|Centuries||Siglo XIX • Siglo XX • Siglo XXI|
|Decades||1900 • 1910 • 1920 • 1930 • 1940 • 1950 • 1960 • 1970 • 1980 • 1990|
|Annex: Annual table of the 20th century|
The 20th century d. C. (20th century after Christ ) or 20th century CE (20th century of the common era ) was the last century of the 2nd millennium in the Gregorian calendar . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] started on January 1, 1901 and ended on 31 December 2000. [ 3 ] [ 2 ] is called the " century of the vanguardización ".
The 20th century was characterized by advances in technology , medicine, and science ; the end of slavery in the so - called underdeveloped countries ; the liberation of women in most western countries; but most of all due to the growing development of the industry , turning several countries, including the United States , into world powers. The century was also highlighted by human crises and despotisms in the form of totalitarian regimes , which caused such effects as the World Wars ; the genocideand ethnocide , policies of social exclusion and the generalization of unemployment and poverty . [ 4 ] As a consequence, inequalities in social, economic and technological development and in terms of the distribution of wealth among countries, and the great differences in the quality of life of the inhabitants of the different regions of the world. [ 5 ] [ 6 ]
Taking stock of this century, Walter Isaacson , Managing Director of Time magazine declared: "It has been one of the most amazing centuries: inspiring, sometimes frightening, always fascinating." [ citation required ]
According to Gro Harlem Brundtland , former Prime Minister of Norway , this is "a century of great progress [and, in some places,] unprecedented economic growth", although slum urban areas faced a grim outlook of "overcrowding and widespread disease linked to poverty and unhealthy environment ”. [ citation required ]
At the beginning of the 20th century , Latin America faced important changes. The countries had definitively inserted themselves into the world system and were dedicated to producing and exporting raw materials such as food and metals, and also importing manufactures from the industrialized countries. [ 7 ]
The British Empire (which dominated a quarter of the planet and its inhabitants), various European empires, the Chinese Empire of the Qing Dynasty, and the Ottoman Empire controlled much of the world at the dawn of the 20th century . Long before the end of the century, such empires had been relegated to the history books. At the end of the century, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union , the first and largest socialist state , the United States of America remained the world's only superpower . [ 8 ]
The twentieth century began in the midst of great technological advances, among which the automobile occupies a prominent place. American Henry Ford 's lead a revolution in the system of production chain industry that tested with making his Model T . On 17 December as as 1903 the Wright brothers became the first to make a flight on a plane controlled, though some claim that honor goes to Alberto Santos Dumont , who made his flight on 13 September as as 1906The airplane would become one of the most important inventions not only of this century but of history in general. In 1905 , the Russo-Japanese War pitted the Empire of Japan with the empire of the czars of Russia . The end of the war gave Japan the victor to the surprise of the Western world. The Asian nation de facto became a new world power . In Russia, the Russian Revolution of 1905 arose , which would become the precursor to the one that happened in 1917 and ended up causing the fall of the Russian Empire. The German Empire or Second Reich began to forge around Prussiaclearly from the reign of Frederick II the Great and was definitively consolidated in the last decades of the nineteenth century , thanks to the impulse given by Otto von Bismarck . In the early years of the twentieth century, Germany's situation within Europe had reached a position too crucial for the interests of the other powers. In particular, Great Britain and France saw many of their interests threatened, which led them to sign the so-called Entente cordiale , since the industrial and military development of Germanyit was difficult to match by all the European nations. Furthermore, this impetus from Prussia led the House of Austria ( Austro-Hungarian Empire ) to progressively lose its status as a continental power. The Algeciras Conference manages to prevent a great war from breaking out between the European powers. In 1902 the Second Boer War ended with the English victory and with the massive use of concentration camps by them. Also that year ends the Philippine-American Warwith the American victory, causing the death of 10% of the Philippine population of the time (there is talk of Philippine genocide) and becoming the first war of national liberation of the twentieth century. Some countries gain independence such as Australia (from the British Empire , 1901), Cuba (from the US , 1902), Panama (from Colombia , 1903), Norway (from Sweden , 1905) and Bulgaria (from the Ottoman Empire , 1908) . In 1905 the German scientist Albert Einstein formulated the Theory of Relativity , one of the most famous in history.
- 1902-1931: Alfonso XIII , King of Spain.
- 1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War .
- 1905: Albert Einstein makes his famous Theory of Relativity .
- 1906: Algeciras Conference on Morocco.
- 1907: Formation of the Triple Entente , which included Great Britain, France and Russia.
- 1908: Revolution of the Young Turks.
The politics of the 1910s was strongly affected by the outbreak of the First World War , called the Great War. The transition from the 19th to the 20th century begins to be palpable, with the death of Victoria of the United Kingdom and the total end of the Victorian Era , as well as the beginning of North American capitalism after having emerged unscathed from the First World War . The Russian Revolution would also give way to another future world superpower, the Soviet Union. As for society, it is undergoing an abrupt change, with the appearance of private vehicles within the reach of more and more of the population. As for culture, classical music began to move to give way to other styles of music much more popular, which over the decades would become more and more important. In New York in 1913 the tallest building in the world would be built, a complex architectural project for the time, the Woolworth Building , which would remain the tallest building until the 1930s.
- 1910: Mexican Revolution .
- 1912: Sinking of the RMS Titanic .
- 1913 - Woodrow Wilson , President of the United States .
- 1913: Tibet proclaims its independence from China .
- 1914: The First World War begins .
- 1914: Emiliano Zapata and Francisco Villa take Mexico City .
- 1915: The Armenian Genocide begins.
- 1916: The Easter Rising in Ireland.
- 1917: Russian Revolution : seizure of power by the Bolsheviks .
- 1918: The First World War ends .
- 1918: The Spanish Flu pandemic begins .
- 1919: Foundation in Moscow of the III International .
- 1919: The Treaty of Versailles is signed .
The 1920s marked the end of the hegemony of the historical states that had existed in Europe for centuries. After the First World War , the United Kingdom and France suffered a great loss of prestige, which it would cost them to recover. In the United States there is the crash of 29 , the biggest fall in the stock market ever seen, this would succumb to the world in a few years of extreme poverty. In 1922 after the end of the Russian Civil War , the Soviet Union would officially form , a year later the Ottoman Empire would fall. Fascist states that would emerge especially during the 1930s are beginning to emerge, such as theFascist Italy under Benito Mussolini , the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in Spain or Alejandro I in Yugoslavia . The Empire of Japan would begin its rule throughout Asia. Music underwent a popular resurgence with the emergence of genres such as jazz, tango, Charleston and other rhythms, on the other hand, in cultured music, twelve-tone and atonalism took importance ; especially in the United States between the brief but intense period that was from 1923 to 1929, in fashion (among which the French dressmaker Coco Chanel) Upper or presumably upper class women came to wear the first miniskirts in the West as well as many times the haircut called a la garçon (in French: boyish), wide necklines and arms exposed in the open air and a certain sexual liberalism Promoted by the writings of the anthropologist Margaret Mead among others (Mead found herself greatly influenced by her interpretations of the psychoanalytic theory inaugurated decades earlier by Sigmund Freud ), women of middle and upper strata also began to smoke tobacco in the form of cigarettespublicly in "Western" and Westernized countries. In paintings and sculptures stood often in an environment bohemian the vanguards as (the visual usually not figurative or figurative art very distorted) the rayonismo , the orfismo , the constructivism , the Cubist , the suprematismo , the surrealism , the Neoplasticism (with Mondrian as the main representative); and in general abstract paintingas well as the post-expressionist movement (which despite its manifestos maintained much of expressionism) caricature and sarcastic called new objectivity ; Among the many notorious artists who emerged or had their heyday in those years are the Spanish Picasso , Dalí , the Alsatian Arp , the German Max Ernst , the Swiss-German Paul Klee , the Russians El Lysitski , Lariónov , Tatlin ; the Italians Modigliani and Giorgio de Chirico , the Japanese Fujita among many others.
- 1920: Beginning of Gandhi's non-violent movement in defense of human rights in India.
- 1920: The Spanish Flu pandemic ends .
- 1921: Adolf Hitler leader of the National Socialist Party .
- 1921: Creation of the Chinese Communist Party .
- 1922: Creation of the Soviet Union , the first socialist state.
- 1922: Howard Carter discovers the tomb of Tutankhamun .
- 1923: Foundation of the Time seminary in the United States .
- 1923: Assassination of Pancho Villa in Parral (Mexico).
- 1924: Lenin dies . It is succeeded by Joseph Stalin .
- 1926: Hirohito is crowned Emperor of Japan .
- 1926: Birth of television ( John Logie Baird ).
- 1927: Birth of the Generation of 27 .
- 1928: Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin .
- 1928: The banana massacre occurs in Ciénaga , Colombia.
- 1929: Foundation of the Museum of Modern Art in New York .
- 1929: St. Valentine's Day Massacre against a rival gang, started by Al Capone .
- 1929: Inauguration of Mount Rushmore (South Dakota).
- 1929: Crash of the New York Stock Exchange on Black Thursday ( Crac 29 ); Great Depression in the United States .
- VIH / page (1920-1981).
The 1930s is clearly influenced by the economic crisis (called the " Great Depression ") caused by the Crac of 29 , which was global in scope and caused strong social and political tensions that allowed the emergence of dictatorships like Hitler's in Germany . Franco in Spain or Metaxas in Greece . This rise of totalitarianism ended up leading to a new world war . Germany is developing again, the economy is relaunched with the impulse given by industry and state investment in infrastructure. The new Nazi regimeit obtains numerous territories without firing a single shot, against which it opposes a policy of appeasement led by the western liberal democracies that ultimately failed. The Japanese Empire was consolidated in Asia, affecting the interests of Europe and the United States , especially in the Pacific . Japan creates a "puppet state" in China under the name Manchukuo . For its part, Italy initiates a policy of military and territorially expansive rearmament that leads to the invasion of Ethiopia . In the United States, President Franklin Delano RooseveltHe led the country's economic recovery after the crisis caused by the Great Depression of 1929 . Great Britain kept its political system practically unchanged, unlike France, which failed to consolidate a strong political-social organization and skirted the civil war. After its transformation into the Soviet Union , Russia was the scene of endemic famines (such as the Ukrainian famine ), political repression , and the Great Purge .
- 1931-1939: Second Spanish Republic .
- 1931: Inauguration of the Empire State Building (New York).
- 1932-1935: Chaco War .
- 1933: Adolf Hitler , Chancellor of Germany.
- 1933-1945: It was Roosevelt in the United States.
- 1936-1939: Spanish Civil War .
- 1936: The Spanish poet Federico García Lorca, victim of fascism, is shot dead.
- 1937: Picasso paints Guernica .
- 1937: Walt Disney premieres Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs , the first animated feature film in color.
- 1938: Battle of the Ebro in Spain.
- 1939-1975: Dictatorship of Francisco Franco in Spain.
- 1938: Massacre of coup members of the Chilean Nazi party by the Chilean police forces .
- 1939: German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact .
- 1939: Fine-Soviet War .
- 1939: The film Gone with the Wind is released .
- 1939: Germany invades Poland, England and France declare war on Germany: World War II begins .
The Second World War marked as no other event the 1940s and the century in general. As in 1914, the war spread to various continents, although this conflict was much bloodier and changed the world in a more radical way. In 1945 , at the end of the war, Germany had suffered enormous human and material losses, as had Japan . While Germany suffered the highest number of military casualties, it was the Soviet Union that suffered the highest number of civilian casualties. AmericaIt was not the scene of significant confrontations and the Latin American states were on the sidelines of the confrontation, even when they officially supported the cause of the allies. The United States and the Soviet Union became the world's new and only powers. All the other former powers passed to a second level. The League of Nations was replaced by the UN , which, unlike the previous one, had its headquarters in New York and not in Europe. In 1948 , the state of Israel was formally established thanks to the backing of Britain and the United States . This new nation was made up of purely Jewish population, which mostly came from Europe, where it had suffered persecution by the Nazis . The Arab-Israeli conflict begins . The two main forces of China that fought against Japan , which was their common enemy during the war, found themselves faced shortly after in a civil war for control of the territory. The communist side was strongly supported by the Soviet Union and the nationalist side, apparently backed by the United States , was defeated and forced to seclude themselves on the island of Formosa (now Taiwan ). La Indiait achieved its independence through the pacifist revolution of Majatma Gandhi .
- 1940: Germany invades Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg.
- 1940-1945: Winston Churchill , Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
- 1942: Final solution : Nazi decision to deport and exterminate the Jews of Europe ( Holocaust ).
- 1941: Germany invades the Soviet Union. Battle of Moscow.
- 1942-1943: Battle of Stalingrad.
- 1943: Uprising of the Warsaw Ghetto .
- 1944: Operations Overlord and Anvil: Allied landings in Normandy and Provence.
- 1945: Yalta Conference . Execution of Mussolini and suicide of Hitler. Unconditional surrender of Germany; end of the war in Europe. The Nuremberg Process begins , against the main leaders of Nazism.
- 1945: Detonation of the Little Boy bombs on Hiroshima and Fat Man on Nagasaki , Japan surrenders to the Allies. End of World War II.
- 1945: Birth of the International Monetary Fund and the Arab League .
- 1945: Signature of the Charter of the United Nations , UN.
- 1946: Creation of UNESCO .
- 1947: Peace Treaties of Paris.
- 1947: Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe.
- 1948: Universal Declaration of Human Rights . Birth of the State of Israel .
- 1949: Proclamations of the German Federal Republic and the German Democratic Republic .
- 1949: Creation of COMECON and signing of the North Atlantic Pact ( NATO ).
- 1949: Foundation of the People's Republic of China after the triumph of the Revolution.
- 1949: Soviet Union possession of the atomic bomb .
During this decade, the two victorious superpowers of the Second World War , the United States and the Soviet Union , broke their alliance during the war and fell apart, becoming leaders of two blocs: the Western ( Western-capitalist ) bloc led by the United States , and the Eastern bloc ( eastern-communist ) led by the Soviet Union and the world saw what became known as the Cold War . Shortly after the end of the world conflict, the civil war in China , gave the triumph ofMao Zedong who established a communist- based totalitarian regime in the continental part of his nation that revolutionized the country, recognized as the People's Republic of China . In the 1950s , the dispute between the two new world axes intensified notably with the Korean War and the subsequent division of the country into two different states. An unprecedented arms race began that would extend into the following decades, thus the USSR and the US began to race for a nuclear arsenal capable of destroying the entire planet. The decolonization processstarted after the Second World War, it intensifies and will mark this decade and the next two. Empires such as the French or the British break away from numerous possessions in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The United States saw a cultural revolution fueled by rapid industrial development and the consequent phenomenon of consumerism . Germany and Japan experienced a surprising economic recovery in less than two decades after the end of the war, it had transformed both countries into economic powers, although not political or military. Therefore, although France and Great Britain had greater political weight, Japan and Germanythey surpassed the two countries that were victorious in the Second War and even their presence in international trade surpassed that of the USSR. A process of capital importance for the future of Europe and the world began when Robert Schuman delivered the famous declaration of the same name, which constitutes the embryo of the current European Union .
- 1950-1953: Korean War .
- 1950: The death penalty is restored in the Soviet Union .
- 1950: Gustavo VI Adolfo of Sweden takes the throne .
- 1950 - Libya becomes independent from Italy .
- 1950: In Vatican City , Pope Pius XII declared the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.
- 1952: King George VI dies , after 15 years of reign. He is succeeded by his daughter Isabel II .
- 1953-1961: Dwight David Eisenhower , President of the United States.
- 1953: Fallece Iosif Stalin.
- 1953: Hillary and Tenzing reach the top of Everest .
- 1955: Start of the Vietnam War .
- 1955: The Warsaw Pact is signed , where the USSR and seven other states of the communist bloc unite politically and militarily in opposition to NATO.
- 1957: Treaties of Rome : birth of the European Economic Community (EEC).
- 1957: Racial incidents in Little Rock — Arkansas— (United States).
- 1958: Creation of NASA .
- 1959: The day the music died .
The 1960s witnessed the moments of greatest political conflict between the blocs formed by the United States and the Soviet Union , in the so-called Cold War , which arose at the end of the Second World War . Moments of enormous tension occurred after the shooting down of the American spy plane " U2 " over Soviet territory, and during the so-called " Missile Crisis of 1962", which analysts consider put the world on the brink of the beginning of a third world war. This conflict showed that the United States' attempts to stop the advance of communism were not being fruitful, and also subsequently led to the" treaty of peaceful coexistence " between the two world powers.This beginning of the decade is representative of a period that would be characterized by international confrontations and protests by a citizenry increasingly critical of the actions of their rulers and the situation that was emerging in the world after the postwar economic recovery: protest movements against the Vietnam War ; against the invasion of Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia, in the Prague Spring ; inMay 68 against the established order, during the student and union revolts that began in France and spread rapidly to other countries. The sociocultural effects of these protest movements are still being felt today. It is also a decade in which a large number of political assassinations take place, the deaths of John F. Kennedy , Malcolm X , Martin Luther King and Robert F. Kennedy being examples of this . The "space race" temporarily kept the Soviet Union at the head, with notable successes such as having managed to put the first human being in orbit: cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. The United States achieved the greatest victory of that race by successfully placing the first human being on the lunar surface in 1969 . This was achieved in large part thanks to the impetus given by President John F. Kennedy, who had been assassinated in 1963 under dark circumstances that plunged the American people into the deepest identity crisis it has ever known. In Europe, the Franco-German reconciliation is consolidated , on which the construction of the European Union would be largely based(EU) that had started in the previous decade. Germany establishes itself as the third world economic power behind the United States and Japan. Great Britain, like France, loses practically all of its colonies, in a process that began after the end of World War II and was largely precipitated after the independence of Libya . It can be considered the decade of ideologies. In Europe, youth rose in what was later known as the " French May " in 1968. Social movements are becoming increasingly important in Latin America , particularly in Chile , where in 1970a socialist government would come to power by democratic means. The Middle East had undergone a momentous transformation, due to the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 , which was located in the nerve center of this region. In addition, the huge oil reserves discovered mainly in the so-called Gulf countries, gave this region an unprecedented weight in the planet's economy. Mao's China lived in this decade the so-called " Cultural Revolution", which represented a transformation of the millenary society of this country. Meanwhile, Japan continued to develop its reputation for technological power and products from this country began to achieve prestige throughout the world, boosting the country's economy, while society it was radically restructured but retaining its cultural roots.
- 1960: The Valdivia Earthquake occurs, the strongest earthquake on record.
- 1961: Construction of the Berlin Wall .
- 1961-1963: John F. Kennedy , President of the United States .
- 1961: The Soviet Union arrives in outer space with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin .
- 1962: The Cuban Missile Crisis between the United States and the Soviet Union put the world on the brink of nuclear war.
- 1962: Nelson Mandela is imprisoned.
- 1962: Fallece Marilyn Monroe.
- 1963: John XXIII dies and is succeeded by Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini).
- 1963: March for the civic rights of Martin Luther King in the United States.
- 1963: Assassination of the President of the United States, John F. Kennedy in Dallas .
- 1964: Beatlemania breaks out around the world (the British rock band The Beatles , consisting of John Lennon , Paul McCartney , George Harrison and Ringo Starr )
- 1965: Mao starts the Cultural Revolution in China.
- 1965: Malcolm X is assassinated .
- 1967: In Bolivia , Bolivian soldiers assassinate Argentine guerrilla Che Guevara .
- 1968: Prague Spring .
- 1968: May 68 , the student revolt in France.
- 1968: Assassination of Martin Luther King .
- 1968: Movement of 1968 in Mexico .
- 1969-1974: Richard Nixon , President of the United States.
- 1969: Disturbios de Stonewall
- 1969: Resignation of De Gaulle , President of the French Republic.
- 1969: The human being reaches the Moon .
The Arab-Israeli conflict and the final stage of the Vietnam War dominate most of the political life of the 1970s. The oil market is shaken by the provisions of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries that drag countries down. industrialized to a crisis in the energy sector and therefore to the entire industry and society. There is a blockage in the supply of oil and now it is the producing nations that set fuel prices. It is also the decade of the rise of terrorism , with extreme left groups such as the IRA , RAF , Red Brigades , ETA, FLNC , Japanese Red Army , NEP , Islamic Jihad , Black September or PFLP . Terrorists like Carlos the Jackal became very famous. Some governments responded to terrorism by applying state terrorism . The White House is the scene of the Watergate scandal that led to President Richard NixonHe was the only American president to resign in this century. At the same time, the interventionism of the government of this country helps to establish military dictatorships affecting Washington in several countries of Latin America. In Asia, the Vietnam War ended with the withdrawal of the United States, and in Cambodia the Khmer Rouge began one of the worst genocides of the century. The communist bloc that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republicsit managed to conform for several decades, it begins to show signs of disintegration and the Soviet power distances itself from communist China, which brings with it the weakening of communist influence in the world. In Europe despite the energy crisis, the western countries of this continent manage to match the standard of living of the United States of America and the Scandinavian countries achieve the highest social economic balance in the world. The dictatorships of southern Europe ( Greece , Portugal and Spain ) disappear and give rise to democratic regimes. Several wars of this decade were brief: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 , Yom Kippur War ,Turkish Invasion of Cyprus , Ogaden War and Sino-Vietnamese War . In 1979 Muslim fundamentalists take control of Iran under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruholah Khomeini , thus withdrawing from Western influence and locking itself into the most radical of states based on Sharia (Islamic law). In the social sphere, household appliances such as microwaves and other devices such as the walkman , microprocessor , computer , calculator or color television are becoming very popular . The rise ofdrugs cause serious social damage, especially heroin , an epidemic that would worsen in the following decade .
- 1970: Salvador Allende is elected president of Chile , becoming the first democratically elected president of Marxist ideology in the world.
- 1970: Death of the musicians; Jimi Hendrix , Janis Joplin and Agustín Lara ; and the politicians Lázaro Cárdenas del Río and Charles de Gaulle .
- 1970: Final separation from the band The Beatles .
- 1971: Singer Jim Morrison , founder of the band The Doors, passes away .
- 1971: The NASDAQ Stock Exchange is created .
- 1973: The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ( OPEC ) decides on a price increase. Oil crisis.
- 1973: Inauguration of the World Trade Center in New York .
- 1973: The Armed Forces carry out a civil-military coup in Chile, imposing a military regime — 1973-1990 — on the entire country that was characterized by violent repression of people on the left .
- 1974: Richard Nixon becomes the first president of the United States to resign from office.
- 1974: Carnation Revolution . Portugal joins the world democratic club.
- 1975: Fall of Saigon and end of the Vietnam War .
- 1975: Francisco Franco , Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (1975-2014) dies . In 1977, the first democratic elections since 1936 were held in that nation.
- 1976: Jorge Rafael Videla gives the civic-military coup that marked the beginning of the civil-military dictatorship in Argentina .
- 1977-1981: Democrat Jimmy Carter , President of the United States.
- 1977: The famous Elvis Presley , Bing Crosby and Charles Chaplin pass away .
- 1978: Camp David Accords.
- 1978: John Paul I succeeds Paul VI as Pope .
- 1979-1990: Margaret Thatcher becomes the first woman to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom .
- 1979: Proclamation of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The beginning of this decade is marked by increasing Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union . The nuclear threat is more evident than ever, so that in the middle of the decade there is a rapprochement between the two blocs, which is favored mainly by the policies known in the West as Glásnost and Perestroika , of the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev . On the economic level, the president of the United States, Ronald Reagan , presents a series of free market economic measures, popularly known as Reaganomics , that lay the foundations of the economyneoliberal of the years to come. On the other hand, the differences in development between the different peoples of the world are evidenced by the famine that devastates several countries in Africa . In Ethiopia, the situation is particularly dramatic due to the drought . Asian countries such as South Korea , Taiwan and Singapore as well as the Hong Kong region are experiencing rapid industrial development that would not stop for the rest of the century. The existence of AIDS was made public for the first time in June 1981and it will end up presenting itself to the world as an epidemic of enormous proportions. Chernobyl , a Ukrainian town north of Kiev, becomes the symbol of man's inability to control the monster he has created: the continuous and unappealable risk of nuclear technology. The nuclear catastrophe contaminates an entire region and causes radioactive fallout in large areas of Europe. Mexico experienced the worst earthquake in its history, the 1985 Mexico Earthquake , with a magnitude of 8.1 on the Richter Scale that left some 10,000 victims. In 1985 in Colombia the Taking of the Palace of Justice in Bogotá was unleashedby the M-19 guerrilla command . The worst catastrophe in its history was also experienced in Colombia , caused by the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, causing the Armero Tragedy, killing more than 28,000 people. Another important aspect of this decade was the forced disappearances in Latin America that had already begun in the previous decade. Peru , which had been leaving the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces for 11 years and was returning to democracy in a dictatorial way, is facing the Maoist terrorist organization Sendero Luminoso , which begins its armed struggle in Ayacuchoand that little by little it was venturing into the capital . In 1983 Argentina returned to democracy in an insecure way, after the Falklands War was the last year and they were defeated, and Raúl Alfonsín assumed the presidency. In 1985 the military repressors of the dictatorship were sentenced in a Trial to the Boards, Argentina being the first and only country in Latin America to do so. After 15 years of military dictatorship, Chileans returned to the polls in 1988 to decide the continuity of General Augusto Pinochet in government. The plebiscite was adverse to him and democracy returns in an insecure way in 1990. International terrorism that had been presented since the previous decade intensifies and the United States bombards Libya of Moammar Gadhafi , in retaliation for terrorist attacks allegedly sponsored by that country. In 1989 the USSR and the Soviet bloc in general are more weakened than ever. In November, the Berlin Wall, which embodied the division of that city since the end of World War II , was demolished by the Berliners themselves, thus giving the coup de grace to the Soviet era and becoming the symbol of the 1989 revolutions. in the countries of Eastern Europe. In the cultural sphere, this decadehe has many followers of his lifestyle, such as fashion , music and television and cinema exhibitions , exclusive, in the opinion of many admirers, of this decade . Video games become more and more popular and it begins to spread as a new culture.
- 1980: The founder of The Beatles , John Lennon , is assassinated at the hands of a fan.
- 1981-1989: Ronald Reagan , President of the United States.
- 1981: The attempted coup d'état (23-F) in Spain by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero fails .
- 1981: Guernica returns to Spain .
- 1981: Pope John Paul II suffers an assassination attempt.
- 1982-1998: Helmut Kohl , Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany.
- 1982: Falklands War Argentina vs United Kingdom.
- 1982: The album Thriller by Michael Jackson becomes the best - selling history.
- 1983-1989: The radical Raúl Alfonsín , president of the Argentine Republic.
- 1985: The musical group Wham! , consisting of George Michael and Andrew Ridgeley , became the first western musical group to give a concert in China, anticipating the Rolling Stones and Queen .
- 1985-1991: Mikhail Gorbachev , general secretary of the CPSU.
- 1985: The Live Aid concert is given , which took place at Wembley Stadium and the JF Kennedy Stadium in Philadelphia . It brought together several exponents of the 60s , 70s , 80s, and is considered the largest musical event in history. Featuring Queen , Madonna , Elton John , Bob Dylan , Paul McCartney , Led Zeppelin , U2 , David Bowie and Wham! .
- 1985: Mexico earthquake of 1985 .
- 1985: Sale to the market the NES ( N intendo E ntertnaiment S ystem), first home console company Nintendo sold in America .
- 1986: Spain and Portugal become members of the EEC .
- 1989-1993: George Bush , President of the United States.
- 1989: Repression and massacre in Tian'anmen Square in Beijing (China).
- 1989: Political changes in Eastern Europe: formation of a national or coalition government in Poland and Czechoslovakia . Abolition of the leading role of the Communist Party in Hungary, Poland, the Democratic Republic of Germany (GDR) and Czechoslovakia.
- 1989: The Berlin Wall falls : End of the Cold War .
- 1989: Brutal terrorist offensive by the Medellín cartel in Colombia: Assassination of the presidential candidate, Luis Carlos Galán , 107 people killed in an attack on an Avianca Boeing 727 and 60 people's lives were taken from them in a terrorist attack on the DAS building in Bogota.
The fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union opened an era known as the Post Cold War. The Soviet collapse eliminated the old bloc policy, born after the end of World War II, and gave way to a new international framework with the United States as the sole superpower . Some spoke of the end of history , in which liberal democracies have defeated communism and the struggle of ideologies that began in the nineteenth century ends . In Europe, the decade begins a few months after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the end of the Cold War . Much of the eastern European countries were in adouble transition process : from dictatorship to democracy, and from planned economy to market economy. Some countries like Czechoslovakia , Yugoslavia and the USSR itself disintegrated. In the Yugoslav case, violent clashes occurred due to the nationalisms that caused the so-called " Yugoslav wars " throughout the decade. Other countries that were economically linked to the USSR suffered a strong economic decline such as Cuba , North Korea or Finland . On the other hand, the integration of the European Union is accelerating , with agreements such as the Maastricht Treaty or theTreaty of Amsterdam . In Asia, China recovers the British colony of Hong Kong in 1997 and the Portuguese colony of Macao in 1999. The Asian financial crisis that began in 1997 led to an increase in widespread poverty in the countries of Southeast Asia . In Africa, the Second Congo War involves several African countries and causes millions of deaths. In 1994 , the most bloody genocide in history occurred in Rwanda in proportion to its duration.Culturally, the 1990s were characterized by the rise of multiculturalismand alternative media, which continued into the next century. There was the rise of new technologies, such as cable television and the Internet . The first television reality shows appear on TV . The end of the decade coincides with the bursting of the dot-com bubble , which inflated between 1997-2000 and burst in 2000, bankrupting numerous technology companies in more developed countries.
- 1990: President Patricio Aylwin assumes the government of the Republic of Chile , marking the return to democracy in the country after 17 years of military dictatorship.
- 1990: Reunification of Germany.
- 1991: Boris Yeltsin is proclaimed president of Russia. An attempted coup against Gorbachev fails; COMECON and the Warsaw Pact are dissolved ; Gorbachev's resignation; end of the Soviet Union ; birth of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States), comprising 15 new States.
- 1991: The twelve member states of the European Economic Community (EEC) sign the Maastricht treaty and create the European Union .
- 1991: Singer Freddie Mercury passes away due to AIDS .
- 1992: The president of Peru, Alberto Fujimori executes a coup d'état, a measure supported by 85% of the population.
- 1992: Terrorist attack on the Israeli Embassy in Argentina , leaving 22 dead.
- 1993: Israeli-Palestinian peace agreement in Washington.
- 1993-2001: Bill Clinton , President of the United States.
- 1993: The leader of the Medellín Cartel, Pablo Escobar , is discharged by the Search Block .
- 1994: Assassination of Luis Donaldo Colosio, candidate for the presidency of Mexico.
- 1994: First multiracial elections in South Africa; Nelson Mandela is elected president there .
- 1994: Musician Kurt Cobain , lead singer and guitarist of the Rock group Nirvana, passes away .
- 1994: Terrorist attack on the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, leaving 85 dead, the largest attack against Jewish targets since World War II and one of the largest terrorist attacks to occur in Argentina.
- 1995: Austria, Finland and Sweden join the European Union.
- 1995: Entry into force of Mercosur (Common Market of South America).
- 1995: Assassination of the singer Selena , at the hands of her representative.
- 1995: Prime Minister Isaac Rabin is assassinated in Israel .
- 1997-2007: Labor Tony Blair , Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
- 1997: The United Kingdom returns Hong Kong to China .
- 1997: Birth of the " Spirit of Ermua " movement in Spain after the murder of the PP councilor in the town of Ermua , Miguel Ángel Blanco by the terrorist group ETA.
- 1997: Worldwide commotion over the death in a traffic accident, in Paris, of Diana Spencer , Princess of Wales.
- 1997: Dolly , first mammal to be cloned.
- 1998: Peace Agreement in Northern Ireland .
- 1999-2013: Hugo Chávez , President of Venezuela; putting an end to 40 years of governments of Social Democrats and Social Christians.
- 2000: Celebration of the largest global festival in history for the beginning of the Third Millennium and the new Century.
- 2000-2008: Vladimir Putin , President of Russia.
- 2000: Vicente Fox becomes president of Mexico after 72 years of rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI).
- 2000 -2005: Second Palestinian Intifada against Israel.
- 2000: Fall of the Slobodan Milošević regime in Yugoslavia.
- 2000: Plan Colombia approved .
The applied science continued technological advancement that had begun the previous century, accelerating and opening new fields.
- The appliances such as washing machines , refrigerators , heaters and vacuum cleaners were introduced in homes to facilitate many tasks and increasing comfort. The Radio first, and then the television , became popular as a form of entertainment .
- In 1903 a motorized aircraft, the Wright Flyer , was successfully kept in flight for the first time . Much later, jet-powered airplanes made the creation of commercial airlines possible.
- The assembly line made chain production of automobiles viable . The combination of the automobile, motor boats and air travel allowed for unprecedented personal mobility.
- The triode tube was invented .
- New materials, especially stainless steel , silicone , Teflon, and plastics such as polystyrene , PVC , polyethylene, and nylon , became widespread in many applications. These materials typically have huge performance gains in strength, temperature, chemical resistance, or mechanical properties over those known before the 20th century.
- The aluminum became an economic metal and became the second material used after iron.
- Thousands of chemicals were developed for industrial processing and domestic use.
- Arrival of electricity to cities.
- Creation and development of electronics : the telephone , radio , television , fax , transistor , integrated circuits , lasers , computers and the Internet .
- Creation of nuclear weapons .
- Conquest of space: space flight and first human moon landing in 1969 .
- Running water in a high percentage of first world houses.
- Extension of the sewerage of cities.
- Enunciation of the theory of relativity and the cosmological model of the Big Bang .
- Development of quantum mechanics and particle physics .
- Discovery of antibiotics , contraceptives , organ transplantation, and advances in cloning .
- Description of the chemical structure of DNA and development of molecular biology .
- Creation and development of video consoles (since 1972).
Wars and revolutions
- Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).
- Rif War (1911-1927).
- Balkan Wars (1912-1913).
- World War I (1914-1918).
- Russian Revolution (1917-1921).
- Armenian Genocide in Armenia (1915-1923).
- November Revolution in Germany (1918-1919).
- Cristera War (1926 -1929).
- Chinese civil war (1927-1950).
- Massacre of Saint Valentine (1929).
- HIV / AIDS pandemic (1920-1981).
- Colombian-Peruvian War (1932-1933).
- Chaco War (1932-1935).
- Spanish Civil War (1936-1939).
- Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).
- World War II (1939-1945).
- Peruvian-Ecuadorian War (1941-1942).
- Cold War (1945-1991).
- Indochina War (1946-1954).
- First Arab-Israeli War (1948).
- Armed conflict in Burma (1948-present).
- Korean War (1950-1953).
- 1952 Revolution in Bolivia .
- Algerian War (1954-1962).
- First Sudanese Civil War (1955-1972).
- Suez War (1956).
- Sidi Ifni War (1957-1958).
- Cuban Revolution (1956-1959).
- Congo crisis (1960-1965).
- Guatemalan Civil War (1960-1996).
- Colombian armed conflict (1964-present).
- Vietnam War (1965-1975).
- Six Day War (1967).
- Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970).
- Yom Kippur War (1973).
- Carnation Revolution (1974).
- Cambodian Genocide (1975-1979).
- Angola's civil war (1975-2002).
- Sandinista Revolution (1979 - 1990).
- Lebanese civil war (1975-1989).
- Afghanistan War (1978-1992).
- Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988).
- Conflict of the False Paquisha (1981).
- Civil War of El Salvador (1980-1992).
- Terrorism in Peru (1980-2000).
- Falklands War (1982).
- Invasion of Granada (1983).
- Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005).
- Romanian Revolution of 1989 (1989).
- 1989 US invasion of Panama (1989-1990).
- Gulf War (1990-1991).
- Algerian Civil War (1991-2002).
- Yugoslav wars (1991-2001).
- Civil war in Sierra Leone (1991-2002).
- Ten Day War (1991).
- Croatian War of Independence (1991-1995).
- Bosnian War (1992-1995).
- Kosovo War (1999).
- Rwandan Genocide (1994).
- Congolese Genocide (1994-2002).
- Cenepa War (1995).
- First Chechen War (1994-1996).
- First Congo War (1996-1997).
- Nepalese civil war (1996-2006).
- Second Congo War (1998-2003).
- Ituri Conflict (1999-2006).
- War between Ethiopia and Eritrea (1998-2000).
- Bolivarian Revolution (1998-present).
- Second Chechen War (1999-2006).
- El Niño (1925, 1982-1983, 1997-1998).
- Eruption of Monte Pelado , Martinique (1902).
- Great San Francisco Earthquake and Fire (1906).
- Sinking of the RMS Titanic (1912).
- Shipwreck of the RMS Lusitania (1915).
- Great Earthquake and Tsunami in Puerto Rico (1918).
- Fall of the LZ 129 Hindenburg (1937).
- Atomic bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1945).
- Wreck of the ship Wilhelm Gustloff (1945).
- Great Earthquake and Tsunami of Chile (1960).
- Torrey Canyon (1967).
- Earthquake in Peru (1970).
- Earthquakes in Nicaragua (1931 and 1972).
- Guatemala earthquake (1976).
- Los Rodeos accident (1977).
- Amoco Cádiz (1978).
- Los Alfaques accident (1978).
- Bhopal Disaster (1984).
- Tragedia de Heysel (1985).
- Mexico earthquake (1985).
- Earthquake in Chile (1985).
- Armero Tragedy (1985).
- Chernobyl accident (1986).
- Challenger Space Shuttle Crash (1986).
- Exxon Valdez Disaster (1989).
- Tragedia de Hillsborough (1989).
- Hudson Volcano Explosion (1991).
- Guadalajara explosions of 1992 (1992).
- Flood from the Biescas campsite (1996).
- TWA Flight 800 (1996).
- Hurricane Mitch in Honduras (1998).
- Erika (1999).
- Colombia (1999).
- Columbine High School Massacre (1999).
- Vargas tragedy (1999).
- New schools of Cubism , Surrealism and Expressionism develop .
- The film becomes a mass medium and in a great industry. Its influences reach fashion and music .
- The jazz reaches its peak between 1920 and 1960.
- The rock and roll emerged as a musical style and achieved great development since mid-century.
- The architectural rationalism emerges as own school.
- The Latin American boom in literature, with its own styles such as magical realism .
- The video game industry was born in the second half of the century , with companies such as Nintendo , Sega , Atari and Sony becoming a market that developed rapidly and was already worth billions of dollars in 1998.
- Holocene mass extinction
- Ozone layer hole
- Global warming
20th century people
Companies founded in the 20th century
Inventions, discoveries, findings,
- Reyes Guitian, Belén (December 31, 1999). "Yes, but the third millennium begins in 2001" . The world . Retrieved September 16, 2018 .
- «When and where did the new Millennium officially start, and why?» Real Observatorio de Greenwich.
- "The Sixth Extinction - The Most Recent Extinctions" . Archived from the original on December 18, 2015.
- World Population to Hit Milestone With Birth of 7 Billionth Person.
- "The Sixth Extinction - The Most Recent Extinctions" . web.archive.org . December 18, 2015 . Retrieved January 26, 2021 .
- "World of Change: Global Temperatures" . earthobservatory.nasa.gov (in English) . January 29, 2020 . Retrieved January 26, 2021 .
- Pinker, Stephen (2011). The Better Angels of Our Nature. Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-02295-3.