|Centuries||18th century • 19th century • 20th century|
|Decades||1800 • 1810 • 1820 • 1830 • 1840 • 1850 • 1860 • 1870 • 1880 • 1890|
|Annex: Annual table of the 19th century|
The century xix d. C. (nineteenth century after Christ ) or century XIX ec (nineteenth century of the Common Era ) was the ninth century of the second millennium in the Gregorian calendar . It began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900 . It is called the "century of industrialization ." [ 1 ]
The fundamental characteristic of this century is that it is a period of great change. The science and economics , the term is retroalimentarían scientific ', coined in 1833 by William Whewell , [ 2 ] [ 3 ] would be a fundamental part of the language of the time; the economy would undergo two strong industrial revolutions, the first one occurring between 1750 and 1840, and the second between 1880 and 1914. [ 4 ] In politics , the new ideas of the previous century would lay the foundations for bourgeois revolutionsRevolutions that would spread throughout the world through imperialism and would seek an alliance with the workers' movement to which they would yield universal suffrage ; in philosophy , the principles of most of the contemporary currents of thought would emerge, currents such as absolute idealism , dialectical materialism , nihilism and nationalism ; the Art delay in starting the process of cutting edge but remain grounded in movements like impressionism . At the end of this century, cinematography emergedand animation thanks to the great technological advances of the time.
The development of medicine is directly related to migratory phenomena, overcrowding in cities and the precarious living conditions of the working class since the Industrial Revolution . infectious diseases ( syphilis , tuberculosis ) or related to poor diet ( pellagra , rickets , scurvy ). These issues are crucial to understanding the origin of social medicine of Rudolf Virchow and the birth of the system of public health of Edwin Chadwickthat would give rise to the current preventive medicine . The Industrial Revolution itself, with the addition of numerous wars and revolutions, would generate a generalized scientific development that would contribute to the establishment of technical conditions for the triumph of asepsis , anesthesia and surgery . [ 5 ]
The bourgeois revolutions , promoters of freethinking citizens, build a new scientific and evidence - based medicine, detached from the mystical and craft. It culminates in the oppression of the old ethical canons of absolutism and Catholicism, establishing new canons, new calendars . The century XIX will be born experimental medicine of Claude Bernard , the theory of Omnia cellula to cellula of Rudolf Virchow , the germ theory of disease , the theory of evolution of species by Charles Darwin , and geneticsby Gregor Mendel .
By identifying microorganisms as causing many diseases, medicine advanced enormously, much faster than at any previous time in history. When this was known, methods such as antibiotics , sterilization began to be used, in addition there began to be a considerable increase in hygiene. All these advances achieved that the life expectancy that was only 30-40 years at the beginning of the XIX century increased to 50-60 years at the beginning of the XX century , being such a fast and effective advance never before achieved in the history of medicine.
The century is characterized by definitively breaking with the fusion that history had had with literature . Leopold von Ranke commits himself to a critical and skeptical story . It is influenced by the prevailing philosophical currents of the moment, such as liberalism and nationalism, even falling into ethnocentrism , racism, and particularly Eurocentrism . The reflections on Saint-Simon's society produce two tendencies that would modify the historiographic tendencies: positivism andhistorical materialism , also influenced by the Hegelian dialectic . Both understand that the behavior of history is subject to laws. The first conceives the development of history as ordered processes , the second conceives it as a result of conflicts between social strata .
In Europe, the 19th century was characterized by the birth of census democracies and the decline of absolute monarchies . [ 6 ] The French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic era would help spread republican and liberal ideas . Monarchs, if they survived, would become enlightened despots who acted permissively with the ruling class . The idea of left and right would arisefrom the French Revolution. Politicians would be identified with Jean-Paul Marat and Maximilien Robespierre , or with the Comte de Mirabeau and the Marquis de La Fayette . The transitory decline of the revolutions in favor of the restoration of the monarchies would only manage to strengthen them in more radical revolutionary waves such as those of 1848 , until the development of social ideologies and the labor movement , which would culminate in the triumph of the Russian Revolution in 1917 .
The emancipation of Latin America began in this century. The indigenous uprisings in the name of Túpac Amaru and the community members of Asunción would be the antecedents of a nascent identity . Identity that would be born and defended by the great Latin American heroes, promoters of the idea of a Latin American nation: Francisco de Miranda , José Miguel Carrera , Bernardo O'Higgins , José Joaquín de Olmedo , Francisco de Paula Santander , Antonio José de Sucre , Simón Bolívar , José de San Martín ,Mariano Moreno , Manuel Belgrano , Antonio Nariño , José Gervasio Artigas and Juan Pablo Duarte . His revolution, constituted within the framework of the bourgeois revolutions, would be strictly Latin American. Their revolutions would largely fail because of caudillismos , interests of the local bourgeoisies and bribes of the European powers, but each of them would be turned, often by those who betrayed them, into a legend. The American borders varied remarkably throughout the century and the governments would adopt a bipartisan structure where coups d'état and electoral fraud were rampant .
Africa would be openly used and abused by European empires. Cecil Rhodes would be a fundamental figure in the development of British imperialism . US imperialism would also slowly emerge from a seemingly innocent Monroe Doctrine . This century would announce the decline of the Ottoman Empire that would occur with the First World War . The Opium Wars would humiliate the historic Chinese Empire in its unequal treaties and culminate in the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911.
The historicism brand new architecture , which is influenced by the longing for the past, which finds its originality in the study of the past origin. He concentrated all his efforts on recovering the architecture of bygone times. The neoclassicism of the last century was followed by the neo-Gothic , associated with nationalist romantic ideals. The eclectic architecture makes the historicist evolve, combining a variety of architectural styles in a new structure.
The Arts and Crafts movement contemplated the idea of taking advantage of industrial and technological development, seeing in the artisan a remarkable figure. With the dissolution of its ideals and the dispersion of its defenders, the ideas of the movement evolved, in the French context, towards the aesthetics of Art Nouveau , considered the last style of the 19th century and the first of the 20th century .
The romanticism of the 19th century was the antithesis of neoclassicism. Moderation, rationalism, public immorality will be sharply replaced by excess, sentimentality, the search to create an increasingly unattainable morality. The ideals founded by Rousseau , the ideological precursor of romanticism, culminated in the French Revolution , which would be the starting point for the creation of a new era. The revolution will be constantly evoked throughout the century, along with ideals such as freedom , independence and nationalism , at that time belonging to the political left. The pillars are bourgeois individualism , which would be reflected in literary subjectivism ; the escape from reality, in favor of the creation of a new improved society ; the exaltation of nature , in which they supposed that man was exempt from drama and difficulties.
Towards post- romanticism, the idea that the beauty of art is found in art itself would develop: Art for art's sake. Several currents are considered post-romantic: Parnassianism is characterized by its break with subjectivism and excess sentimentality; the symbolism as defined by Jean Moréas himself is Enemy of teaching, declamation, false sensitivity, objective description ”, it is impregnated with metaphysical intentions, mystery and mysticism; the decadentismo arising from the act of empowering Baudelaire , seeking beauty in the hideous.
Another alternative to romanticism was realism , inspired by the social effects of the new capitalism. The use of satire, denunciation, the themes of illness, dirt, madness, poverty, vices and prostitution is common. Realism would be strengthened in naturalism , more influenced by materialism, positivism or determinism.
The painting of the 19th century was not exempt from the historical break with its history. Nor was it of the multitude of currents of philosophy of art . He was also influenced by the French political phenomenon , the break with the traditional artist who shows what the monarchy and its aristocracy intend. The world is not in order, and that aims to show the new art, at the same time that it proposes a new order: Romanticism. Where neoclassicism proposes an ideal beauty, rationalism, virtue, line, the cult of classical antiquity and the Mediterranean, romanticism opposes and promotes the heart, passion, the irrational, the imaginary, disorder, exaltation, color, brushwork and the cult of the Middle Ages and the mythologies of northern Europe.
Towards the middle of the century there is a return, in a way, to rationalism as a source of inspiration. The notorious industrial development caused by the Industrial Revolution , its "secondary effects" and the frustration with the revolutionary stimuli of 1848 led the artist to forget the political issue and focus on the social issue. The realist manifesto understands that the only source of inspiration in art is reality, there is no preconceived beauty beyond that provided by reality, and what the artist must do is reproduce this reality without embellishing it.
The English landscape painters of Romanticism would establish the foundations on which the Impressionists would later work. From Turner the Impressionists would take their taste for transience, its blurred and vaporous surfaces, the blurring and the mixture of intense colors; but they would discard the sublime component, typical of romantic painting.
Towards the end of the century and the beginning of the 20th century , a great variety of avant-gardes could be seen. The peak of individualism implied that each artist had to promote his own avant-garde , which he claimed, of a universal and true character. The Postimpressionism , the pointillism , the pictorial symbolism , the expressionism , the cubism , the Fauvism , the surrealism , the futurismThey would account for a society that lives in revolution for revolution, the vanguard for the vanguard, universality for universality. A society where deadlines are getting smaller, the pace getting faster.
Although it broke with harmonic restraint, romanticism did not necessarily function as the antithesis of classicism . Beethoven ( 1770 - 1827 ), who represented a link between the two styles, developed principles inherited from Haydn in terms of contrast, at the same time that he temporarily extended the sonata form . The chromatic tonality was retaken, expanding it and reaching the extreme, in post-romanticism, of suspending it or creating a generalized wandering tonality. The size of the orchestra was also expanded, reaching utopian extremes such as Berlioz's.. In this century the cult of the past, particularly Bach and the baroque, would be born, so the interpretation as a new branch would begin . Towards the middle of the century the role of nationalism as an aesthetic search would also be important.
Towards the end of the century Impressionism would be gestated , which would seek its expression in the break with tonality , searching in the modality as an archaic search form. He would also draw inspiration from "exotic" music, particularly gamelan music . It would break the contrast in favor of homogeneity even down to the concept of functional music , as is the case with Erik Satie's experimental piece Music for furniture .
While the modalism and scalism of Impressionism would later influence modernist composers, an interest in music with minimal contrasts would influence minimalism . The post-romantic chromaticism , on the other hand, would exert more influence on expressionism , which would develop free atonalism and later twelve-tone .
Progress and events
Science and Technology
- The First Industrial Revolution causes profound changes in the economy and technology.
Advances in medicine
- Discovery of puerperal sepsis by Ignác Semmelweis .
- Identification of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases , by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch .
- Locomotora: Richard Trevithick, 1804.
- Photography : Nicéphore Niepce , 1826.
- Electric vehicle : Robert Anderson , between 1832 and 1839 (the exact year is uncertain) [ 8 ]
- Anestesia: William Morton, 1846.
- Phone : Antonio Meucci , 1854. [ 9 ]
- Incandescent lamp : Heinrich Göbel , 1854.
- Margarina : Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés , 1860.
- Dirigible: Solomon Andrews, 1863.
- Clinical Thermometer : Thomas Clifford Allbutt , 1866, earlier thermometers took an hour or more to establish temperature.
- The platinum resistance temperature sensor is invented .
- Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel (late 1866)
- Praxinoscopio : Emile Reynaud , 1877.
- Fonógrafo: Thomas Alva Edison, 1878.
- Photophone : Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter , 1880, allowed the transmission of sound by means of an emission of light.
- Bar of soap : William Hesketh Lever , 1884.
- Coca-Cola: John Stith Pemberton, 1886.
- Gramófono : Emile Berliner , 1888.
- Electric generator : Nikola Tesla , 1888
- Plane : Clément Ader , 1890.
- Electrical Transfer System : Nikola Tesla , 1892
- Luminaria fluorescente : Nikola Tesla , 1893
- Cinematographer : Lumière Brothers , 1894, film projector .
- La radio : Nikola Tesla , 1894
- Vitascopio: Thomas Alva Edison ,1896.
- The radio control : Nikola Tesla , 1898
- La aspirina Felix Hoffmann 1899
- The method of pasteurization of Louis Pasteur
- Slow Fresnel : Augustin Fresnel
- Number theory : Carl Friedrich Gauss , 1801
- Theory of Evolution : Charles Darwin , 1859.
- Microbial theory : John Snow , Luis Pasteur , Robert Koch and Joseph Lister .
- Atomic theory : John Dalton , 1801
- Psychoanalytic Theory : Sigmund Freud , 1896
- Edison Effect : Thomas Alva Edison , 1883, passing electricity from a filament to a metal plate inside an incandescent lamp globe. [ 10 ]
- Efecto Seebeck: Thomas Seebeck, 1821.
- Efecto Peltier: Jean Peltier, 1834.
- Efecto Thomson: William Thomson, 1851.
- Efecto Joule : James Prescott Joule , decada 1860.
- Calcium carbide : Friedrich Wöhler
- Acetileno : Friedrich Wöhler
- Vanadio : Andrés Manuel del Río , Mexico, 1800, called it Eritonio.
- First Enzyme ( pancreatic lipase ): Claude Bernard , 1848.
- Rokitansky syndrome .
- Discovery of the electron (1897): Joseph John Thomson .
- Discovery of cesium (1860): Gustav Kirchhoff .
Wars and revolutions
- French Revolutionary Wars (1789-1802)
- Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)
- Spanish War of Independence (1808-1814)
- Spanish American Wars of Independence (1808-1833)
- Porto Liberal Revolution
- Independence of Mexico (1810-1821)
- Independence of Peru (1821-1824)
- Independence of Chile (1810-1818)
- Independence of Argentina (1810-1816)
- Greek War of Independence (1821-1831)
- Revolution of 1830
- Independence of Uruguay (1811-1830)
- Independence of Colombia (1810-1819)
- Independence of Venezuela (1810-1823)
- Independence of Central America (1821)
- Great War (1838-1851)
- Opium Wars (1839-1842), (1856-1860)
- Independence of the Dominican Republic (1844)
- North American intervention in Mexico (1846-1848)
- First Italian War of Independence (1848)
- Hungarian Revolution of 1848
- Revolutions of 1848
- Crimean War (1854-1856)
- Venezuelan Federal War (1859-63)
- Second Italian War of Independence (1859-61)
- Civil War (1861-1865)
- Franco-Mexican War (1862-1867)
- War of the Duchies (1864)
- War of the Triple Alliance (1864-1870)
- Third Italian War of Independence (1866)
- Seven Weeks War (1866)
- Revolution of 1868
- Franco-Prussian War (1870)
- Paris Commune (1871)
- War of the Pacific (1879-1884)
- Chilean Civil War of 1891 (1891)
- Liberal Revolution of Ecuador (1895)
- Spanish-American War (1898)
- Dissolution of the Tokugawa Shogunate
- Santiago del Estero earthquake of 1817
- Trancas earthquake of 1826
- Salta earthquake of 1844
- Mendoza earthquake of 1861
- 1863 Jujuy earthquake
- Oran earthquake of 1871
- Oran earthquake of 1874
- Andalusia earthquake of 1884
- Rio de la Plata earthquake of 1888
- Recreo Earthquake of 1892
- San Juan earthquake of 1894
- Catamarca earthquake of 1898
- Yacuiba earthquake of 1899
- La Rioja earthquake of 1899
- Arica earthquake of 1868
- Earthquake in Venezuela of 1812
- Earthquakes in Venezuela of 1823, 1834, 1837, and 1849
- Earthquakes in Venezuela of 1853, 1874, 1875, 1878, 1879 and 1888
- Great Irish Famine
- Eruption of the Indonesian volcano " Tambora " in 1815 that produced a year 1816 without a summer .
- Eruption of the Indonesian volcano " Krakatoa " in 1883
- Eruption of the Indonesian volcano " Galunggung " in 1822
- Eruption of the Ecuadorian volcano " Cotopaxi " in 1887
- Eruption of the volcano " Mount Tarawera " in New Zealand in 1886
- Beethoven composed his Symphony No. 3 in E flat major Opus 55 between 1804 and 1806.
- Rodin sculpts The Thinker in 1881.
- Louis Le Prince makes the first film in history, The Roundhay Garden Scene (1888).
- Karl Marx ; Communist Manifesto (1848).
19th century people
Demographics and statistics [ 11 ]
|Urbanization in the Europe of the century XIX [ 12 ]||No. of cities||Total urban population|
| (20,000 inhabitants and more) || (percentage) |
- The industrialization process
- «William Whewell.» Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- "William Whewell." Science for all, Digital Library .
- Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Workered in Nineteenth-Century England
- "The United States and the Industrial Revolutions in the 19th Century" . Americanhistory.about.com. September 18, 2000. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012 . Retrieved October 31, 2000 .
- See Qing dynasty ; Around 1900, massive civil unrest began and grew until 1911.
- Megan Rowling (18 de mayo de 2015). «One in seven people still live without electricity: World Bank». Reuters.
- «Rural Energy And Development 1996.pdf». Google Docs.
- «The First Telephone Call».
- «Dec. 18, 1878: Let There Be Light — Electric Light». WIRED. 18 de diciembre de 2009.
- "Modernization - Population Change" . Encyclopædia Britannica . Archived from the original on April 6, 2009.
- Eric Hobsbawm , "The Era of the Empire, 1875-1914" , Buenos Aires, 2001, Editorial Planeta, Table 2, p. 353; in turn, Jan de Vries , "European Urbanization 1500-1800" , London, 1984, table 3.8
- Socioeconomic history
- Eric Hobsbawm , "The Age of Revolution, 1789-1848"
- Eric Hobsbawm, "La era del capital, 1848-1875"
- Eric Hobsbawm, "The era of the empire, 1875-1914"
- Sociocultural history
- Sociopolitical history
- Louis Bergeron, François Furet, Reinhart Koselleck. The Age of European Revolutions, 1780-1848 . Siglo XXI de España Editores, 1989.
- Guy Palmade, The Age of the Bourgeoisie . Siglo XXI de España Editores, 1976.
- Wolfgang J. Mommsen, The Age of Imperialism: Europe, 1885-1918 . Siglo XXI de España Editores, 1971.