that century, growth figures have fallen again, reaching 1.35% in the early 2000s . [ 85 ] Similarly, the size of the city has been constantly expanding. The 20,000 hectares that Santiago covered in 1960 doubled before 1980 and in 2002 reached 86,778 hectares. Thus, the density of population in Santiago was 6,255.9 inhabitants / km² in 2002. [ 84 ]
The population of Santiago has been aging during the last decades, both due to the decrease in fertility and the improvement in the quality of life. According to the 2017 census, [ n 11 ] 27.04% of men and 24.51% of women in the communes of Santiago were under 20 years old, while 13.56% and 17.76% were over 60 years, respectively. [ 86 ] In contrast, the total number of those under 20 years of age in 1992 was 38.04% and those over 60, just 8.86%. [ 82 ]
4,313,719 people in Chile affirmed that they were born in one of the communes of Greater Santiago according to the 2002 census, equivalent to 28.54% of the national total. Of the inhabitants of Santiago at that date, [ n 11 ] 67.6% claimed to be born in the communes of the metropolitan area while 2.11% were foreign immigrants . [ 87 ] Meanwhile, 3.3% of the population of Santiago [ n 11 ] stated that they belonged to an indigenous ethnic group: 3.16% of the people of Santiago were considered Mapuche , 0.05% Aymara , 0 , 03% Quechua and 0.02% as Rapa Nui . [ 87]
Distribution of population
Due to the great expansion that Santiago has had, throughout its history, its population has expanded the initial limits of the city from the Santa Lucía hill to sectors of the foothills and the banks of the Maipo river in the east to the plains of Maipú by the west. This caused a constant displacement of the main centers of population concentration from the center, which adopted the style of a financial district , towards the periphery.
At present, a large part of the inhabitants are located in the peripheral sectors, with the municipalities of Puente Alto and Maipú (the two largest in the country) more than 500,000 inhabitants each, while La Florida and San Bernardo have over 300,000 settlers each. [ 86 ] Communes like Quilicura , in the extreme northwest, reached growth rates of over 20% between the decade of the 1990s and 2000, while some central communes such as Pedro Aguirre Cerda , Independencia or San Joaquín reached negative figures in that period . [ 87]
This trend, however, has slowed in the last decade. The most central communes have experienced important processes of densification and verticalization. According to the 2017 census, the commune of Santiago became the third most populated in the country, with a total of 404,495 inhabitants, [ 86 ] doubling its population in 15 years.
The expansion of the city has also generated the notorious differentiation between the different sectors of the city. Thus, for example, the northeastern sector (generally grouping the communes of Providencia , Ñuñoa , La Reina , Vitacura , Las Condes and Lo Barnechea ), together with Huechuraba , in the northern sector of Santiago , has established itself as a refuge for the more affluent class , becoming the place with the best quality of life in the country. [ 88 ] The peripheral sectors, both in the southwest and thesoutheast over Quilicura , have developed hand in hand with the growth of the middle class since the 1980s , while classes with fewer resources are located in various districts of the sector norponiente and especially the area south of the capital.
According to the CASEN survey of the year 2006 , approximately 10.44% of the inhabitants of Santiago live under the line of poverty . San Bernardo is the commune with the highest number of poor people, reaching 20.9% of its population, followed by Lo Espejo with 20.1%, Renca with 19.2% and Padre Hurtado with 18.7%. Those with the lowest rate are those in the eastern sector, which do not exceed 5% as a whole (and Las Condes, which reaches the minimum with just 2.3%) and San Miguel, which has 2.5%, preferably inhabited by population. middle class. [ 89 ]
Product of its foundation by Spanish colonizers, Santiago was for many years a deeply Catholic city . In fact, the name of the city was placed in honor of Santiago el Mayor , one of the twelve apostles and patron saint of Spain . As in other parts of the country, Catholicism remained strong until the early 20th century , when the secularization of the state diminished its power at the national level. Although it continues to be the main religion of the city, over the years it has lost ground due to the entry of various Protestant currents , and the growth of agnosticism.and atheism . The Archdiocese of Santiago de Chile , headed by Monsignor Celestino Aós Braco , exercises Catholic ecclesiastical jurisdiction in 35 of the 40 communes of Greater Santiago; the rest are under the prelature of the diocese of San Bernardo .
According to the latest census, 67.91% of Santiago residents over 15 years of age declared to be Catholic. This percentage increases mainly in the communes with the highest incomes ( Pirque reaches 81.8% and Vitacura , 77.92%) while it decreases in those with minors, with a minimum of 57.84%, in La Pintana . This is mainly explained by the large increase in members of the evangelical church , to which 13.20% of the people from Santiago adhere and which has its maximum number of followers in La Pintana, with 23.82%; On the other hand, in Providencia they only represent 3.68% of the population. [ 87 ]
Other religious denominations that are important are Jehovah's Witnesses with 1.18%, Mormonism with 0.92% and Judaism with 0.28%, although in communes such as Vitacura and Las Condes it exceeds 2%. The Islam and the Orthodox Church have subpar records with 0.03% and 0.12% respectively and relate mainly to immigrants. 5.51% declare belonging to another religion, including the Bahá'í Faith , which has its ninth world temple and the first South American in Santiago. [ 90 ]Finally, 10.85% of those over 15 years of age declared that they did not belong to any religion, reaching its maximum in the communes of the middle and upper-middle class, with 17.60% in Providencia. [ 87 ]
The city of Santiago is the main pole of economic development in Chile and one of the most important in Latin America . Its most important financial centers and business centers are Sanhattan , located between the communes of Providencia , Las Condes and Vitacura , and Ciudad Empresarial, commune of Huechuraba . According to the Central Bank , the gross domestic product of the Metropolitan Region in 2005 was 24,461,582 million Chilean pesos (approx. USD 35,380 million) [ 91 ]And that it was equivalent to 43.68% of the total national GDP and 46.98% of the national regionalized GDP. [ 92 ] This figure, adjusted for purchasing power parity, increases to USD 91 billion, which places it as the 53rd city with the highest income, and the fifth largest city in Latin America (after Mexico City , Buenos Aires , São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro ). By 2020 , its GDP (PPP) would reach USD 170 billion with an effective annual growth rate of 4.1%.
79.81% of the regional gross domestic product comes from the tertiary sector, highlighting that 26.16% of GDP comes solely from financial and business services and 13.99% from trade . The industry produces 19.50% of GDP, the agricultural sector only 1.06% and mining 0.93%, mainly due to the copper company Disputada de Las Condes . Regarding the generation of added value by national sectors, Santiago generates 45.22% of that produced by the industrial sector, 42.93% from the construction sector, 52.22% from the transport sector, 64 37% from the commercial sector and 76.79% from the financial sector. 
The main economic institutions of the country are located in Santiago, including the Santiago Stock Exchange (whose main stock index is the IPSA ), and the vast majority of the headquarters of national and transnational companies. Thanks to the signing of free trade agreements signed since the 2000s with the United States , the European Union , China , Japan and South Korea , among others, various international multinationals have used Santiago as a platform to enter the Latin American market. According to AméricaEconomía magazine, Santiago is one of the best cities to do business in Latin America, being among the top positions on several occasions [ 93 ] and even in 2007 it tied for the top position with Miami . [ 94 ] In terms of commerce, this has been enhanced by the creation of several shopping centers in various areas of the capital and the rise of supermarkets , although to the detriment of local stores and traditional commercial neighborhoods such as Patronato or Franklin .
The capital is also an important center for national tourism development , as it is the main gateway to the country through the international airport and the nearby Los Libertadores trans-Andean pass ; both account for 55.2% of the total number of people who enter the country per year, which is equivalent to 1,119,840 people in 2005 . [ 95 ] In addition, the main national tourist destination: a study by the National Tourism Service determined that 52.3% of tourists (both national and international) were destined for the category "Santiago and its surroundings", to which 2.9% is added corresponding to « winter resorts», Mostly located to the east of the capital. [ 96 ] At the regional level, there are 221 hotel establishments with a total capacity of 9,240 rooms and 17,147 beds. [ 95 ] This figure has been steadily increasing in recent years, especially in the range above the 3-star category due to the establishment of various international chains.
The basic services are mainly in the hands of private companies since the late 1980s and early 1990s . Enel Distribución Chile is in charge of electricity distribution in 33 communes of Santiago, while in the communes of La Pintana , El Bosque , San Bernardo , Puente Alto and the southern part of the Metropolitan Region they are served by the Compañía General de Electricidad , CGE , both electric companies served by the Central Interconnected System . Regarding drinking waterand the sewerage service include Aguas Andinas , owned by the Agbar Group , its subsidiaries and the municipal company SMAPA that covers Maipú and its surroundings. Metrogas is in charge of the distribution of natural gas coming mainly from southern Argentina through the GasAndes pipeline .
Culture and society
Heritage and monuments
Within the Santiago metropolitan area, there are 174 heritage sites under the custody of the Council of National Monuments, [ 97 ] among which are archaeological, architectural and historical monuments, as well as neighborhoods and typical areas. Of these, 93 are within the commune of Santiago , considered the historic center of the city. [ 98 ] Although no monument in Santiago has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO , three have already been proposed by the Chilean government: the Inca sanctuary of Cerro El Plomo , thechurch and convent of San Francisco and the palace of La Moneda . [ 99 ]
In the center of Santiago there are various buildings built during the Spanish domination and that, for the most part, correspond to Catholic temples, such as the Metropolitan Cathedral or the already mentioned Church of San Francisco. Other buildings of the time are those located on the sides of the Plaza de Armas , such as the headquarters of the Royal Court , the Central Post Office or the Casa Colorada .
During the 19th century and the advent of independence, new architectural works began to be erected in the capital of the young republic. The aristocracy built small palaces for residential use, mainly in the vicinity of the República neighborhood , and which are preserved to this day. To this are added other structures that adopted artistic currents from Europe, such as the Club Hípico de Santiago , the central houses of the University of Chile and the Catholic University , the Central Station and the Mapocho Station , the Central Market , theNational Library , the Museum of Fine Arts and the Paris-London neighborhood , among others.
Diverse green areas in the city contain in their interior and in their surroundings diverse sites of patrimonial character. Among the most important are the fortifications of the Santa Lucía hill , the sanctuary of the Virgin Mary at the top of the San Cristóbal hill , the lavish crypts of the General Cemetery of Santiago , the Forest Park , the O'Higgins Park and the Quinta Normal Park. .
Cultural activities and entertainment
In Santiago the main companies are located theater , lodging diverse national and international works, and reach their greatest expression during the Festival Internacional Santiago a Mil , which takes place every summer since 1994. [ 100 ]
For the realization of various cultural, artistic and musical events, there are various venues within which the Estación Mapocho Cultural Center , the Matucana 100 Cultural Center , the Gabriela Mistral Cultural Center , the Palacio de La Moneda Cultural Center , the Movistar Arena and the Caupolicán Theater . On the other hand, for opera , ballet and classical music presentations , the Municipal Theater of Santiago , located in the heart of the city, and the Municipal Theater of Las Condes stand out .
There are several cinemas in the capital , with a total of more than 49 thousand seats, [ 101 ] to which are added art film projection centers. In recent years we have developed several film festivals in the city, being the highlight the Santiago International Film Festival , created in 2005. [ 102 ]
For children and young people there are various entertainment centers, such as the Fantasilandia amusement park , the National Zoo located on the San Cristóbal hill or the Buin Zoo on the outskirts of the city. The neighborhoods Bellavista , Lastarria , Brazil , Italy , Plaza Ñuñoa and Vitacura avenue concentrate a large part of the city's nightclubs, restaurants and bars, being the main centers of night-time entertainment in the capital. In order to promote the economic development of the other regions, the law prohibits the construction of acasino gaming within the metropolitan area, [ 103 ] but nearby are the casinos Enjoy Santiago and Monticello Grand Casino , both located just over the northern regional boundary and south, respectively, in addition to the traditional casino of Viña of the Sea , 120 kilometers away from Santiago.
Museums and Libraries
Santiago is home to a large number of museums of different types, among which are the three of the «National» category administered by the National Service of Cultural Heritage : the National Historical Museum , the National Museum of Fine Arts and the National Museum of History. Natural . [ 106 ]
Most of the museums are located in the historic center of the city, occupying the old buildings of colonial origin, such as the National Historical Museum, which is located in the Palacio de la Real Audiencia . The Casa Colorada houses the Santiago Museum, while the Colonial Art Museum is installed in a wing of the San Francisco church and the Pre-Columbian Art Museum occupies part of the former Palacio de la Aduana . The Museum of Fine Arts, although it is located in the center of the city, occupies a building that was built at the beginning of the 20th centuryespecially to house said museum, and in the back of the building the Museum of Contemporary Art was established in 1947 , dependent on the Faculty of Arts of the University of Chile .
The Quinta Normal Park also has several museums, including the aforementioned Natural History Museum, the Artequin Museum , the Science and Technology Museum and the Railway Museum . In addition, close to the Quinta Normal is, since 2010, the Museum of Memory and Human Rights . In other sectors of the city there are various museums, such as the Aeronautical Museum in Cerrillos, La Chascona , home of the poet Pablo Neruda in Providencia, the Fashion Museum in Vitacura, the Mirador Interactive Museum in La Granja and the Carmen Museum in Maipú.
As for public libraries , the most important is the National Library located in the heart of Santiago. Its origins date back to 1813, when it was created by the nascent Republic and was transferred to its current premises a century later, which also house the headquarters of the National Archive . In order to provide closer proximity to the population, incorporate new technologies and complement the services provided by municipal libraries and the National Library, the Santiago Library was inaugurated in 2005 in the Yungay neighborhood . [ 107 ]
According to the 2002 census figures, 89.49% of Santiago's population [ n 11 ] over 5 years of age is literate , slightly more than the national average. When distributing the population over 5 years of age according to their years of schooling, the majority (18.87%) are 12 years old while 5.39% affirm that they have not attended at least one year; On average, the inhabitants of Santiago have a schooling of 9.26 years of study. [ 87 ] At present, almost all minors between 5 and 18 years of age are studying Basic General Education and Secondary Education , which make up the twelve years of compulsory education.established in 2003 by the Constitution . Within the Metropolitan Region there are 2,576 urban kindergarten, primary and secondary education establishments that are equivalent to 21.90% of the national total, of which 611 are municipally owned, 1615 are privately subsidized, 317 individuals and 33 delegated administration corporations . [ 108 ] Regarding the number of students, the total at the regional level in 2007 is 1,405,200 students in kindergarten, primary or secondary education. [ 109 ]
Chilean higher education has historically been the object of a high concentration in the Chilean capital. Since colonial times, it is in this city of the Captaincy General where the first university study centers were installed. In 1622 the University of Santo Tomás began to function in the Dominican convent , and the following year the Jesuits inaugurated the San Francisco Javier Convictorio , also known as Carolino Convictorio . The latter would function until the expulsion and suppression of the Company. The religious matrix of both institutions was surpassed when it was created by royal decreeof Felipe V of 1647 the Royal University of San Felipe , which absorbed the Dominican institution. This corporation functioned regularly until the advent of the Independence of Chile , when the National Institute was created in order to modify the higher education schemes. [ 110 ]
The nascent republic would create in 1842 , under the auspices of the Chilean-Venezuelan Andrés Bello , the University of Chile , an organization that would play a preponderant and exclusive role in higher education for more than fifty years. In 1848 the School of Arts and Crafts was also created , as an institution dedicated to technical education . The School would later make up the main nucleus of the Technical University of the State (in 1947 ) and the University of Santiago de Chile (in 1981 ). At the end of the 19th centuryIn view of the secular attitude adopted by the state university, the Archbishopric of Santiago created the Catholic University in 1888 , which would dispute the training of new students with the University of Chile. [ 110 ] Santiago centralism in higher education would not be surpassed until 1919 , when the University of Concepción was created in the city of the same name , to serve students from the south of the country.
In 2005, 49.7% of higher education students nationwide were concentrated in the Metropolitan Region (where almost all of the schools are within the urban area of Santiago), which is equivalent to 663,679 students. Of these, 25.77% do so in traditional universities , 44.70% in private universities , 19.62% in technical training centers and 9.91% in professional institutes . [ 111 ] The city is home to the headquarters of the main universities in the country, five of them belonging to the Council of Rectors : from Chile , from Santiago ,Católica , UMCE and Metropolitan Technological University (UTEM) .
The main sport practiced in Santiago is soccer , as in the rest of the country. In 1903 the Santiago Soccer Association was founded , bringing together the first clubs in this sport. Although Valparaíso was the main football venue at the time, Santiago began to compete for hegemony in the 1920s and finally the headquarters of the Chilean Football Federation moved its headquarters from the port to the capital. Of the 103 national professional soccer tournaments held since 1933 , a team from Santiago has won 83 times.
Currently, nine teams from Santiago play in Chilean professional soccer, of which six are active in the First Division ( Audax Italiano , Colo-Colo , Palestino , Unión Española , Universidad Católica and Universidad de Chile ) and three in the Primera B ( Barnechea , Magallanes and Santiago Morning ). Colo-Colo, Universidad de Chile and Universidad Católica are considered the main teams in the country, reaching not only important participations in the national championship but also in international events (such as the Copa Libertadoresor the South American Cup ). These teams traditionally play the Superclassic and the University Classic , and together they are the most popular in the country, with an estimated 89% of the national population. [ 112 ]
The main sports venue in the country is the National Stadium of Chile , inaugurated in 1938 , and with a maximum capacity of 47,000 spectators [ 113 ] it is the headquarters of the Chilean soccer team when it plays at home. Other important stadiums are the David Arellano Monumental Stadium , the San Carlos de Apoquindo Stadium , the Santa Laura Stadium and the Florida Municipal Bicentennial Stadium .
Various sports are practiced in Santiago, but they are much less popular than soccer. Although historically the city has hosted matches of the Chilean team of Davis Cup (including the end of 1976 ), in recent years has lost hegemony in the courts , including the transfer of the Chile Open to Viña of the Sea in 2001 . Regarding basketball , Universidad Católica has been the DIMAYOR champion 5 times . The Chilean rodeoUnlike the smaller cities, it is not practiced much and rodeos are carried out mainly in rural areas of communes such as San Bernardo and Maipú or on rare occasions in the Medialuna Las Condes . During the National Holidays , more rodeos are carried out in the so-called Chilean Week . As for athletics, the largest event held annually is the Santiago Marathon , which hosts around 30 thousand participants, including professionals and amateurs, who participate in the Marathon , Half Marathon and 10k categories jogging through the streets of Santiago.
Santiago has a privileged location next to the Andes for the development of winter sports . To the northeast of the city, less than 35 kilometers away, are the winter resorts of El Colorado , Farellones , La Parva and Valle Nevado , the latter the one with the largest skiable area in the southern hemisphere [ 114 ] and the venue for the world championship of snowboard organized by FIS . [ 115 ] Another ski center, Lagunillas, is located southeast of the capital but is smaller than the previous ones.
Major sporting events
The city has hosted several important events. In Santiago they have played the finals of the America 's Cup ( 1926 , 1941 , 1945 , 1955 , 1991 and 2015 ) of the 1953 FIBA World Championship for Women , for the 1959 FIBA World Championship , the 1962 FIFA World Cup , the 1976 Davis Cup , the World Championships Polo in 1992 and 2015 , the World Youth Cup in 1987 and theU-20 Women's Soccer World Cup 2008 .
Regarding multisport tournaments, Santiago hosted the South American Games on two occasions : the III edition ( 1986 ) and the X edition (2014). Regarding the Pan American Games , the city has been elected four times, but to date it has not yet been able to organize the event. Economic and political problems forced the resignation of the events of 1975 and 1987 , while the II Pan American Winter Games set for 1993 were canceled by PASO.due to the lack of interest of the participants and administrative problems. Currently, Santiago is preparing for the organization of the Pan American Games of 2023 , after having been elected as the venue for said event by the members of PASO.
South American City
South American City
Pan American City
Headquarters to be defined
The city of Santiago has two main types of connection with other cities in the country as well as the rest of the world: its international airport and the national highway network. Air transport uses the Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport , located in the Pudahuel commune , 13 kilometers northeast of the city center. The airport, which has been considered one of the most modern in Latin America on multiple occasions, [ 116 ] was used in 2019 by 24,630,742 passengers, of which 11,000,491 were international and 13,630,251 domestic. [ 117 ] Pudahuel airport was opened in 1967as a replacement for the old Los Cerrillos Airport , which functioned as an airfield until its closure in 2005 . Other take-off places are the El Bosque Air Base , the Vitacura Municipal Aerodrome and the Eulogio Sánchez Aerodrome , but almost closed to public transport. [ 118 ]