|Cultural origins||Mid- 80s in Detroit , United States and Germany|
|Common Instruments||Sequencer , synthesizer , drum machine , sampler , vocoder , keyboard|
|Popularity||High worldwide, primarily in the United States and Europe|
|Derivatives||Eurodance, rave, alternative dance, electrotech, europop, breakbeat, jungle, electroclash, big beat, dance-pop, hip house, breakbeat hardcore, dubstep, deep house, ambient house|
The techno (adapted to the Spanish as techno ) is a genre of electronic music that emerged in Detroit ( United States ) and Germany in the mid-1980s [ 1 ] The first recorded use of the word techno reference to a musical genre It dates from 1988 and is linked to music in an article that Stuart Cosgrove published in The Face magazine in Detroit. Today, there are a multitude of styles of techno , although it is generally accepted that the genesis of the genre lies in theDetroit techno and its predecessors. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ]
The origin of techno comes from house music together with the fusion of certain currents of European music, based on the experimental use of the synthesizer or the first electro . To this is added the influence of a futuristic aesthetic and theme , based both on science fiction and on some ideas from the work of Alvin Toffler . The term techno itself derives from the concept of techno rebels found in the book The Third Wave of the American Sociologist . [ 5 ] This combination of ideas about technoto a kind of Afrofuturist and cyberpunk aesthetic . [ 6 ] [ 7 ]
The specialized press and techno fans criticize the lax use that is sometimes made of the term as it is sometimes confused with other related but musically different genres, such as EDM or trance . [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ]
Kraftwerk , a German music group that began its career in the early 1970s , has a considered fundamental influence on all subsequent popular music, and especially on electronics . His style is part of a broader movement that took place in Germany known as krautrock . Kraftwerk's fourth album, Autobahn (1974), was the one that definitely made him an international phenomenon. [ 11 ] It is a pioneering album that contains the first elements of genres such as synth pop or electro , styles directly related to techno.that would emerge a few years later. One of the first composers to give way to techno was Jean Michel Jarre with his compositions Oxygene (Part II) and Equinox 4 . Electronic music was taking shape from the success of synthesizers. [ 12 ]
Origin of techno in Detroit
From 1977 to the mid -1980s , a late-night radio show called the Midnight Funk Association aired in Detroit . Hosted by The Electrifying Mojo , his original approach made him popular, making a considerable impact on the approach to music of an entire generation of listeners. The Electrifying Mojo had to move from station to station due to risky programming that cost him several layoffs, since his proposal was outside the usual commercial canon and the type of radio to which the Afro-descendant community was accustomed. In its space you could hear a personal selection of styles and artists that could include classic soul , Kraftwerk ,new English romantics , p-funk , The Clash or classical music . [ 13 ]
This program served as inspiration for numerous local African American producers such as Juan Atkins , Derrick May , Kevin Saunderson (known as The Belleville Three after the Detroit high school where they studied) and Eddie Fowlkes . [ 14 ] Influenced by the German electronic sound and the black musical tradition, they began to produce with synthesizers a type of music that shared elements with electro that artists like Afrika Bambaataa made at that time in other parts of the country. John Atkinswas the pioneer of all of them, forming in the early 1980s with Vietnam veteran Richard Davis the electro group Cybotron . His productions include what is considered the first techno song in history, "Alleys Of Your Mind" ( 1981 ), or songs that would lay the foundations of the genre such as " Clear ". [ 15 ] The group was endowed with a futuristic aesthetic and related to science fiction that is reflected both in their music and in the theme of the songs and in the name of the genre itself. From the work of futurologist Alvin Tofflerterms such as Cybotron , Metroplex or techno were taken . [ 16 ] [ 17 ]
The sound of Detroit was deeply influenced by African American music, especially genres like soul and funk , and in particular the P-Funk of Parliament . The style of its keyboardist Bernie Worrell , one of the first funk musicians to change the Hammond keyboard for a synthesizer, greatly influenced the playing of techno drivers . [ 18 ] The combination of the black tradition with music coming from Europe, especially the krautrock , the Italo disco of Giorgio Moroderand the widespread experimentation that took place with synthesizers resulted in that first techno sound . [ 19 ] [ 20 ] Derrick May described with a phrase that has made famous:
"Techno is a big mistake, as if George Clinton and Kraftwerk were stuck in an elevator and only had a synthesizer to keep them company." [ 21 ]
There is a direct connection between techno and the scene that had formed in the early 1980s in Detroit, with house music that was developing at the same time in Chicago, and with the club culture of this city. This relationship has meant that songs created in Detroit like Derrick May's "Strings of Life" (released under his alias Rhythim Is Rhythim) are today considered classics of both the techno and house genres. [ 22 ]
It has been suggested that Detroit techno predates Chicago house, and that it was developed thanks to a drum machine that Frankie Knuckles bought from Derrick May. According to this version, that drum machine contained several rhythmic patterns composed by the Detroit producer that were later used in the gestation of the new Chicago sound. [ 23 ] [ 24 ]
The arrival of techno to Europe
Since the mid-1980s there has been a growing interest in house music in the UK . At the parties that took place in Ibiza , a common destination for British tourism, several English DJs get to know Chicago house and ecstasy . Among them are Paul Oakenfold , Mark Moore or Graeme Park, DJs who would be responsible upon returning to England to spread this music and the so-called ecstasy culture throughout the country through their sessions in cities such as London, Manchester and Nottingham, and later in Sheffield and Leeds. [ 25 ]
By the end of the decade, house music had become widespread in England and acid house was becoming increasingly popular thanks to parties at nightclubs such as The Haçienda or Shoom. [ 26 ] A subculture of illegal parties or raves also began to develop , which multiplied after the so-called "Summer of Love" in 1989. Both at these parties and in clubs, rhythms imported from Ibiza were played along with the very popular acid , although little by little techno records began to be playedimported from Detroit. It is the time when raves become a massive phenomenon, taking house as a generational soundtrack. [ 27 ] [ 28 ]
The success of house and acid paved the way for acceptance of the new Detroit sound. In 1987 , Neil Rushton, owner of Kool Kat Records and a former northern soul DJ, contacted Derrick May , who provided him with a copy of his upcoming track "Strings of Life." The song caused a sensation among the younger clubbers of the time. Two months after the conversation, May traveled to England with some of her records to, after negotiating with the businessman, reach a commercial agreement through which to edit a compilation with the best of Detroit's sound. This album, which was originally to be called The House Sound of Detroit, ended up finally changing its name after Atkins, May and Saunderson decided to name it in such a way that it did not seem like a regional subgenre of house, but rather an authentic musical genre with its own entity. From the song "Techno Music" by Juan Atkins , the album was called Techno! The New Dance Sound of Detroit , being published in 1988. [ 29 ] [ 30 ]
The album did not sell many copies at first, but later, when the song "Big Fun" by Inner City contained in the compilation began to climb positions in the charts, more and more people set their sights on that new style that came from Detroit. And soon it became known worldwide. [ 29 ] [ 31 ]
As the original sound developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s , what had hitherto been called techno also began to broaden its stylistic spectrum . This went on to include from pop music projects like Moby's to collectives with deep anti-commercial sentiments like Underground Resistance , or artists who began to experiment with jazz or ambient sounds . Around this time, the techno sound began to enjoy a large underground following in the UK , Germany and Belgium.. The growth in popularity of techno between 1988 and 1992 was largely due to the rave scene .
The "second wave" in the US
In the United States , outside of the local Detroit, New York and Chicago scenes, interest in techno proved limited. Producers in Detroit, frustrated by the lack of opportunities in their own country, began to focus more and more on Europe. This first wave of expatriates was soon joined by a second generation of producers, mostly also from Detroit. They are known as the "second wave" and include Carl Craig , Octave One , Jay Denham, Kenny Larkin and Stacey Pullen . This trend can also include the collective Underground Resistance , with which technoit becomes harder and acquires a content of political vindication. [ 32 ]
Underground Resistance (UR) was formed around 1990 by Mike Banks and DJ Jeff Mills , who were soon joined by Robert Hood . Later they were joined by other collaborators, such as the comic artist Alan Oldham, the veteran James Pennington , producers such as Blake Baxter or the Scan 7 group . Under the umbrella of the group, which also served as a record label, they published all of them indistinctly without many times knowing exactly who the author of each album was, since UR makes anonymity one of its hallmarks. Underground Resistance, in addition to continuing the development of detroit technotowards a musically more corrosive and acidic field, it also adds a political dimension : a militant concept that moved away from the escapist futurism of its predecessors and had more to do with a certain cyberpunk universe . [ 33 ] [ 34 ]
As the years go by, the style becomes harsh and minimalist, the most recognizable elements of the soul essence are progressively eliminated and the songs become more and more synthetic. This is the minimal techno , one of its greatest exponents is the album Minimal Nation of Robert Hood (1994). [ 35 ] At the same time, artists began to appear progressively who, without being originally from Detroit, can be linked to the second wave techno scene . Such is the case of Canadian Richie Hawtin . Hawtin would initially share the sound of UR, although not its concept or ideology. Together with John Acquaviva he founded the Plus 8 Records label, very popular in the 1990s.
Britain creates its own scene
Great Britain contributes to the development of techno with several novel stylistic contributions between the late 1980s and early 1990s. Although they share a geographic scope, they differ from each other in terms of both structure and musical concept. They are sub-styles that arise as a consequence of the same reason: the increasing demand for dance music in England and Europe that American musicians were not able to fully cover. This fact caused a growing number of young Europeans to launch themselves into producing techno for themselves.
- Bleep and bass (also known as "Yorkshire techno") is the type of sound developed in the north of England between 1989 and 1991, especially in Sheffield . It combined elements of Chicago garage house with early Detroit techno . It is considered as the first purely English dance music. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] emphasize artists Unique 3 Nightmares On Wax or LFO .
- The techno acid arises around 1991 and 1992 from the acid house . Its drivers use the characteristic "acid" sounds of acid house, which are created mainly thanks to the Roland TB-303 bass synthesizer , but instead of applying this instrument in the warm and melodic compositions typical of house they use it framed within techno patterns. harder and focused on the beat. This type of sound was carried out by musicians such as Nathaniel Pierre Jones AKA DJ Pierre Aphex Twin , Mike Dred or Dave Clarke. [ 38 ]
- The intelligent dance music (abbreviated acronym "IDM") tries to make the techno one listenable music also off the dance floor, looking for experimentation and crossing with other styles. In its early days, IDM takes important elements of ambient and combines them with the kind of atmospheric sound of Detroit creators like Carl Craig or Derrick May . The first to develop this new sound are artists like Michael Golding & Steve Rutter under the pseudonym B12 . The popularity of the subgenre comes thanks to the compilation Artificial intelligence released by the Warp Records labelin 1992, where songs by the above and other artists such as Autechre , Speedy J and Aphex Twin were included . These and others like LFO , Future Sound of London or The Black Dog would be the first to conceive a musical universe less and less oriented towards the dance floor, and instead much more focused towards abstraction and experimentation. [ 39 ]
Germany, the cradle of techno in Europe
In Germany , and in parallel to what happened in the United Kingdom, popular interest in electronic dance music grew in different parts of the country from the 1980s onwards. One of the oldest clubs in Europe operated in Frankfurt , the Dorian Gray Technoclub , with a program originally oriented towards EBM . In Cologne an important scene unfolded acid , while in Munich deejay DJ Hell became the local guru of these sounds. [ 40 ] In Berlin , DJs Westbam and Dr. Motte created UFO, the first embryo of the Berlin illegal party scene, and co-founded the Love Parade . After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the free techno party scene grew throughout East Germany , consolidating a rave scene comparable to the one that existed at the time in the United Kingdom. [ 41 ]
By 1991, several spaces dedicated to electronic music parties closed (including UFO) and the scene techno of Berlin remained centered around three places near the Wall : Planet (later called E-Werk by Paul van Dyk ), Der Bunker and the oldest Tresor founded in March 1991. [ 41 ] It was in the latter that a certain paramilitary aesthetic developed within the techno community , possibly as an expression of the commitment of the current influenced by the sound of Underground Resistance. In addition, the connection with Detroit resulted in programming where "local heroes with exceptional guests such as UR and Eddie Fowlkes" shared the bill, as well as a close collaboration with the club's record division. [ 42 ]
Progressively, German DJs intensified the speed and hardness of the sound, so that techno reminiscent of acid from the early 1990s began to transmute into hardcore or hardcore techno . It is a sound heavily influenced by Dutch gabber and Belgian hardcore. Other influences that gave this style personality were the EBM of the mid-1980s, whose most representative groups were DAF , Front 242 and Nitzer Ebb . The followers of this type of German techno called it "Tekkno" or "Bretter" at the time. [ 41]
After hardcore, techno took several paths in Germany in the first half of the 1990s. Around 1992 the mystical sound of trance began to become increasingly popular , advocated by DJs such as Dr. Motte or Sven Väth . Germany also participated in the creative explosion of ambient techno of the time. [ 43 ] Another ramification of the genre takes place towards the middle of the decade when the so-called dub techno arises in Berlin from the hand of the Maurizio project , which operated from the platform of the Basic Channel label . This hybrid genre between club electronics andJamaican dub is a manifestation of minimal techno and has inspired and influenced a whole generation of producers such as Pole , Monolake , Richie Hawtin , Scion , Vladislav Delay or Deadbeat. [ 44 ]
Techno Alliance : Berlin & Detroit
In 1993 , the German label Tresor released the compilation album Tresor II: Berlin & Detroit - A Techno Alliance , [ 45 ] reflecting the importance of the connection between the two cities. Through this "alliance" both cities and music scenes benefited each other, as detroit techno achieved significant international diffusion while Tresor gained respect and reputation. In practice, this collaboration resulted in the regular hiring of American DJs at the Berlin club. Some of them even lived in Berlin, such as Jeff Mills and Blake Baxter.. All this had its materialization on the musical plane. With Tresor's support, Underground Resistance released the X-101 / X-102 / X103 series of discs and Juan Atkins collaborated with Moritz Von Oswald and Thomas Fehlmann downgraded the 3MB name. In addition, the Basic Channel label , closely linked to Tresor, got their material mastered at the National Sound Corporation in Detroit, the main mastering house of the Detroit techno scene .
Hardcore y free parties
Hardcore is a style derived from techno that since its birth has enjoyed great popularity in Europe, especially among working-class youth . It was born between the early and mid-1990s in several places simultaneously, including the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Belgium and Great Britain. The style is characterized by a fast or very fast tempo (usually above 180 bpms ) many times built by speeding up techno records . The distorted and rhythmic use of sounds of an industrial nature is common.
"Musically, hardcore is an offshoot of techno made in and around London that is defined by its accelerated breaks as opposed to the programmed rhythms of trance or house." [ 46 ]
There are different styles of hardcore techno . In England it is strongly linked to the rave phenomenon , which at its zenith could bring together tens of thousands of young people in the so-called " free parties ". In this context a type of fast-paced and fast-paced techno becomes popular, now known as hardcore breakbeat , ardkore or simply rave music. This sound evolves and takes two variants broadly: on the one hand , that of jungle , which emphasizes breaks and has a darker sound, and on the other, that of happy hardcore , which maintains the 4x4 structure., the tempo above 160 bpm and the sound "squeaky". [ 47 ] This happy hardcore has a lot to do with the Dutch gabber , with whom he is sometimes confused. The gabber is characterized by a tempo that ranges from 150 to 220 bpms and a highly distorted kick drum, all combined with accelerated samples of a theme that usually revolves around drugs or violence. The gabber was very popular especially in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and Belgium.
The rave scene reached such a dimension in England that it became uncontrollable, generating a very negative reaction in the English public at the time. This finally brought about its prohibition in 1994 through the law known as the "Criminal Justice and Public Order Act". [ 48 ] A good part of the public of the raves left the island, continuing the free party movement in other areas of Europe or the United States, and also in remote places such as Goa in India, the east coast of Australia or Koh Phangan in Thailand . In Europe they have not stopped doing raves since its inception.
Other subgenres and commercialization
Towards the end of the first half of the 1990s, techno had reached a point of development such that it was sometimes difficult to fit each new artist or song into a precisely delimited genre. The passage of techno through different countries and scenes was leaving in the style an indefinite number of different influences that materialized in different sub-styles or sub-genres, each with a set of characteristics that give it its own personality within the broader category of techno. . Different fashions have also had an effect on the names given to each subgenre.
Thus, some examples not yet mentioned of techno forms or derivations of it that have great differences both in their rhythmic structure and in their sonority, as well as in their objective (politicized or commercial, to dance or to listen at home) with the sound. original, include different manifestations of hardcore and trance , hard techno, Birmingham techno championed by Surgeon , click techno or the minimal techno variant associated with Richie Hawtin and his Minus label. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] [ 51 ]
The implantation and subsequent massive and widespread follow-up of techno led to a growing interest in the music industry in order to obtain commercial benefits. Proof of this are songs like "Dass Boot" by U96 (1991) or "James Brown Is Dead" from LA Style , [ 52 ] [ 53 ] that could be considered the first of a sequence of productions that were launched as "techno commercial". Since then, countless artists of all musical genres have used elements of techno , both from their music and from their aesthetics, in their artistic proposal. As with other artistic manifestations,consumer society have tried to take advantage of the popular pull of techno . [ 54 ]
Other regional scenes
In Europe, techno arrived in Italy in 1993 developing two different scenes, one in Reggio Emilia and the other in Naples . The first had a line oriented towards hardcore while the second produced more classical techno with artists such as Rino Cerrone, Gaetano Parisio or Marco Carola . Something similar happens in Spain , where the first techno scenes originated in the cities of Valencia and Barcelona., at the beginning of the 1990s in the first and mid-decade in Barcelona. Both are the first steps of the sound called mákina approximately between 1989 and 1990. [ 55 ] [ 56 ] In Valencia emerges the first group producing techno in Spain, Megabeat . After the fall of communism and the division of the former Yugoslavia , the former Yugoslavian countries also developed a certain scene with artists such as Uros Umek, Valentino Kanzyani and Marko Nastic. On the other hand, techno also has a certain following in the Scandinavian countries. In swedenDJs like Adam Beyer or Cari Lekebusch were the first to mix this type of sound, with Aril Brikha moving closer to Detroit techno .
Although techno was established mainly in Western Europe and the United States , since the early 1990s it has made the leap to other countries. In Eastern Europe , techno became a symbol of the new economic model after the fall of the Berlin Wall . In South America , techno events take place in the first half of this decade in the most important cities of the region, although a scene does not develop until well into the decade. Also in Japan there is great interest in this musical genre, with prominent producers such as Ken Ishiiknown as the master of Japanese techno. In addition, in Venezuela , the raptor house genre arises , largely influenced by techno and house . [ 57 ]
The techno is a musical style primarily instrumental , with little presence of vowels. It is usually heard in the context of a continuous DJ session , during which the DJ progresses from one record to the next through their synchronized mixing. Much of the instrumentation in techno places the emphasis on the rhythm section , both for being dance music and for its insertion within the DJ session, but the use of synthetic musical timbres is also very relevant.
The rhythmic pattern of techno is practically always a four-on-the-floor within a 4/4 time signature . In its basic form, time is marked by the bass drum sounds on each black or quarter of the compass, beat box ( "snare" or "clap") in the second and fourth time compass, and hi hat open in half of each time. It is a typical rhythmic pattern of disco music also present in other earlier musical forms such as the polka . The tempo usually ranges from 120 to 150 bpm , depending on the style of techno .
There are many ways to create techno , but most use sequencers to create loop- based compositions . Techno producers , instead of using traditional compositional techniques, tend to work in an improvised way and tend to take the studio as an instrument in itself considered. The production team is synchronized using some kind of MIDI sequencer , allowing the producer to combine the sound of several different devices into a single compositional arrangement.
Analog instruments used by the pioneers of the techno of Detroit included drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and TR-909 , [ 58 ] [ 59 ] generator basslines Roland TB-303 , and other synthesizers as Roland SH-101, Kawai KC10, Yamaha DX7 , and Yamaha DX100. Most of the original sequencing was carried out via MIDI using sequencers such as the Korg SQD1 and Roland MC-50, and samplingit was done using the Akai S900. Since the second half of the 1990s, a good part of this type of production is carried out not by hardware but by emulators that are controlled digitally from a computer. The live concerts that have been carried out since the appearance of emulators are usually carried out mainly through laptops using software .
- Gigi D'Agostino (Italy)
- Carlos García-Vaso (Spain)
- The Advent (Inglaterra)
- Dave Angel (Inglaterra)
- Oscar Mulero (Spain)
- Juan Atkins (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Mike Banks (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Blake Baxter (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Si Begg (England)
- Daniel Bell (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Joey Beltram (EE. UU./NY)
- Adam Beyer (Sweden)
- C. J. Bolland (Bélgica)
- Frankie Bones (EE. UU./NY)
- Thomas Brinkmann (Germany)
- Marco Carola (Italy)
- Marco Dan (Spain)
- Basic Channel (Alemania)
- Salvatorecoco (Spain)
- Dave Clarke (Inglaterra)
- Carl Cox (Inglaterra)
- eckotrack (Mexico)
- Carl Craig (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Kirk Degiorgio (England)
- Vladislav Delay (Finland)
- The Black Dog (Inglaterra)
- Drexciya (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Dominik Eulberg (Alemania)
- A Guy Called Gerald (Inglaterra)
- Laurent Garnier (Francia)
- Fred Giannelli (EE. UU.)
- Hardfloor (Alemania)
- Richie Hawtin (Canadá)
- DJ Hell (Alemania)
- Syntheticorpse (Colombia)
- Robert Hood (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Ken Ishii (Japan)
- Speedy J (Holanda)
- Kenny Larkin (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Lekebusch (Sweden)
- LFO (Inglaterra)
- Chris Liebing (Alemania)
- Derrick May (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Jeff Mills (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Moritz Von Oswald (Germany)
- Paulo Nascimento (Portugal)
- Lukas Mors (Argentina)
- Orbital (Inglaterra)
- James Pennington (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Regis (England)
- DJ Rush (EE. UU./Chicago)
- Kevin Saunderson (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Anthony Shakir (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Slam (England)
- Luke Slater (Inglaterra)
- Pan Sonic (Finland)
- 808 State (Inglaterra)
- Surgeon (Inglaterra)
- System 7 (Inglaterra)
- Keith Tucker (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Umek (Slovenia)
- UR (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Underworld (Inglaterra)
- Octave One (EE. UU./Detroit)
- Sven Väth (Germany)
- Ricardo Villalobos (Chile)
- concept 0.0 (México)
- Cristian Vogel (Chile)
- Joris Voorn (Holland)
- Adam X (EE. UU./NY)
- Oliver Ho (England)
- Mauro Picotto (Italy)
- Ben Klock (Germany)
- David Aarz (Spain)
- Juan David Velandia (Colombia)
- Cabizbajo (Mexico)
- Phoenika (México)
- Brain Contusion (Peru)
- Sumerio (Chile)
- Electro Techno Sonico (Dominican Republic)
- Cristian Varela (Spain)
- David Meiser (Spain)
- Dj Pepo (Spain)
- Samuli Kemppi (FInlandia)
- Gary Bredow (2006). "High Tech Soul" (in English) . Archived from the original on February 3, 2009 . Retrieved February 4, 2010 . "The documentary begins by saying, " Techno music emerged in Detroit in the mid to late 1980s, and its creation is attributed to Juan Atkins, Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson . "
- Loops 2002:261
- Culture and Politics of Dance Music 2003: 145-149
- Ariel Kyrou conceived during her repeatedly work at The Belleville Three as inventors of gender (pp. 183 infra , 186 supra , 187 infra ) and subtitled his chapter on the techno of Detroit "The original techno born in Detroit and its seeds resistance "(p. 183). Techno Rebel. 2006
- Specifically from the paragraph that argues that «the techno- rebels are, whether they recognize it or not, agents of the Third Wave. In the coming years not only will they not disappear, but they will multiply. They are part of the advance to a new level of civilization. Excerpted from Machine Soul. 1993
- Hooked on an Affect. 2011:33
- A trait that musicians from the Detroit techno scene like Cybotron or Drexciya would share with others not belonging to it like Sun Ra or George Clinton. Post Soul Futurama. 2005: 11
- Critzon, Michael (September 17, 2001). "Eat Static is bad stuff . " Central Michigan Life . Archived from the original on May 24, 2016 . Retrieved November 12, 2013 .
- Hamersly, Michael (23 de marzo de 2001). «Electronic Energy». The Miami Herald: 6G.
- Schoemer, Karen (February 10, 1997). Electronic Eden. Newsweek . p. 60. Every Monday night, Natania goes to the Koncrete Jungle, a dance music party on New York's East Side that and plays a relatively new, now fashionable style of music known as "drum & bass" or, de more generally, "techno", a general term that describes music made with computers and electronic devices rather than conventional instruments, and performed by DJs like Kabalo rather than by now-old-fashioned bands.
- Jason Ankeny. "Biography of Kraftwerk ' (in English) . Retrieved February 4, 2010 .
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. "Autobahn" (in English) . Retrieved February 9, 2010 .
- «Who is" The Electrifying Mojo? " (in English) . Retrieved on February 4, 2010 . "Biography of The Electrifying Mojo in the" 313 "of Hyperreal, which states that" perhaps Mojo did not influence the development of the techno as a genre per se , but it definitely helped to awaken a generation's search for unusual sounds "».
- Techno Rebel. 2006: 183
- John Bush. "Biography of Juan Atkins" (in English) . Retrieved February 4, 2010 . "The author states that" (...) although it is often difficult (and misleading) to determine the exact genesis of a musical genre, the simplest choice in techno is an Atkins album, the 1982 electro track 'Clear' ".»
- Loops 2002:266-267.
- Benjamin Ferguson. "Label of love: Metroplex" (in English) . Retrieved June 15, 2010 .
- Juan Atkins has come to consider him as the "godfather of techno". Loops 2002: 264.
- Dan Bean. "Interview with Juan Atkins" (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . «Juan Atkins points out all these varied musical influences. He says that he learned to play the drums emulating the sound of Motown , in his adolescence he played versions of classics by Sly & The Family Stone and the first album he bought was from this group. He cites the influence of Giorgio Moroder's productions, such as The Chase, and says that in his DJ competitions he stood out for putting records by groups like The B-52's ».
- Simon Trask (1988). "Future Shock" (in English) . Archived from the original on April 5, 2009 . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . "On Atkins's enthusiasm for Kraftwerk and other European influences, the Detroit producer says: " Around 1980 I had a solo tape of Kraftwerk, Telex, Devo, Giorgio Moroder and Gary Numan, and I loved driving without direction listening to it . " Later he explains the intention of his music: "My idea was that the Kraftwerks, Telexes and Devos were good but they weren't funky. I felt that if I could take that kind of music and add a funky element to it it would be a hoot. We did that, but we didn't. we got recognition. " ».
- Cosgrove, S (1988). « Techno! - The New Dance Sound of Detroit » (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . "Interior notes".
- "Strings of Life" aparece en recopilatorios titulados The Real Classics of Chicago House 2 (2003), Techno Muzik Classics (1999), House Classics Vol. One (1997), 100% House Classics Vol. 1 (1995), Classic House 2 (1994), Best of House Music Vol. 3 (1990), Best of Techno Vol. 4 (1994), House Nation - Classic House Anthems Vol. 1 (1994) y otros recopilatorios que incluyen las palabras "techno" o "house" en su título.
- Frank Broughton (1995). "Interview with Frankie Knuckles' (in English) . Archived from the original on April 7, 2014 . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . «In it he states that he bought a TR-909 from Derrick May:" I don't think I got my first drum machine until 1984. I got it from Derrick May. It was a 909. A Roland TR 909. For some reason he had two, and he called me from Detroit to tell me he was coming (...) and that he wanted to sell me one. I told him I didn't know anything about programming with that kind of drum machine. He said: it's easy, I'll teach you "».
- Juan Atkins tells a similar version of this anecdote: "around 1984 and 1985 (...) Derrick needed cash to pay his rent and he wanted to sell his drum machine to Jeff Mills, who was in another band of DJs and musicians in Detroit, our rivals, in a way. And I said: no, don't sell him anything, especially don't sell him the drum machine because, if not, he will sound like us and that sound will be heard in his mixes in the clubs (...) I suggested that he go to Chicago first. to sell it, and he did. I think he sold it to Frankie Knuckles ... And that little box of 909 beats created all house music, because there in Chicago, DJs were passing it on to each other. (...) Farley Jack Master Funk's famous Love Cant Turn Around, for example, was composed with the drum machine from which Derrick May came off. Same as Marshall Jefferson's Move Your Body, if I'm not mistaken". Interview with Ariel Kyrou. Vibrations. April 1999.
- Loops 2002:295-297
- Phil Cheeseman. "The History of House" (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . "The emergence and development of the Acid House is related from the epigraph" 1988 "".
- Loops 2002:300-305
- BBC (2006). "Raving in 89 ' (in English) . Archived from the original on June 27, 2011 . Retrieved April 23, 2010 . "Documentary that recounts the origin, socio-economic context and consequences of the 1989" Summer of Love "as well as the rave movement in the United Kingdom".
- Loops 2002:269-270
- « Techno! The New Dance Sound Of Detroit ' (in English) . Archived from the original on December 19, 2009 . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- Gary Bredow (2006). "High Tech Soul" (in English) . Archived from the original on February 8, 2011 . Retrieved April 23, 2010 .
- Sean Cooper. "Biography of Underground Resistance" (English) . Retrieved March 23, 2010 . “ UR redirected its portion of the detroit techno legacy towards social activism, substituting independence and self-determination for mainstream popularity and financial success (...). UR's first catalog is defined by a typically Detroitian combination of Motown and Chicago soul, with a relentless, sometimes acoustic, lo-fi and acid techno and electro. '
- Loops 2002:272-274.
- However, Ariel Kyrou considers that the cyberpunk theme was already present in the music and aesthetics of the "first wave", that formed by the creators of techno : Sometimes, one has the impression that the archangels of techno are, together with the pirates of the Internet, the first heroes of the novels designed in the near future by cyberpunk writers . Techno Rebel 2006: 187
- "Robert Hood - Minimal Nation ' (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . "All the analyzes of the users of discogs coincide in considering this album a full stop and a seminal moment in the development of minimal techno".
- Simon Reynolds. "The Bleep 20 ' (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- According to Jon Savage: In England, techno did not start in London or Manchester (which at the time were busy with rock / dance groups like The Happy Mondays), but in Sheffield . Machine Soul 1993
- "Acid Techno" (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- "Smart Techno" . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- Loops 2002:283-284
- Techno in Germany. 2002:134
- Loops 2002:285
- Techno in Germany. 2002:135-136
- Javier Blánquez (2010). Echoes of the Rocío. Life and death of techno-dub » . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- " Tresor II: Berlin & Detroit - A Techno Alliance " (in English) . Archived from the original on December 20, 2008 . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- Simon Reynolds. Above The Treeline. The Wire #127 Septiembre 1994
- Simon Reynolds. "Hardcore Continuum" (in English) . The Wire # 300 . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . "Series of 7 essays on the origin and development of hardcore, where he supports his thesis on the Hardcore Continuum ".
- "Criminal Justice and Public Order Act" (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- Javier Blánquez, in the chapter entitled "chain reaction: techno and house in the second half of the nineties (1992-2002) summarizes this evolution. Loops 2002: 519-531
- Martin Vuković (2008). "M_nus" (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . "The label's entry on discogs includes a review by user Martin Vuković that describes both the label's historical contribution and the criticism it is often made for repeating formulas and shedding its innovative character to please a wider audience."
- Toby Frith (2009). "20 best: UK techno" (in English) . Archived from the original on January 30, 2010 . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- "Das Boot" wrong with self - reference ( help ) (in English) . Retrieved June 5, 2010 . «The song, a version between eurodance and techno of a piece originally composed by Klaus Doldinger as the soundtrack for the film that gives the group its name, became number one in Austria, Switzerland, Germany and Norway, and entered the top ten in France and Holland ».
- "James Brown Is Dead" (in English) . Retrieved June 5, 2010 . "First" rave "song to appear on Billboard's weekly pop charts ".
- Ford (2000). "Ford unveils new limited Street Edition Focus' (in English) . Archived from the original on July 11, 2011 . Retrieved February 5, 2010 . " The detroit techno youth is a recognized worldwide musical style. We know that music is one of the greatest passions of young buyers, so it made sense for us to incorporate a unique musical element into our campaign .
- Canal + (1993). " Until the body endures . " Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- Juan Carlos García, Oscar Montón. " 72 hours: The route to Valencia " . Archived from the original on February 14, 2010 . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- RT (November 14). «From the favela to the party: The phenomenon of electronic music that was born in the neighborhoods of Caracas» .
- "Statement 808" (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- Derek Johnson, Debbie Poyser (1995). "909 Lives!" (in English) . Retrieved February 5, 2010 .
- Albiez, S. Post Soul Futurama: African American cultural politics and early Detroit Techno. European Journal of Americal Culture Vol 24 No 2. 2005.
- Blánquez, J. Morera, O. (eds.). Loops. A History of Electronic Music . Barcelona. Mondadori, 2002 ( ISBN 84-397-0901-3 ).
- Bussy, P. Kraftwerk. Man, Machine and Music. Londres. Saf Publishing, 1993. (ISBN 978-0-946719-70-9).
- Gilbert, G. Pearson, E. Culture and Politics of Dance Music . Barcelona. Paidos. 2003 ( ISBN 84-493-1473-9 ).
- Kyrou, A. Techno Rebel . Madrid. Dream Traffickers, 2006. ( ISBN 84-96453-10-3 ).
- Pope, R. Hooked on an Affect: Detroit Techno and Dystopian Digital Culture. Dancecult: Journal of Electronic Dance Music Culture. Vol 2 (1). 2011 ( ).
- Ramos, A. Jiménez, R. 2001: a techno odyssey in space . Dance De Lux. Barcelona, 2001.
- Robb, D. Techno in Germany: Its Musical Origins and Cultural Relevance. German as a Foreign Language Journal No 2. 2002.
- Savage, J. Machine Soul. A History of Techno. The Village Voice (Rock & Roll Quarterly). Verano de 1993.
- High Tech Soul . Directed by Gary Bredow. Plexifilm, 2006. 64 minutes.