|Haji Mohammad Suharto|
2nd President of Indonesia
|As March December as 1967 - 21 as maypole as 1998|
|Vice president|| Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX (1973–1978) |
Adam Malik (1978–1983)
Umar Wirahadikusumah (1983–1988)
Try Sutrisno (1993–1998)
Jusuf Habibie (1998)
|Indonesian name||Haji Muhammad Suharto|
|Name in Javanese||Haji Muhammad Suharto|
|Birth|| June 8 , 1921 |
Yogyakarta , Dutch East Indies
|Death|| As January 27 as 2008 (86 years old) |
Yakarta , Indonesia
|Cause of death||Renal insufficiency|
|Nationality|| Dutch (until 1945) |
Indonesian (since 1945)
|Occupation||Political and military|
|Years active||since 1940|
|Military branch||Indonesian Army|
|Military rank||Great General|
Haji Mohammad Soeharto or Suharto ( Yogyakarta , 8 as June as 1921 - Jakarta , 27 as January as 2008 ) [ 1 ] was a military and political Indonesian leader. It was the second president of Indonesia , a position he held for 31 years since the overthrow of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998. Foreign analysts considered him a dictator. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ]His legacy is still debated at home and abroad. [ 5 ] [ 6 ]
Suharto was born in a small town, Kemusuk, near the city of Yogyakarta , during the Dutch colonial era . [ 7 ] He grew up in humble conditions, and his Javanese Muslim parents divorced shortly after his birth, resulting in Suharto living with foster parents for much of his childhood. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia , Suharto served in the Indonesian security forces organized by the Japanese. During the struggle for Indonesian independencejoined the newly formed Indonesian Army. Suharto rose to the rank of major general after Indonesian independence. An attempted coup on September 30, 1965, allegedly backed by the Indonesian Communist Party , was countered by troops led by Suharto. The military subsequently led an anti-communist purge, which the United States Central Intelligence Agency initially supported and later described as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century." [ 8 ] Suharto seized power from Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, was named interim president in 1967 and elected president the following year. He then mounted a social campaign known as De-Sukarnoisation to reduce the influence of the former president. [ 9 ] Support for Suharto's presidency was solid in the 1970s and 1980s. In the 1990s, authoritarianism and widespread corruption of his government [ 10 ] were a source of discontent and after the financial crisis Asian 1997-98 riots that led to dead product of repression, [ 11 ] resigned in May 1998. [ 12 ]Suharto died in 2008 and received a state funeral. [ 13 ]
Under his "New Order" administration, Suharto built a strong, centralized, and military-dominated government. The ability to maintain stability in a large Indonesia, coupled with an anti-communist stance, gave him economic and diplomatic support from the West during the Cold War . [ 14 ] [ 15 ]
During his tenure, serious and various human rights violations were committed. There was media censorship, strict restrictions on freedom of association and assembly, a highly politicized and controlled judiciary, widespread torture, attacks on minority rights, massacres of suspected communists and numerous war crimes committed in East Timor , Aceh, Papua and the Moluccan Islands. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] According to Transparency International , Suharto was the most corrupt leader in modern history, since it is estimated that embezzled between $ 15 and 35 billion dollars during his rule. [ 19]
He was born in the city of Yogyakarta , in the center of the island of Java . He was part of the Colonial Forces of the Netherlands and studied at a Dutch military academy . During World War II , he was a battalion commander in the local military militia organized by the Japanese occupation forces.
After Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945, Suharto's troops fought against the Dutch attempt to reestablish the former colony. He became widely known for his surprise attack on Dutch troops in Yogyakarta , his hometown. The attack took the city for a single day, on March 1, 1949, but this maneuver was seen as a symbol of the persistent Indonesian resistance against the Dutch.
In later years, Suharto was part of the Indonesian Army, mainly stationed on the island of Java . In 1959 he was accused of smuggling and transferred to the Bandung Military School in West Java . In 1962 he was promoted to Commander and took over the Diponegoro division . During the war with Malaysia , Suharto was a commander of the Kostrad (the strategic reserve), a sizeable Army force, with a significant presence in the area around Jakarta . By 1965, the armed forces were divided into two factions, one leftist, with great sympathies towards the Communist Party of Indonesia.(PKI), and the other right-wing, with Suharto in the second faction and supported by the United States.
The communists, taking advantage of the tension, denounced that there was a Council of Generals preparing a coup led by the CIA, which triggered the "September 30 Movement" led by Lieutenant Colonel Sukarno and killed six military leaders. These deaths led Suharto to start a counterattack crushing the "September 30 Movement", which allowed him to get rid of Sukarno and accuse the Communists of being behind the coup, a justification that served him to initiate a massacre against the Communists. Estimates speak of 500,000 to a million deaths. This allowed him to win the support of senior army officials and initiate a series of reforms. He introduced laws that liberalized the economy, thus favoring foreign investment, gradually approaching the capitalist model. Indonesia experienced oil-based economic growth. Suharto delivered mineral and forest resources to foreign companies, thus gaining the complicity of the United States and the World Bank, which financed some of his programs such as the "transmigration" of the Javanese people to other islands. Suharto's next step in culminating with the formation of the "Indonesian empire" and preventing an independent government from falling into the hands of China was to seize by force East Timor, a Portuguese colony that was going through "the carnation revolution" in search of of the independence. The United States, interested in avoiding a rapprochement with China, authorized Suharto to invade and incorporate the new territory. Thus began the great massacre of East Timor,
Establishment of the new order
Shortly after taking control of Jakarta and nearby areas, the military faction loyal to Suharto (along with allies in Islamic student groups ) demanded Sukarno's overthrow . They acted as death squads against his supporters, communist sympathizers and the Chinese minority throughout Indonesia .
On March 11, 1966, the convalescent Sukarno wrote a letter (the Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret or " Supersemar ") formally granting Suharto emergency powers over the country. [ Note 1 ] By means of this, Suharto established what he gave the name of "New Order" ( Orde Baru in Bahasa Indonesia ). Suharto consolidated his power by outlawing the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), purging Parliament and the cabinet of members loyal to Sukarno, eliminating independent unions and establishing censorship of the press.
Internationally, Suharto set the country on the march towards improving relations with Western nations, while ending his friendly relations with the People's Republic of China , initiated by Sukarno.
On March 12, 1967, Suharto was appointed president by Indonesia's provisional parliament and on March 21, he was formally elected for his first five-year term as president. He directly appointed 20% of the House of Representatives. The Golkar party became the only party acceptable to government officials. Indonesia also became one of the founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations .
To maintain order, Suharto greatly expanded the funding and powers of the Indonesian state apparatus. Two intelligence agencies were established: the Operational Command for the Restoration of Security (KOPKAMTIB) and the State Intelligence Coordination Agency (BAKIN), to deal with "threats to the regime." Suharto also established the Office of Logistics (BULOG) to distribute rice and other US donations from USAID . These new government bodies were placed under the regional military command structure, to which Suharto gave a "dual function" role as a defense force and as civilian administrators.
Due to a number of factors (mainly censorship), the death toll from state terrorism between 1965 and 1967 is controversial. Estimates of deaths from the conflict are estimated at between 100,000 and 1.5 million people.
It is known that with the rise to power of Suharto, the surviving Indonesian dissidents were branded as tapol (short for tahanan politik or "political prisoner"). During Suharto's government, the Tapol suffered heavy prison terms and their property was confiscated by the government, and once released, they were carefully watched and prohibited from participating in public life. Tapol's status also damaged the reputation of their spouses, children, friends, and relatives.
Among the Tapol were prominent figures from the Sukarno years, including Pramoedya Ananta Toer , the country's best known internationally known writer. He was accused of being a member of LEKRA, a group of communist intellectuals, and was held in the penal colony in Buru . When restrictions on tapol communications were relaxed , Pramoedya published a memoir, The Soliloquy of the Dumb ( Nyanyi Sunyi Seorang Bisu , 1995), with detailed accusations of forced labor, starvation and other abuses in the colony ("Tapol Troubles " 1999).
Both supporters and critics of Suharto acknowledge that the period of repression was marked by human rights abuses . Adherents claim that these abuses were justified by the imminent threat of a coup by the PKI, as attempted in 1948 under the Sukarno government . Critics of Suharto say that the PKI in 1965 had a similar inclination to the moderate theses of the European communist parties ( Eurocommunism ), away from Soviet and Chinese influence , and preferred electoral politics to armed insurrection. They also claim that Suharto's actions between 1965 and 1967 were motivated solely by personal ambition.
Despite a long time of secrecy during the Cold War , there are archives with evidence of Western assistance, mainly American , British and Australian after the seizure of power by General Suharto. These countries had an interest in overthrowing Sukarno, seen in the West as a threat because of his rapprochement with the People's Republic of China and because of the confrontation with Malaysia , in favor of a more pro-Western leader.
Beginning in 1990, several US diplomats made it known to the Washington Post and other media outlets that they had prepared lists of "communist operatives" in Indonesia , releasing a list of 5,000 names (of PKI militants and sympathizers) to the military. and to General Suharto's intelligence agency (Kadane, 1990).
In 2001, the George Washington University National Security Archive obtained several internal documents from the United States Department of State , supporting the claims of diplomats about the American collaboration with General Suharto. However, the Security Archives affirm that the communications between the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) have been substantially edited.
The role of the British Foreign Office and MI6 has also been made known in a series of articles in The Independent newspaper starting in 1997. The revelations include an anonymous Foreign Office source stating that the decision to overthrow Sukarno was made by Harold. Macmillan , the then British premier, and executed under Harold Wilson . In particular, it is alleged that the Investigative Information Department of the Foreign Office coordinated a psychological warfare with the British military in a propaganda campaign against the Indonesian Communist Party , Chinese-born Indonesians, and itself.Sukarno.
Even if the use of the Department of Investigation of Information implies it, the British government denies that MI6 had anything to do with Suharto's seizure of power, and related documents have not yet been declassified. (Lashmar and Oliver 2000).
Apogee of the new order
The two decades following Sukarno's overthrow marked an extension of Indonesia's military and economic power, as well as the assertion of Indonesian identity over regional or ethnic identities. Indonesia under Suharto had little tolerance for dissent, and it is generally referred to as a lack of human rights.
Indonesia, the "tiger of Asia"
On economic matters, Suharto entrusted his policies to a group of educated economists in the United States, nicknamed the Berkeley Mafia . Shortly after his seizure of power, he carried out reforms to establish Indonesia as a center for foreign investment. These changes included the privatization of their natural resources to promote their exploitation by industrialized nations, industrial legislation favorable to multinational corporations, and requests for development loans from institutions such as the World Bank , Western banks , and friendly governments ("Indonesia Economic", 2005). .
However, without any oversight, members of the military and the Golkar were intermediaries between business interests (foreign and domestic) and the Indonesian government. This led to a high degree of corruption in the form of bribery, organized crime and embezzlement. The monies from these practices often went to foundations ( yayasan ) under the control of Suharto's family. The corruption became so serious that the NGO Transparency International considered Suharto the most corrupt politician and Indonesia has been consistently ranked among the most corrupt nations.
Unitary state and regional unrest
From his rise to power until his resignation, Suharto continued the policies of his predecessor Sukarno by asserting the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia. He jealously acted in the affirmation and in enforcing territorial interests in the region, both by diplomacy and by military action.
In 1969 Suharto took the initiative to end the longstanding controversy over the last Dutch territory in the East Indies, West Papua . In conjunction with the United States and the United Nations , an agreement was reached to hold a referendum on independence, in which participants could choose to remain part of the Netherlands, join the Republic of Indonesia, or assume independence. Although originally drafted as a national vote of all adults in Papua, the "Free Choice Act" that took place in July-August 1969 allowed only 1,022 "chiefs" to vote. The unanimous vote was for integration with the Republic of Indonesia, which leads to doubts about the validity of the vote (Simpson).
In 1975, after Portugal withdrew from its East Timor colony and the Fretilin movement took power momentarily, Suharto ordered his troops to invade the country. The Indonesian-installed puppet government then requested that the area be annexed to the country. An estimated 100,000 people were killed by the Indonesian army, roughly a third of the local population. On July 15, 1976, East Timor became the province of Timor Timur until a referendum for independence was held in 1999 and transferred to the United Nations until 2002.
In 1976 the regime was challenged in Aceh province by the formation of the Free Aceh Movement or GAM , which demanded independence from the unitary state . Suharto quickly authorized the troops to put down the rebellion, forcing several of its leaders into exile in Sweden . Long fights between the GAM and the Indonesian military and police led Suharto to declare martial law in the province, declaring Aceh an "area of military operations" (DOM) in 1990.
The rapid development of traditional Indonesian urban centers underpinned Suharto's territorial ambitions. The rapid pace of this development had greatly increased the population density. In response, Suharto sought the policy of transmigration, to promote the movement from overcrowded cities to rural regions of the archipelago where natural resources had not yet been exploited.
Politics and opposition
In 1970 corruption prompted student protests and an investigation by a government commission. Suharto reacted by banning student protests, forcing activists to go underground. Only symbolic acts recommended by the commission went to court. The Suharto regime repeated the tactic of playing the game of a few of its most powerful opponents while criminalizing the others.
In order to maintain a covered democracy , Suharto carried out some electoral reforms. It was submitted to an election through electoral college votes every five years beginning in 1973. However, according to the election rules, only three parties were allowed to participate in the elections: its own Golkar party , the Islamist Party. Development Union (PPP) and the Indonesian Democratic Party(PDI). All previously existing political parties were forced to join the PPP or PDI, while government employees were pressured to join Golkar. In a political compromise with the powerful military, it prohibited its members from voting in elections, but allocated 100 seats in the electoral college for their representatives. As a result, he won every election he ran for, in 1978, 1983, 1988, 1993, and 1998.
This authoritarianism became a problem in 1980. On May 5 of that year, a group, Order of 50 (Petisi 50), demanded greater political freedoms. It was made up of retired military personnel, politicians, academics, and students. The Indonesian press censored the news and the government placed restrictions on signatories. After the group accused Suharto in 1984 of creating a one-party state, some of its members went to jail.
In the same decade, many scholars believe that the Indonesian military split between the nationalist "red and white faction" and the Islamist-leaning "green faction." Towards the end of the 1980s, Suharto is said to have moved his alliances from the nationalists to the Islamists, leading to the growth of BJ Habibe in the 1990s.
After the 1990s brought the end of the Cold War, Western concern about communism disappeared and international interest turned to the Suharto regime's list of human rights violations. In 1991, the killing of East Timorese civilians in a cemetery in Dili , also known as the Santa Cruz Massacre , brought American attention to its military relations with the Suharto regime and the issue of the Indonesian occupation of East Timor. . In 1992 this action caused the United States Congress to limit IMET assistance to the Indonesian military, despite the objections of US President George HW Bush . [Note 2 ]
In 1993, under the presidency of Bill Clinton , the US delegation to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights endorsed a resolution expressing deep concern about Indonesian human rights violations in East Timor. [ Note 3 ]
Protests for the reform and fall of Suharto
In 1996 Suharto carried out actions to anticipate challenges to the government of the New Order. The Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI), a legal party that had traditionally supported the regime, had changed direction and started to assert its independence. Suharto fomented a division in the leadership of the PDI, supporting a faction loyal to the president of the Suryadi Parliament against the faction loyal to Megawati Sukarnoputri , the daughter of Sukarno and the true president of the PDI.
After the Suryadi faction announced a motion to dismiss Megawati to the party congress, she proclaimed that her supporters would hold demonstrations in protest. The Suryadi faction continued to dismiss Megawati and protests spread throughout Indonesia. This led to several fights in the streets between protesters and security forces, and recriminations about the violence. The protests culminated in the military allowing Megawati supporters to take over the PDI headquarters in Jakarta, with a pledge not to hold any further demonstrations.
Suharto allowed the occupation of the PDI headquarters to continue for almost a month, because the focus was also on Jakarta due to high-level meetings of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to be held there. Taking advantage of this, Megawati supporters organized "democracy forums" with various speakers. On July 26, military officials, the Suryadi faction, and Suharto made their outrage public with the forums (Aspinall, 1996).
On July 27, the police, soldiers and individuals claiming to be Suryadi supporters took over the headquarters. Several Megawati supporters were killed and more than 200 were arrested and tried on charges of "subversion" and "incitement to hatred". This day would be known as "Black Saturday" and would mark the beginning of a harsh persecution by the New Order government against supporters of democracy, now called "Reformasi" or Reformation (Amnesty International, 1996).
In 1997, the Asian financial crisis had serious consequences on the Indonesian economy and society and on the Suharto regime. The Indonesian currency, the rupee, lost much of its value. Suharto came under scrutiny by credit institutions, primarily the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the United States, for prolonged embezzlement and protectionist measures. In December, the Suharto government signed a letter of intent with the IMF, pledging to enact austerity measures, such as cuts in public services and withdrawal of subsidies, in exchange for help from the IMF and other donors.
By early 1998, the austerity measures enacted by Suharto had begun to damage confidence in the regime. The prices of products such as kerosene , rice, utility costs and education increased dramatically. The effects were exacerbated by widespread corruption.
Suharto ran for reelection in parliament for the seventh time in March 1998, justifying himself in the need for his leadership during the crisis. Parliament approved a new term. This sparked protests and riots across the country, now known as the 1998 Indonesian Revolution. Disagreements within his own Golkar party and the military ultimately weakened Suharto and on May 21 he resigned from power. He was replaced by his vice president Jusuf Habibie .
After the overthrow
In May 1999, Time Asia magazine reports that Suharto's family fortune is approximately $ 15 billion in cash, stocks, business interests, property, jewelry, and artwork. Of these, 9 billion would have been deposited in an Austrian bank . The family is said to control about 36,000 km² of property in Indonesia, including 100,000 m² of prime offices in Jakarta, and about 40 percent of the land in East Timor. It is said that more than 73 billion dollars would have passed through the hands of the family during the 32 years of Suharto's rule.
On May 29, 2000, Suharto was placed under house arrest when Indonesian authorities began investigating corruption during his rule. In July it was announced that he was accused of embezzling $ 571 million in government donations to one of several foundations under his control, and then using the money to make family investments. But in September, court-appointed doctors announced that he could not be tried because of his deteriorating health. The state tried again in 2002 but again the doctors alleged an unspecified brain disease. Suharto was subsequently hospitalized several times for strokes and heart problems.
Unable to prosecute Suharto, the state indicted his son Hutomo Mandala Putra, better known as Tommy Suharto . He was sentenced to 15 years in prison for ordering the murder of a judge who sentenced him to 18 months for his role in a land fraud in September 2000. He is the first member of Suharto's family to be found guilty and imprisoned for a crime. Tommy Suharto maintains his innocence but says he will not appeal the verdict or sentence.
On May 6, 2005, Suharto was taken to Pertamina Hospital in Jakarta with intestinal bleeding, believed to be due to diverticulosis. The Indonesian political elite, including President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Vice President Jusuf Kalla visited him in bed. He was discharged and returned home six days later.
On May 26, 2005, the Jakarta Post newspaper reported that in the face of attempts by the government of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono to tackle corruption, Indonesian Attorney General Abdurrahman Saleh appeared before the parliamentary commission to discuss attempts to try New York figures. Order, including Suharto. The attorney general remarked that he had hoped that Suharto could recover so that the government could begin investigations into human rights violations and corruption in order to compensate and recover funds from the state, but expressed skepticism that this was possible. The Indonesian Supreme Court also issued a decree making the Attorney General's office responsible for overseeing Suharto's medical care.
On January 4, 2008, Suharto was admitted to the Petarmina hospital in Jakarta. His health condition deteriorated rapidly and he was diagnosed with anemia and low blood pressure due to liver and kidney problems. Throughout the three weeks that he was admitted, his condition deteriorated due to an infection, which was the one that caused his death on January 27 at 1:10 in the afternoon.
He was transferred to the Giri Bangun mausoleum, where his wife was also buried. The funeral was attended by numerous representatives of the government and the armed forces. Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono declared a week of official mourning and various events were held in honor of the former Indonesian president.
| Presidente de Indonesia |
1967 – 1998
- In 1991 a Suharto minister admitted that the Indonesian national archives only possessed a copy of this letter and not the original. The following year, another minister asked whoever had the original document to present it to the national archives. However, there are several eyewitness testimonies claiming that such a document exists and that the archival copy is a faithful reproduction of the original.
- See United States Congress, House of Representatives. 102nd Congress, 2nd session. HR 5368, 2nd Session Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 1993 . Title III - International Military Education and Training: "None of the funds under this acapice will be made available to Indonesia unless the Secretary of State certifies to the Appropriations Committee that special [...] emphasis is being given to the education of Indonesian military personnel to foster greater attention and respect for human rights and to improve military justice systems. " He died on January 27, 2008 at the age of 86, without having been tried for his crimes of corruption, murder and violation of human rights.
- See UN Commission for Human Rights, resolution 1993/97 " Situation in East Timor "
- "Former dictator Suharto dies" . Archived from the original on January 31, 2008 . Retrieved January 29, 2008 .
- Gittings, John (January 27, 2008). "Obituary: Suharto, former Indonesian dictator: 1921-2008" . The Guardian (in British English) . ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- Berger, Marilyn (January 28, 2008). «Suharto Dies at 86; Indonesian Dictator Brought Order and Bloodshed ' . The New York Times (US English) . ISSN 0362-4331 . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- "20 years on, has Indonesia banished Suharto's ghost?" . South China Morning Post (in English) . May 19, 2018 . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- Suharto, 1921-2008. (). 7 years exploring the thoughts and actions of Pak Harto : 1991-9197 . Mother's Charisma Image. ISBN 9786028112123 . OCLC 710045289 . Consultado el 28 de junio de 2019 .
- Forrester, Geoff.; May, Ronald James.; Regime Change and Regime Maintenance in Asia and the Pacific Project.; Australian National University. North Australia Research Unit. (1998). The fall of Soeharto. Crawford House. ISBN 1863331689. OCLC 39924389. Consultado el 28 de junio de 2019.
- Suharto, 1921-2008 .; Ramadhan KH (Ramadan Karta Hadimadja), 1927-2006. (). Suharto, my thoughts, words, and deeds : an autobiography (English ed edición). Image of Lamtoro Gung Persada. ISBN 9798085019 . OCLC 26339901 . Consultado el 28 de junio de 2019 .
- Blumenthal, David A.; McCormack, Timothy L. H. (2008). The legacy of Nuremberg : civilising influence or institutionalised vengeance?. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9789047423362. OCLC 307619390. Consultado el 28 de junio de 2019.
- Elson, RE; Kusuma, AB (1 de enero de 2011). «A note on the sources for the 1945 constitutional debates in Indonesia» . Contributions to Linguistics, Geography and Ethnology / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia (en inglés) 167 (2-3): 196-209. ISSN 0006-2294 . doi : 10.1163/22134379-90003589 . Consultado el 28 de june de 2019 .
- Ignatius, Adi (September 11, 2007). "TIME Mulls Indonesia Court Ruling" . Time (in American English) . ISSN 0040-781X . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- «CNN - Hundreds dead from Indonesian unrest - May 16, 1998». edition.cnn.com. Consultado el 28 de junio de 2019.
- «BBC News | LATEST NEWS | President Suharto resigns » . news.bbc.co.uk . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- Kearney, Marianne (January 28, 2008). "General Suharto buried in state funeral" (in British English) . ISSN 0307-1235 . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- Miguel, Edward; Gertler, Paul; Levine, David I. (1 de noviembre de 2005). «Does Social Capital Promote Industrialization? Evidence from a Rapid Industrializer». The Review of Economics and Statistics 87 (4): 754-762. ISSN 0034-6535. doi:10.1162/003465305775098099. Consultado el 28 de junio de 2019.
- Editor, Hamish McDonald Asia-Pacific (January 28, 2008). "Puppetmaster's ambition knew no end . " The Sydney Morning Herald (in English) . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- Avenue, Human Rights Watch | 350 Fifth (January 27, 2008). "Indonesia: Suharto's Death a Chance for Victims to Find Justice" . Human Rights Watch (in English) . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- «Indonesia: Atrocities conducted under Suharto should not be forgotten, says Amnesty». www.amnesty.org.uk. Consultado el 28 de junio de 2019.
- "Suharto got away with murder: rights activists" . ABC News (in Australian English) . January 28, 2008 . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- "Suharto tops corruption rankings" (in British English) . March 25, 2004 . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- Country, Editions El (January 28, 2008). "Suharto, Indonesian dictator" . The Country . ISSN 1134-6582 . Retrieved June 28, 2019 .
- BBC News article from March 25, 2004, quoting Transparency International
- Aspinall, Ed (Oct-Dec 1996). "What happened before the riots?" . Inside Indonesia . Archived from the original on May 5 , 2005. (English)
- "Attorney general doubts Soeharto can be prosecuted" (27 de mayo de 2005) The Jakarta Post.
- Blum, William. Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II, Black Rose, 1998, pp. 193-198 ISBN 1-56751-052-3
- Camdessus Commends Indonesian Actions . Press release. International Monetary Fund . ( 31 as October as 1997 )
- National Security Archive (April - 2005). "CIA Stalling State Department Histories . " The National Security Archive . Retrieved May 23 , 2005 .
- Colmey, John (24 de mayo de 1999). «The Family Firm». TIME Asia.
- Indonesia Economic . Commanding Heights. PBS. (available May 23 , 2005 )
- Lashmar, Paul and Oliver, James. "MI6 Spread Lies To Put Killer In Power" The Independent. (16 de abril de 2000)
- Lashmar, Paul; Oliver, James (1999). Britain's Secret Propaganda War. Sutton Pub Ltd. ISBN 0-7509-1668-0.
- Simpson, Brad (9 de julio de 2004). «Indonesia's 1969 Takeover of West Papua Not by "Free Choice"». National Security Archive.
- Indonesian Information and Resources Program (April - June 1999). "Tapol Troubles: When Will They End?" . Inside Indonesia. Archived from the original on May 25, 2000 . Accessed 1999 .
- Amnesty International (1996). "Arrests, torture and intimidation: The Government's response to its critics . " Amnesty International. AI Index: ASA 21/070/1996 . Archived from the original on May 8, 2003.
- Toer, Pramoedya Ananta (2000). The Mute's Soliloquy : A Memoir. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-028904-6.
- Wikinews articles : Former Indonesian President Suharto is buried
- Mohammed Suharto Biography - By FamousMuslims.com
- "How did Suharto steal $ 35 billion?" - (in English) Article by Brendan I. Koerner of Slate Magazine March 24 , 2004
- "Suharto, Inc." - (in English) Revelations from TIME Asia magazine about Suharto's regime and family, published on the first anniversary of Suharto's resignation. May 24 , 1999
- Shadow Play - (in English) Website of a2002 PBS documentary from Indonesia, with an emphasis on Suharto's time and the transition from the New Order to the Reformation.
- Tiger Tales: Indonesia - (in English) Website for a2002 BBC radio documentaryon Indonesia, focusing on the early years of Suharto's time. Includes interviews with Indonesian generals and victims of the regime.