Natural satellite - Satélite natural

Lunas.jpg

A natural satellite is a celestial body that orbits a planet . The satellite is generally smaller and accompanies the planet in its orbit around its parent star . Unlike the fragments that orbit in a ring , it is the only body in its orbit. The term natural satellite is contrasted with that of artificial satellite , the latter being an object that revolves around the Earth , the Moon or some planets and that has been manufactured by humans.

In the case of the Moon , which has a mass approximately 1/81 of the mass of the Earth , it could be considered as a system of two planets orbiting together (binary system of planets). Such is the case with Pluto and its satellite Charon . If two objects have similar masses, it is often referred to as a binary system instead of a primary object and a satellite. The usual criterion for considering an object as a satellite is that the center of mass of the system formed by the two objects is within the primary object. The highest point in the satellite's orbit is known as the apoapsis.

By extension the satellites of other planets are called moons . It is said "the four moons of Jupiter ", but also, "the four moons of Jupiter." Also by extension, a natural satellite or moon is called any natural body that revolves around a celestial body, even if it is not a planet , as is the case of the asteroid satellite Dactyl that revolves around the asteroid (243) Ida , etc.

Classification of satellites in the solar system

Satellite orbit

In the solar system , satellites can be classified as:

  • Shepherd satellites : When they keep a ring of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus or Neptune in place.
  • Trojan satellites : When a planet and an important satellite have other satellites at the Lagrange points L 4 and L 5 .
  • Coorbital satellites : When they rotate in the same orbit. The Trojan satellites are coorbital, but so are the satellites of Saturn Janus and Epimetheus, which are less than their size in their orbits and instead of colliding they exchange their orbits.
  • Asteroid satellites : Some asteroids have satellites around them like (243) Ida and its satellite Dactyl. The October of August of 2005 the discovery was announced an asteroid (87) Silvia that have two satellites spinning around, Romulus and Remus. [ 1 ] Romulus, the first satellite, was discovered on February 18 , 2001 at the 10- meter WM Keck II telescope on Mauna Kea. It has 18 kmin diameter and its orbit, at a distance of 1,370 km from Silvia, takes 87.6 hours to complete. Remo, the second satellite, is 7 km in diameter and rotates at a distance of 710 km, taking 33 hours to complete an orbit around Silvia.

Since all natural satellites follow their orbit due to the force of gravity , the movement of the primary object is also affected by the satellite. This phenomenon allowed in some cases the discovery of extrasolar planets

Satellite satellites

Artist's impression of the hypothetical rings of Rhea (Saturnian satellite)

There are no known moons of moons (natural satellites that orbit a natural satellite of another body). In most cases, the tidal effects of the primary would make such a system unstable.

However, calculations made after the recent detection [ 2 ] of a possible ring system for Rhea (Saturn's natural satellite) indicate that satellites orbiting Rhea would have stable orbits. In addition, the suspicious rings are believed to be narrow, [ 3 ] a phenomenon normally associated with shepherd moons . However, specific images taken by the Cassini spacecraft did not detect any Rhea-associated rings. [ 4 ]

It has also been proposed that Iapetus , satellite of Saturn, possessed a sub-satellite in the past; this is one of several hypotheses that have been proposed to account for its equatorial crest. [ 5 ]

Natural satellites in the solar system

In the planets and dwarf planets of the solar system 181 satellites are known , distributed:

Satellites in the solar system (May 2014)
Astronomical object No. of satellites Names Wikipedia article
Land 1 Luna
Mars 2 Deimos and Phobos Satellites of mars
Jupiter 79 Adrastea , aitne , Amalthea , Ananké , Aedes , Arce , Autónoe , Caldona , Cale , Goblet , Calírroe , Calisto , Carmen , Carpo , Cyllene , Elara , erinome , espond , Euanthe , Eukélade , Eupora , Eurydome , Europa , Ganymede , harpalyke, Hegemon , Helike , Hermipé , Herse , Himalia , Ío , Isonoé , Kallichore , Kore , Leda , Lisitea , Megaclite , Metz , mnēmeia , Ortosia , Pasif , Pasítea , Praxidicus , Sinope , Taigete , Tebe , Temisto , Telxínoe , Tione , Yocasta, S/2000 J 11, S/2003 J 2, S/2003 J 3, S/2003 J 4, S/2003 J 5, S/2003 J 9, S/2003 J 10, S/2003 J 12, S/2003 J 15, S/2003 J 16, S/2003 J 18, S/2003 J 19, S/2003 J 23, S/2010 J 1, S/2010 J 2, S/2011 J 1 y S/2011 J 2 Jupiter satellites
Saturn 82 Aegir , Albiorix , Anthe , , Atlas , Bebhionn , Bergelmir , Bestla , Calipso is , Dafne , that Dione , Egeon , Encelado , Epimeteo , Erriapo , Farbauti , Febe in , Fenrir , Fornjot , Greip , Hati , in Helena , Hiperion , Hyrokkin , Ijiraq , Jano ,Japeto , Jarnsaxa , Kari , Kiviuq , Loge , Metone , Mimas , Mundilfari , Narvi , Paaliaq , Palene , in the Pan , Pandora , Pollux , Prometeo , Rea , Siarnaq , Skadi , Skoll , Surtur , Suttungr , Tarqeq , Tarvos , Telesto , Tetis ,Thrymr, Titán, Ymir, S/2004 S 7, S/2004 S 12, S/2004 S 13, S/2004 S 17, S/2006 S 1, S/2006 S 3, S/2007 S 2, S/2007 S 3, S/2009 S 1 (+3 sin confirmar S/2004 S 3, S/2004 S 4 y S/2004 S 6) Saturn satellites
Uranus 27 Ariel , Belinda , Bianca , Calibán , Cordelia , Crésida , Cupido , Desdémona , Francisco , Ferdinando , Julieta , Mab , Margarita , Miranda , Oberón , Ofelia , Perdita , Porcia , Prospero , Puck , Rosalinda , Setebos , Sicorax , Stefano , Titania, Trinculo and Umbriel Uranus Satellites
Neptuno 14 Despina , Galatea , Halimede , Laomedeia , Larisa , Náyade , Nereida , Neso , Proteo , Psámate , Sao , S / 2004 N 1 , Talasa y Tritón Neptune satellites
Pluto 5 Charon , Hidra , Nix , Cerberus , Estigia Pluto satellites
Would like 1 MK2
Eris 1 Dysnomia
Haumea 2 Hi'iaka y Namaka . Haumea satellites
Orcus 1 Vanth
Quaoar 1 Weywot .

The planets Mercury and Venus do not have any natural satellites, nor does the dwarf planet Ceres . Successive unmanned missions have increased these numbers from time to time by discovering new satellites, and may still do so in the future.

Size of natural satellites in the solar system

The largest natural satellites Seven of the solar system (over 2500 km in diameter) are the four jovianas- Galilean moons Ganymede , Callisto , Io and Europa - the moon of Saturn Titan , self - Moon of Earth and satellite natural captured from Neptune Triton . Triton, the smallest of that group, has more mass than all the smaller remaining natural satellites put together. Similarly, in the next size group of nine natural satellites, between 1000 and 1600 km in diameter - Titania , Oberon , Rea , Iapetus, Charon , Ariel , Umbriel , Dione, and Tethys - the smallest, Tethys, has more mass than all the remaining minor satellites put together. In addition to the natural satellites of the planets, there are also more than 80 known natural satellites of dwarf planets, asteroids, and other minor bodies in the solar system. Some studies estimate that up to 15% of all trans-Neptunian objects could have satellites.

Here is a comparative chart that classifies natural satellites in the solar system by their diameter. Some notable planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, and other trans-Neptunian objects are listed in the right column for comparison. The natural satellites of the planets are named after mythological figures. These are predominantly Greek, except for the natural satellites of Uranus , which are named after Shakespearean characters . The nineteen bodies massive enough to have reached hydrostatic equilibriumthey are in bold in the table below. Minor planets and satellites suspected, but not proven to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, are in italics in the table below.

Size of satellites in the solar system (May 2014)
Main diameter
(km)
Planets satellites Satellites of dwarf planets Satellites of other minor planets Other bodies (for comparison)
Land Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptuno Pluto Haumea Would like Eris
4000-6000 Ganymede
Callisto
Titan Mercury
3000-4000 Luna Ío
Europa
2000-3000 Triton Eris
Pluto
1000-2000 Rea
Japeto
Dione
Tetis
Titania
Oberon
Umbriel
Ariel
Charon Makemake
Haumea
(225088) 2007 OR10 ,
Quaoar
500-1000 Enceladus (90377) Sedna , Ceres ,
(120347) Salacia , (90482) Orcus ,
(2) Palas , (4) Vesta
many more TNOs
250-500 Mimas
Hyperion
Miranda Proteo
Nereida
Hi'iaka Dysnomia Orcus I Vanth (10) Higia
(704) Interamnia
(87) Silvia
and many others
100-250 Amaltea
Himalia
Tebe
Febe
Jano
Epimeteo
Sicorax
Puck
Porcia
Larisa
Galatea
Despina
Namaka MK2 S / 2005 (82075)
Sila – Nunam
Salacia I Actaea
Ceto I Phorcys
Patroclus I Menoetius
~ 21 more moons of TNOs
3 Juno
(15760) 1992 QB1
(5) Astrea
(42355) Typhon
and many others
50-100 Elara
Pasífae
Prometeo
Pandora
Caliban
Julieta
Belinda
Cresida
Rosalinda
Desdémona
Bianca
Talasa
Halimede
Neso
Náyade
Hydra
Nix
Quaoar I Weywot
90 Antiope I
Typhon I Echidna
Logos I Zoe
5 más lunas de lunas de TNOs
(90) Antiope
58534 Logos
(253) Matilde
and many others
25-50 Carme
Metis
Sinope
Lisitea
Ananke
Siarnaq
Helena
Albiorix
Atlas
Pan
Ofelia
Cordelia
Setebos
Prospero
Perdita
Stepano
Sao
Laomedeia
Psámate
22 Caliope I Lino (1036) Ganymed
243 Ida
and many others
10-25 Phobos
Deimos
Leda
Adrastea
Telesto
Paaliaq
Calipso
Ymir
Kiviuq
Tarvos
Ijiraq
Erriapo
Mab
Cupid
Francisco
Ferdinando
Margarita
Trínculo
S/2004 N 1 Cerberus
Estigia
(762) Pulcova
Sylvia I Rómulo
(624) Héctor
Eugenia I Petit-Prince
(121) Hermiona
(283) Emma I
(1313) Berna
(107) Camila
433 Eros
(1313) Bern
and many others
< 10 51 moons 36 moons Sylvia II Remus
Ida I Dactyl
and many others
Many

Visual summary

Satellites of the Solar System
Ganymede g1 true.jpg
Two Halves of Titan.png
Callisto.jpg
Io, moon of Jupiter, NASA.jpg
Full Moon Luc Viatour.jpg
Europa-moon.jpg
Triton moon mosaic Voyager 2 (large).jpg
Ganymede
(satellite of Jupiter)
Titan
(satellite of Saturn)
Callisto
(Jupiter satellite)
Io
(Jupiter satellite)
Moon
(Earth's satellite)
Europa
(Jupiter satellite)
Triton
(satellite of Neptune)
Titania (moon) color.jpg
Rhea true color.jpg
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg
Iapetus.jpg
PIA00040 Umbrielx2.47.jpg
Ariel USGS.png
Dione in natural light.jpg
Titania
(satellite of Uranus)
Rhea
(satellite of Saturn)
Oberon
(satellite of Uranus)
Japetus
(Saturn satellite)
Umbriel
(Uranus satellite)
Ariel
(satellite of Uranus)
Dione
(Saturn satellite)
Tethys cassini.jpg
Enceladus (Mond) (15411804) .jpg
PIA18185 Miranda's Icy Face.jpg
Proteus (Voyager 2) .jpg
Mimas PIA12569.jpg
Hyperion in natural colours.jpg
Phoebe cassini.jpg
Tethys
(satellite of Saturn)
Enceladus
(Saturn satellite)
Miranda
(satellite of Uranus)
Proteus
(satellite of Neptune)
Mimas
(Saturn satellite)
Hyperion
(satellite of Saturn)
Phoebe
(satellite of Saturn)
PIA12714 Janus crop.jpg
Amalthea (moon).png
PIA09813 Epimetheus S. polar region.jpg
Thebe.gif
Prometheus 12-26-09a.jpg
Flying By Pandora.jpg
Leading hemisphere of Helene - 20110618.jpg
Janus
(satellite of Saturn)
Amaltea
(Jupiter satellite)
Epimeteo
(Saturn satellite)
Tebe
(Jupiter's satellite)
Prometheus
(satellite of Saturn)
Pandora
(satellite of Saturn)
Helena
(Saturn satellite)
Atlas (NASA) .jpg
Telesto cassini closeup.jpg
N00151485 Calypso crop.jpg
Phobos colour 2008.jpg
Deimos-MRO.jpg
Methone PIA14633.jpg
Atlas
(satellite of Saturn)
Telesto
(Saturn satellite)
Calypso
(Saturn satellite)
Phobos
(satellite of Mars)
Deimos
(Mars satellite)
Metone
(Saturn satellite)

See also

References

external links