|Foundation||March 21, 2006 (15 years and 1 day)|
|Founder||Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams|
|Headquarters||San Francisco ( United States )|
|Income||US$2,21 millardos (2015)|
|Dependent of||S&P 500|
|Ranking Alexa||45 (as of January 19, 2021) [ 3 ]|
|Users||328 million active ( September 2019 ) [ 4 ]|
Twitter (pronunciation AFI [ˈtwɪtər]) ( TWTR ) [ 5 ] is a microblogging service , based in San Francisco , California , USA, with subsidiaries in San Antonio ( Texas ) and Boston ( Massachusetts ) in the United States . Twitter, Inc. was originally created in California, but is under the jurisdiction of Delaware since 2007. [ 6 ] Since Jack Dorsey created it in March of 2006, and launched in July of the same year, the network has gained worldwide popularity and is estimated to have more than 300 million users, generating 65 million tweets per day and handling more than 800,000 search requests daily. It has been dubbed as the " SMS of the Internet ". [ 7 ]
The network can send messages plaintext short length, with a maximum of 280 characters (originally 140), called tuits [ 8 ] [ 9 ] or tweets (although this last meaning is not contained in the SAR ) , that displayed on the user's home page. Users can subscribe to other users' tweets - this is called following and subscribed users are called followers, [ 10 ] and sometimes tweets [ 11 ] ( Twitter+ peeps , newbie followers who haven't tweeted many yet). By default, the messages are public, and can be broadcast privately, showing only certain followers. Users can tweet from the service's website, with external official applications (such as for smartphones ), or through the Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries. [ 12 ] Although the service is free, accessing it via SMS involves bearing rates set by the mobile phone provider .
As of April 27, 2015, it is known that the domain was registered 15 years and 99 days ago, [ 13 ] but three aspects are still unclear: the exact date of public presentation of the project, if the tweets can be or not redirected and if Twitter shares internal messages between users with the NSA .
Twitter currently has a turnover of more than 2.5 billion dollars annually and has a market value of more than 10 billion dollars.
There is some controversy about how the idea that gave birth to Twitter was conceived. According to some sources, [ 14 ] the original idea arose within the Odeo company , while an online radio service ( podcast ) was being developed that was unsuccessful due to the almost simultaneous launch of a similar product by iTunes .
The first prototype was used internally by Odeo employees. Its creators would have been the former Google workers , Evan Williams and Biz Stone with the collaboration of Jack Dorsey , Evan Henshaw-Plath and mainly Noah Glass . Glass, who was soon fired from the company, said that Twitter was born on its own machine. [ 15 ] And Henshaw-Plath sold his stake in the project for $ 7,000, buying an old Volkswagen to go out on a tour of the country. [ 16 ]
Once the project started, they tried several names, some of which was "Status" (Stat.us), twitch (tic) due to the noise of the vibrator of the phones, but finally they came up with "Twitter", an inspiration from Glass in allusion to " Flickr ". The final version was released on July 15, 2006, which according to Liam Well's words, its definition was "a short burst of inconsequential information", the " tweet of a bird", which in English is tweet . In October of that year , Stone, Williams, Dorsey and others formed Obvious Corporation, acquiring the rights to Odeo, after the original investors lost their interest in the initial failure of the project. Since that date, Twitter has been gaining followers rapidly. As of March 2007,in the blog category . And in April, the new company Twitter, Inc became independent from its manager.
Jack Dorsey is the current Chairman of the Board of Directors of Twitter, Inc , a company that emerged from its success. At the beginning of 2008, the Twitter team consisted of 18 people. The following year, Twitter had multiplied its staff by four and continued to grow.
Although Twitter used for a short period of time advertising services such as AdSense for Google , the company decided to scrap advertising revenue to increase the number of users, and meanwhile financed with investment firms venture capital . In September 2009, Twitter announced changes to the terms of service, leaving open the possibility of including advertising in its services. [ 17 ]
The 3 of November of 2009 , appeared the version of Twitter in Spanish. [ 18 ] The 8 of October of 2009 the microblogging published an application for users of non - profit basis as translated into Spanish , French , Italian and German . The Spanish translation was the first to be completed and to be available on the indicated date. The Palacio de La Moncloa , seat of the Spanish Government and residence of the executive presidents, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, was one of the users congratulated by Twitter for having trusted in the possibilities of this service before it was launched in Spanish. [ 19 ]
In April 2010, Twitter launched a new strategy for broadcast advertising as a service called Promoted Tweets or Promoted Tweets . [ 20 ]Basically, these are tweets sponsored by a company that appear as the first result when we search for messages in the service. Your sponsorship is indicated by a highlighted message after the message metadata. Only a sponsored message is displayed, to avoid intrusion on search pages. In addition, Twitter allows third-party developers to adopt this service in their applications, so that the creator of a desktop Twitter application can earn part of the advertising benefits by including this service in their program.
In March 2015, Twitter launched Periscope, an application to broadcast video in real time. Just one year later, on the first anniversary of that launch, more than 200 million live broadcasts had been made.
In July 2018, the company conducted its first purge exercise, or clean-up of fake accounts. The objective of the exercise was to restore the transparency of the social network in search of a better conversation between real users. The purge was carried out on those accounts that appeared as "frozen or restricted", [ 22 ] giving their owners who did not function as bots the opportunity to confirm the password and reset it.
Twitter user profile
Market research firm Pear Analytics , based in San Antonio, Texas , analyzed 2,000 tweets (coming from the United States and in English) over a two-week period from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm ( CST ) in August 2009 and separated them into six categories:
- Nonsense Chatter - 40%
- Conversations - 38%
- Retweets (RT) or repeated messages - 9%
- Self-promotion - 5%
- Junk messages ( spam ) - 4%
- News - 4% [ 23 ]
Social media researcher Danah Boyd responded to the study by arguing that a better name for what the Pear researchers called "nonsensical chatter" could be " social grooming " or "peripheral awareness" (which explains how people "want to know what they think , do and feel the people around them, even when the presence is not viable "). [ 24 ]
Twitter has been in the top ten most visited websites in the world according to the Alexa website . [ 25 ] Daily user estimates may vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. As of February 2009, the Compete.com blog ranked Twitter as the third most visited social network based on the content of 6 million unique visitors and 55 million monthly visits. [ 26 ] In March 2009, Nielsen.comranked Twitter as one of the websites with the highest estimated growth for February 2009. Twitter grew annually by 1,382%, from 475,000 unique visitors in February 2008 to 7 million in February 2009. It was followed by Zimbio with an increase of 240% and Facebook with 228%. [ 27 ] However, Twitter has a user retention rate of 40%. [ 28 ]
During the first two years of its existence, the platform attracted users aged 35 and over, coming from professional, commercial and news spaces, only until Twitter began to gain popularity and the public increased (exactly in May 2009) the number of young adults increased and with this the age range among users changed to 35 years and under. [ 29 ]
Most of the users who use Twitter are older adults who have not used another social site before, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst tasked with studying social media . "Adults are catching up on what young people have been doing for years," he said.
Only 11% of Twitter users are between the ages of 12 and 17, according to comScore .
The comScore website attributes this to Twitter's "first steps" as microblogging gained popularity in business and news media settings, initially adopting a very mature profile. However, comScore of late has noted that as Twitter has begun to "get more publicized, along with it came a celebrity culture like Ashton Kutcher , Paris Hilton and Shaquille O'Neal , who have joined the ranks of the Twitterati .
According to a study carried out by Semiocast in 2012 , analyzing 383 million accounts created before that year, the countries with the highest number of users on Twitter are the United States (107.7 million), Brazil (33.3 million), Japan ( 29.9 million), United Kingdom (23 million), Indonesia (19 million), India (12 million), Mexico (10.5 million), Philippines (8 million), Spain (7.9 million) and Canada (7 , 5 million). [ 30 ] [ 31 ]
Since Twitter became more popular, many celebrities from prominent figures to some Hollywood actors joined the microblogging . From this, the best-known tweeters (a popular term used to refer to a Twitter user) are called tweets , and are consequently highly read and influential users.
This popularity among users allows them to capitalize on their tweets through sites such as Klout , which automatically calculates the impact of individuals on the web through algorithms that are based on the number of followers on Twitter and the connections made with Facebook , and thus be able to sell the information to potential advertisers or firms looking for people to influence online. Likewise, advertisers and companies pay famous tweeters to promote their brands. [ 29 ]
Some journalists and writers have joined the Twitter trend, orienting microblogging tools in favor of news, poetry, or the narrative itself. Such is the case of JK Rowling, Mateo Cuenca , Roderick Gordon, Nach Reinaldo , Anne Rice, Paulo Coelho, Luca Chiaramello , Arturo Pérez-Reverte, Laura Gallego, Federico Moccia and Ernesto Fucile, chosen as Best Writer in the "Twitter Awards 2011 "together with the publishing house" Libros del Zorro Rojo "and the literary site" Qué Leer ".
The vast majority of tweets catch the attention of Twitter users and stand out in the sidebar of Topics of the moment , unlike tweeters who are in charge of writing their daily lives every minute, and they are generally people who do not have too many followers.
The Twitter web interface is written in Ruby on Rails , and the messages are kept on a server that works with software programmed in Scala and also has an open API for all types of developers, which is a great advantage for all those who want to integrate Twitter as a service both in other web applications and in desktop or mobile applications. According to Biz Stone , more than 50 percent of our traffic comes through our API . However, due to its technical and scalability issues, Twitter may abandon Ruby on Rails as its development framework to start a new one based on PHP.. However, Evan Williams soon denied this information in a tweet he sent on May 1, 2008.
As a social network, Twitter revolves around the follower principle. When you choose to follow another Twitter user, that user's tweets appear in reverse chronological order, on the main Twitter page. If you follow 20 people, you will see a mixture of tweets scrolling down the page: update on cereal breakfast, new links of interest. Music recommendations, including reflections on the future of education. [ 35 ]
Users can group messages on the same topic by using pound tags - words or phrases started by using a
"#"(pound) known as a hashtag , [ 36 ] its original English name and the one commonly used on Twitter . Similarly, the
"@"(at) followed by a username is used to mention or reply to other users. [ 37 ] To republish a message from another user, and share it with their own followers, the retweet function is marked with an "RT" in the message. [ 38 ]
Through SMS, users can communicate by five short gateway numbers , for the United States, Canada, India , New Zealand , and a code for the Isle of Man for international use. There is also a short code for the UK which is only accessible if you are using Vodafone , O2 [ 40 ] and Orange . [ 41 ] In India, since Twitter only supports tweets written from the operator Bharti Airtel , [ 42 ] an alternative platform called smsTweet [ 43 ]It was created to be used on all platforms. [ 44 ] A similar platform called GladlyCast [ 45 ] exists for use in Singapore , Malaysia, and the Philippines .
Messages were set to 140 characters maximum for compatibility with SMS messages, introducing shorthand notation and Internet slang commonly used in SMS. The 140 character limit has also led to the proliferation of URL shortening services , such as bit.ly , goo.gl, and tr.im, and material hosting websites, such as Twitpic , memozu.com, and NotePub for uploading material. multimedia and texts longer than 140 characters. On June 11, 2015, Twitter announced that this character restriction would be eliminated in Private Messages as of July of the same year, leaving the limit established at 10,000 characters [ 46]
Currently, Twitter is in the process of expanding the 140-character limit on tweets to 280 [ 47 ] and is doing so in a staggered manner with millions of users across the West.
Twitter uses its own link shortener, t.co, which is also a security measure to prevent spam.
In May 2020, a new functionality was added that allows you to limit who can reply to people's tweets. Thus, before posting a tweet, the user can choose between the following options: “anyone can reply” ( everyone can reply ), “people you follow” ( people you follow ) or “only the people you mention” ( only people you mention ). [ 48 ]
It should be noted that a constant complaint by Twitter users is the lack of a button to edit tweets. On July 2, 2020, the official Twitter account joked that "you can have an edit button when everyone wears a mask . " [ 49 ] However, during a Q&A with Wired magazine , CEO Jack Dorsey stated that they will probably never incorporate it, since they want to preserve the essence of Twitter, which was originally an SMS messaging platform. [ 50 ] [ 51 ]
The threads ( threads in English) are a Twitter functionality that allows you to visually group various tweets. When a tweet is created, the "+" icon appears allowing you to add another message, and so on. In this way, the 280 character limit can be extended and the user can express what they want more precisely. [ 52 ] On the other hand, its use has been extended to the journalistic field, where it results in a more efficient and concise way of communicating news. [ 53 ]This has contributed to the rise of Twitter not only as a social network, but also as a means of communication with some reliability. In fact, it is increasingly common for people to first consult Twitter to check the veracity of some news, as it is usually one of the first places where they are reported.
Since most of them are very extensive, there are tools such as Thread Reader App , a bot that allows them to be easily displayed and read. To apply its services, the user can go to the web page and insert the URL of the thread, or reply to the thread with the keyword "unroll", always mentioning the software account .
Implementation of Ideograms to the text
In mid-2014, since Twitter implemented the open source addiction of ideograms, [ 54 ] the possibility of entering messages (apart from plain text ) has been added in adding new tools for text such as: ' emojis ', with what they have revolutionized in this social network. [ 55 ]
Since June 2016, the social network company has implemented another way to encourage the public to continue using emojis for Twitter web content with the function of adding stickers "stickers" to the images uploaded to this social web platform by users. . [ 57 ]
In September 2020, Twitter user Colin Madland noticed that the Zoom video conferencing system was not displaying the head of his color partner by having a virtual background enabled. [ 58 ] Then, when he reported the problem on Twitter, he discovered that Twitter's photo preview system gives preference to white people's faces, rather than those of color. Based on this finding, multiple Twitter users began testing by posting images of both white and colored people and placing them in different positions. [ 59 ] They also included fictional characters. [ 60 ]The results were disappointing, but not surprising, since in all cases only the face of the white person was shown. [ 61 ] It must also be taken into account that Twitter is not the only platform that presents this problem, since there have also been controversies with the Google algorithm . [ 62 ]
However, there is an explanation. The reality is that the Twitter system prioritizes images with the highest contrast , since studies have shown that they are the areas that attract the most attention. In this way, those with white skin tend to appear centered. [ 63 ] [ 64 ] However, Twitter became aware of the problem [ 65 ] and chief technology officer of the company Parag Agrawal said in a tweet that the system needed improvement. [ 66 ]
As of August 31, 2010, third-party Twitter applications must use OAuth , an identification method that does not require the user to give the application their password. Previously, OAuth identification was optional, now it is mandatory, and the username / password authentication method has been deprecated and is no longer functional. Twitter stated that the switch to OAuth would mean "increased security and a better experience." [ 67 ]
It is the paid advertising service of Twitter that allows companies to publish specific tweets for clients defined within a particular target or audience, paying according to the objective pursued by the advertiser.
It is a Twitter feature launched in 2015 but available to all users since October 2016. It consists of a tab within the application, which is identified with a lightning bolt, which allows the user to see the tweets of the accounts they follow based on "personalized relevance" [ 68 ] by himself. This tab requires manual configuration by the user, depending on their tastes and interests, and exposes the most relevant stories for each particular account. It is updated in real time just like the app's news feed.
Tools to add and follow content
There are plenty of tools for adding content, monitoring messages and conversations, including Tweetdeck , Salesforce.com , Hootsuite , Metricool , Postcron, or Twitterfeed. [ 69 ] Less than half of the tweets are sent using the service's own website, with the majority of users tweeting from third-party applications (based on an analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos). [ 70 ]
There are also bots that allow you to download videos or remind users of certain tweets when they are mentioned. Examples include Video Downloader bot and Remind Me of This Tweet , with its Spanish version “ Remember Me Bot ”.
In 2020, Twitter began testing a story-like feature of Instagram , Snapchat , Facebook , YouTube, and WhatsApp in some parts of the world. This new feature was called "Fleet" . They were launched for the first time in Brazil in March. In June 2020, Fleets was launched in India. A user can add a text, images and videos in a fleet, which will disappear after 24 hours. Function "Fleets" was officially launched on 17 November 2020. [ 71 ]
In order to reduce the spread of false news and misleading information, and under the pressure of various criticisms, in 2020 the platform decided to implement a label that warns about little credible information. [ 72 ] In this way, they incorporated the important fact- finding used by the media.
There are three types of content that can receive such notices: misleading information , unverified claims and disputed claims .
During the early days of the 2020 pandemic, when citizens did not know much, misinformation through social media was incessant. [ 73 ] [ 74 ] Thus, many tweets with incomplete or disputed information on COVID-19 contain the following message: Get the facts about COVID-19 , with links that redirect additional factual information. [ 75 ]
During the 2020 US elections, President Donald Trump made a series of false claims and Twitter added the notice "Some or all of the content shared in this Tweet has been objected to and may be misleading regarding an election or other civic process" ( in English "This claim about election fraud is disputed" ) under many of his tweets, [ 76 ] thus contributing to the transformation of the message into an internet meme . [ 77 ]
Previously, when the network was suffering an overload, it showed the warning Fail Whale (literally Fail Whale ), an error message image created by Yiying Lu, showing some red birds trying to raise a whale with a rope in the ocean, with the text "Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again." This message was discarded and was discontinued in 2013.
One of the problems arose during the Macworld Conference & Expo in 2008, where thousands of media took advantage of this microblogging system to let everyone know what was happening there, leaving it offline.
The December to June of 2009 , the unique identifier associated with each tweet exceeded the limit of 32 bits . While Twitter itself was unaffected, some third-party customers found that they could no longer access the latest tweets. The patches were released quickly, although some iPhone apps had to wait for approval from the App Store . On September 22 , the identifier again exceeded 32 bits , again affecting third-party clients.
Twitter suffered its biggest overload on 26 of June of 2009 in connection with the death of Michael Jackson , which caused the figure of about 456 tweets per second (more than 27 000 tweets per minute), setting a new record at the time, and making permanent connection to Twitter impossible. [ 79 ]
The 6 of August of 2009 , Twitter and Facebook had errors in their services, and website Twitter was out of service for several hours. It was later confirmed that the attacks were directed at a pro-Georgia, on the anniversary of the 2008 South Ossetian War , and not at the aforementioned sites. After some users raised concerns about accessibility and transparency when using this feature, Twitter has addressed issues with Fleets, its new Stories feature. [ 80 ]
Massive virus infection
The 21 of September of 2010 there was a massive attack on Twitter by a worm called Rainbow [ 81 ] (the name is because the attack came through an account created with this name), which affects users operating through the web twitter.com through an XSS vulnerability(Cross-Site Scripting) to steal your cookies. The procedure is as follows: a message is received with a strange string and, when hovering over it with the pointer, several possibilities occur, such as sending the same string to all followers, black boxes appear instead of dialog or redirect anyone who visits your profile to a web page; This last point is the most dangerous, since, after redirecting to another website, it could infect our computer (an RT of the code could be done, and thus the URL involved could use Drive-by-Download techniques ).
Due to the great popularity of Twitter, the natural terms of microblogging were varying in their different translations. The main terms were unofficially Hispanized . The variation was not due to the multilingual introduction of Twitter, but to the search for ease in the pronunciation of most of its terms. [ 82 ] [ 83 ]
On the other hand, the Royal Spanish Academy has decided to incorporate, since 2014, the terms: tweet, tweet, tweet and tweet to the twenty-third edition of the dictionary. [ 84 ]
Term officially translated |
Term "hispanized" |
|Twitters||Twiteros|| twitteros |
|Tweet||Twit [ 85 ]|| tuit |
|Nudge||Literally "Give gentle nudging" [ 86 ]|| buzz |
|Trending topic (TT)||
Hot topics |
| TTs |
|Tweetup||Meet / Tweeters meeting||tweet|
|Direct messages (DM)||Direct message ( private message )|| DM |
|Retweet (RT)||Retweeted [ 85 ]||
' retweet |
|Follow Friday (FF)||Followers you recommend following (usually done every Friday)|| FF |
|Hashtag||Literally "pad tag"||hashtag|
|Follow Back||Follow back||follow back |
Twitter has been used for a variety of purposes in different industries and situations.
With the effective Twitter alert system, the Trending Topics section and the large presence of journalists and the media , the journalistic use of the platform is increasingly intense. It has, therefore, established itself as one more informative source in the media world. The "Explore" section is a clear example of Twitter's will to inform information, as it incorporates the latest news from sectors such as sports and entertainment .
His great outreach capacity has also allowed contact with witnesses, as well as obtaining information about missing relatives. Such is the case of Sanelisiwe Sani Xaba from South Africa, who came to find her brother, whom she had never met, with the help of the social network. [ 87 ] Thus, it is an ideal medium for the collection of testimonies and experiences with immediacy. [ 88 ]
On the other hand, thanks to the functionality that allows live video broadcasting, news reporting has been facilitated at the moment, such as sporting events and presidential elections. [ 89 ]
The network can also be used to conduct interviews, such as the one with John McCain , a former US presidential candidate. In Spanish, Diariomedico.com has been conducting 'twitterviews' in English and Spanish since December 2008, [ 90 ] of which it subsequently publishes a summary (always in Spanish).
Politics and activism
Although the purpose and usefulness of Twitter are doubted, its growing number of followers has shown that Twitter is one of the leaders in the microblogging sector, among other services such as Jaiku , which has the support of Google . In 2009, Google decided to release the Jaiku code, and leave development to the open-source world . The best known uses are: monitoring live events, broadcasting talks and presentations that few people have access to, exchanging opinions during an event in which people attend as public or even comments on films or broadcast debates. by television. For example, in Spain the debate between Rodríguez Zapatero and Rajoy during the general elections in Spain (2008 ) was closely followed with an exchange of views via Twitter. [ 91 ] In Mexico, in 2010 real debates have taken place via Twitter, for example between the Secretary of Labor, Javier Lozano Alarcón , and the deputy Luis Videgaray . Once the inhabitants of Edmon , Oklahoma , United States met and in this network they published the coordinates of a tornado that passed through this city on March 31, 2008.
It has also been used to organize protests, sometimes referred to as "Twitter Revolutions," including the Egyptian revolution of 2011 , the Tunisian revolution , the electoral protests in Iran of 2009, and the anti-government protests in Moldova of 2009 . [ 92 ] The governments of Iran and Egypt blocked the service in retaliation. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] The service also used as a form of civil disobedience: In 2010, users were outraged by the Twitter Joke Trial, where Paul Chambers joked about dropping a bomb at Robin Hood Doncaster Sheffield airport, and in the private British debate in the same country a year later, where several celebrities who have taken order anonymous, most notably the player Ryan Giggs from the Manchester United , where they were identified by thousands of users protesting traditional journalism being censored. [ 95 ] [ 96 ]
After claims in the media that the hashtags #wikileaks and #occupywallstreet were censored because it was not featured on the site's hot topics list, Twitter responded by stating that it does not censor hashtags unless they contain obscenities. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ]
On October 15, 2017, American actress Alyssa Milano posted a tweet that started the #MeToo movement , a campaign that protests against sexual abuse: "If you have been sexually harassed or abused, write 'me too' in response to this tweet" . [ 100 ] Its impact was such that personalities such as Reese Witherspoon , Charlize Theron , Lady Gaga and Patricia Arquette , among others, joined in. All of these confessed to having been victims of sexual abuse . [ 101 ]Thus, it marked a new feminist era in the film industry, as it gave birth to the numerous attacks by producer Harvey Weinstein , denounced by Ronan Farrow in an article published five days earlier for the New York Times . [ 102 ]
On May 28, 2020, the president of the United States , Donald Trump announced a decree to limit the protection of social networks and the laxity they enjoy for the publication of content. The decree seeks to allow regulatory authorities to decide on content moderation policies, after Twitter linked a message from Trump with verified information that contradicted what the president had published. [ 103 ]
In June 2020, the anti-racist movement Black Lives Matter (BLM) was revived in the wake of the police murder of George Floyd . Together with the numerous protests carried out around the world, but especially in the United States, the Twitter platform was a great means of raising awareness in the midst of that social atmosphere. [ 104 ]
In the scientific field, the use of Twitter has been reported to disseminate scientific articles and promote the connection between professionals, as well as a growing use in medical conferences. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] [ 107 ]
Entertainment and popular culture
The use of Twitter has increased in the world of television, making it more interactive and social. [ 108 ] This effect is sometimes referred to as a "virtual freezer" or social television. Twitter has been used successfully to encourage people to watch live television events, such as the Oscars , and the MTV Video Music Awards. [ 109 ] However, this strategy was tested less effectively with regularly scheduled television shows. [ 110 ] Direct cross promotions were banned on French television due to regulations against secret advertising. [ 111 ]
It is an important branding strategy and has contributed to breaking down the barriers between artists and fans , so that the former are able to communicate directly. However, the digital nature of the medium allows easy deception that affects the transparency of celebrities , since there is the possibility that it is a hired person who is writing all the tweets. [ 112 ] On the other hand, the accessibility of Twitter to a large number of people leads to the publication of offensive content that can ruin the reputation of certain people, as well as affect their mental health. Like companies, artists also require a certain recurring activity, since their income sometimes depends on it. [ 113 ]
On June 19, 2020, a user identified as Gabby claimed to have been manipulated into a non-consensual relationship with actor Ansel Elgort when she was a minor. [ 114 ] This tweet triggered a set of posts by many women who began to accuse various other celebrities. However, the veracity of the latter is unknown. The platform has thus been a place of fall for many celebrities at the hands of the culture of cancellation ( cancel culture in English) .
It is worth noting the great presence of k-pop fans , colloquially called “k-poppers” in Spanish. [ 115 ] They are dedicated to viciously following their favorite artists, such as the band BTS , whose social impact has been the subject of many studies. [ 116 ] They also publish numerous fan edits and fancams , videos with music made by themselves that compile clips of diverse content of their idols. However, these have been reported as irritating and annoying by many users of the Twitter community, since on many occasions they are tweeted under unrelated content. At the same time, fans form an interpersonal connection through their shared passion.
Since the invention of social media, companies have seen great potential in their level of reach to promote and make their brands more accessible. Thus, Marketing positions in social media or community manager (CM) are now some of the most in demand in the communication sector. Through the platform offered by Twitter, customers are heard and can transmit their complaints or suggestions more easily. Consequently, over the years the need for the brand to be active on the social network and to establish a close dialogue with users has become visible. [ 117 ]
This dialogue must be very careful, since the transparency granted by Twitter can end in a public relations disaster. This was the case with the Qantas Luxury sweepstakes, referred to by PR experts as “perhaps Australia's biggest public relations mistake”. This coincided with a delicate political-economic situation, with which the negative reactions and criticisms of Twitter users did not take long to arrive. [ 113 ]
On the other hand, in August 2020, El Corte Inglés published promotional images of its 'back to school' campaign, but they were interpreted differently than intended by thousands of Internet users. [ 118 ] Thus, their insistence on withdrawing them resulted in a brand statement posted on Twitter. [ 119 ]
In contrast to the above, in 2020, the KFC Spain account went viral due to the humorous tone and the shitposting contained in the tweets written by the CM, which even received a salary increase upon reaching 200,000 followers. Thanks to the Twitter community. [ 120 ]
Profile of the company and its shareholders
The company, founded in July 2006 by Jack Dorsey , Biz Stone and Evan Williams , has earned $ 35 million from various investors, mostly from private equity. The new capital injection is in addition to the $ 5 million it raised in 2006 or the $ 15 million in July 2007, which brings the funds received since its foundation to $ 55 million. As for some of the founding entities of the company, it has been led by Benchmark Capital and Institutional Venture Partners , although it has also brought together Spark Capital Union , Square Ventures , Charles River Venturesand Digital Garage have repeated in this new round of financing that will allow to face the stage of explosive growth of the company.
Its shares lost 62% of their original value since it went public at the end of 2013, until March 2017. User growth is stagnant and with serious problems to increase revenue and achieve profitability. [ 121 ]
In 2006, when Twitter was launched under the name "Twttr" Michael Arrington of TechCrunch said that although he liked the service, said he was uncomfortable with the characteristic that user profiles were publicly visible at that time. [ 122 ]
Twitter in other languages
The base language of Twitter was originally American English and Canadian French which was developed by the Twitter team. The other languages were translated by users [ 123 ] on a selfless and non-profit basis through the Translation project until Twitter took over the development in 2017.
Twitter took a step forward in its information strategy emphasis in November 2009 by changing the phrase that was presented to users when sending a new message of "What are you doing?" to "What's going on?" [ 124 ] [ 125 ] Entertainment Weekly put Twitter in a list made at the end of 2009 on the best of the decade, saying that "limit yourself to 140 characters- the maximum for messages on this diabolically social network adictiva- It is easy". [ 126 ]
In October 2017, Twitter banned all advertising from the accounts belonging to the Russian RT television and Sputnik news agency . US intelligence services had accused the Russian media of having tried to influence the US presidential election. UU. [ 128 ]
Social networks have also been blocked since 2009. [ 129 ] Thus, while the president of Iran has an official Twitter account where he comments on all the activities of his government, citizens of his own country cannot read what he writes. [ 130 ]
Twitter is blocked in China ; however, the Chinese people use it anyway. In 2010, a Chinese woman, Cheng Jianping, was sentenced to 1 year of farm labor for posting a tongue-in-cheek comment on the web. [ 131 ]
Twitter was blocked in Turkey in the second week of April 2015 when photographs of Istanbul prosecutor Mehmet Selim Kiraz threatened at gunpoint by extremist supporters were revealed . Finally, Twitter agreed to remove the images and delete the accounts that spread the hostage-taking where the lawyer was killed. [ 132 ] In this context, the government of Turkey approved controversial measures to censor messages, photographs and videos on Twitter, including the provision voted by the Turkish parliament that authorizes the government to block accounts or websites without the permission of justice .
Twitter was inaccessible in Egypt on January 25, 2011 during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 . Some media blamed the Egyptian government for blocking it; [ 133 ] and Vodafone Egypt , Egypt's largest mobile operator, said it was not their intention; [ 134 ] however, Twitter press releases did not say that the company believed it had formed the blockade. [ 135 ] As of January 26, Twitter confirmed that the service was still blocked in Egypt. [ 136 ]
In August 2010, the South Korean government tried to block some content on Twitter due to the opening of an account in the North Korean government service . [ 137 ] The North Korean account created on August 12, @uriminzok, loosely translated to mean "our people" in Korean, amassed 4,500 Twitter followers in less than a week. On August 19, 2010, the South Korean State Communications Commission blocked the account for issuing "illegal information." [ 138 ] According to the BBC , experts claimed that North KoreaHe has invested in "information technology for over 20 years" with the knowledge of how to use social media at his command. [ 139 ] This does not appear to be "anything new" for North Korea as the country has always published propaganda in its press, usually against its southern neighbors, calling them "warmongers". [ 139 ] With just 36 posts, the account amassed 9,000 followers. To date, the South Korean Commission has banned 65 sites, including this Twitter account. [ 138 ]
Alleged Twitter censorship of Wikileaks
In December 2010, allegations were circulated by different media saying that Twitter was trying to prevent WikiLeaks- related tweets from making the web a hot topic, despite the fact that a large number of tweets were sent talking about WikiLeaks due to the Leakage of diplomatic documents from the United States . [ 140 ] [ 141 ] [ 142 ] However, Twitter rejected any accusation saying that "WikiLeaks and filtration have been subjects of global or regional time." [ 143 ]
In May 2008, The Wall Street Journal wrote that social media like Twitter “provokes mixed feelings in tech-savvy people who have been around since the earliest times. Fans say that they have managed to keep in contact with busy friends. However, some users are beginning to feel "too" connected, such as dealing with anytime inbox messages, increases in mobile billing and the need to count acquaintances to stop advertising what they are having for dinner. [ 144 ]
Tech writer Bruce Sterling opined in 2007 that using Twitter for "cult communication" is "as likely as turning on a Citizen's Band radio or hearing a guy recite the Iliad ." [ 145 ] In September 2008, journalist Clive Thompson reflected in The New York Times Magazine that the service has expanded narcissism into "a new and super metabolic expression of a generation of young celebrities who believe their different pronunciations are fascinating and must be. be shared with the world. [ 146 ] By contrast, columnist Steve Dotto of Vancouver Sunopined that that attractive part of Twitter is a challenge in trying to post messages under tight restrictions, and Jonathan Zittrain, professor of internet law at Harvard Law School , said that "the qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half-conceived are what they make it more powerful. [ 147 ] [ 148 ]
In 2009, Nielsen Online reported that Twitter has a speed to keep the user active of 40%. Many people stop using the service after a month, therefore the site potentially reached over 10% of all Internet users. [ 150 ] In 2009, Twitter won the Webby Award for "Breakout of the Year." [ 151 ] [ 152 ]During a discussion in February 2009 on the weekly edition of National Public Radio, journalist Daniel Schorr stated that Twitter accounts lack factual accuracy and other improvements. In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of novel stories that featured on Twitter and said users prefer first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories. [ 153 ] Time magazine recognized the increasing level of influence in its 2010 Time 100 list to determine the influence of people, using statistics based on famous social networks such as Twitter and Facebook. The list ranges from Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey toLady Gaga y Ashton Kutcher.
Many Twitter users have created small communities around this nanoblogging system , which have materialized in the real world. Users of a locality or region hold meetings from time to time where, in addition to getting to know each other, they exchange opinions, hobbies and many other things. Currently, there is also an occasional event that not only involves socializing, but also the fact of promoting, communicating and disseminating its use.
An example was constituted by the comments related to an eventual default of the US debt at the end of July 2011, all kinds of speculations were woven around the event. [ 155 ]
The impact of Twitter as a means of reporting led to accounts that transform messages into anonymous posts ( Informer ), created mainly for universities and, due to the social impact they had, there was an expansion of its use in other communities. [ 156 ]
Thus, it has become a key platform in the creation of sub-communities such as Stan Twitter , Black Twitter , Weird Twitter, and diplomatic Twitter . In 2019, Twitter revealed a digital marketing study that identified 75 communities solely by looking at the UK version . [ 157 ] By examining engagement , the motivations and elements that keep users in these groups were discovered, and it was determined what they are looking for from corporate brands.
Related applications and services
There are many services and applications that work with Twitter. Many are designed to allow easy access to Twitter from specific devices, such as iPhone or Android , while others are designed to make it easy for users to access and update their Twitter account.
From the phenomenon Twitter, many applications such as Tweepi, Tweetfeed, Postcron have been created and it has given rise to many theories about the evolution and follow-up treatment by internet celebrities on Twitter.
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- Twitter accounts with more followers
- Free social network
- Social network service
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- Web 2.0
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