|Region , Municipality and city|
|From left to right and from top to bottom: the tower of the Santa Catalina church , the City of Arts and Sciences , the Town Hall square , a barracks in La Albufera , the Town Hall fault, the Turia garden , the fish market La Seda , the Serranos towers , the Valencian Generalitat palace , the Oceanographic , the cathedral , the port, the Malvarrosa beach and the Colón market .|
|Location of Valencia in Spain.|
|Location of Valencia in the province of Valencia.|
|Nickname : «El Cap i casal», «The capital of Turia»|
|• Autonomous communication||Valencian Community|
|• County||Valencia city|
|• Judicial party||Valencia|
16 [ 1 ] msnm |
(min: 0, max: 104 [ 2 ] )
|Foundation||Romana (year 138 a. ) [ 3 ]|
|Population||800 215 hab. (2020)|
|• Density||5850,78 hab./km²|
|In advance. ling. official||Valencia [ 4 ]|
|Phone Pref.||(+34) 96|
|Mayor (2019)||Joan Ribó i Canut ( Commitment )|
|Budget||908 714 519,06€ (2018)|
|Festivals|| Fallas |
See more ...
|Pattern||Saint Vincent Martyr|
|Patroness||Virgin of the Helpless|
Valencia (in Valencian and officially, Valencia , [ 6 ] AFI: [vaɫensia] ) [ 7 ] is a municipality [ 8 ] and city of Spain , capital of the homonymous province and the Valencian Community . With a population of 800 215 inhabitants (2020), which rises to 1 581 057 inhabitants (2020) if its urban space is included , [ 9 ] it is the third largest city and metropolitan areamost populated in Spain, behind Madrid and Barcelona . [ 10 ]
Valencia was founded by the Romans as a colony in 138 BC. C. , being consul Tenth June Bruto Galaico , and was called Valentia Edetanorum . Several centuries later, in the year 711, the Muslims occupied the city, contributing their language, religion and customs, such as the introduction of irrigation systems and the introduction of new crops. In 1238 the Christian king Jaime I of Aragon reconquered the city, and distributed the lands among the nobles who helped him to conquer it, as is evidenced in the Llibre del Repartiment , as well as created a new law for the city, the Fueros of Valencia , which were extended to the rest of thekingdom of Valencia . In the 18th century , Felipe V repealed the charters as punishment for the kingdom of Valencia for siding with the Austracists in the war of Spanish succession . In 1982 Valencia was established as the capital of the current Valencian Community , as stated in the Statute of Autonomy .
The city is located on the banks of the River Turia , on the Levantine coast of the Iberian Peninsula , right in the center of the Gulf of Valencia , although at the time the Romans founded it, it was located on a river island in the Turia, about four miles away from the sea . About ten kilometers south of the city is the Albufera de Valencia , which has been owned by the Valencia City Council since 1911 when it was purchased from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980.41 pesetas . [ 11 ]The lagoon is one of the largest lakes in Spain, since it has about 2,100 hectares of surface, [ 12 ] to which must be added an area of 14,100 hectares of marsh devoted to rice cultivation. [ 12 ] Due to its cultural, historical and ecological value , this natural area was the first natural park declared by the Generalitat Valenciana , in 1986.
At present , the city's economy is focused on services , since about 84% of the employed workforce belongs to the service sector. However, the city maintains an industrial base , with an employed population percentage of 5.5%. On the other hand, agricultural activities , even having a relatively minor importance with only 1.9% of the active population employed, survive in the municipal term with a total of 3,973 hectares, which are occupied for the most part by crops of orchard and citrus . [ 13 ]
Its historic center is one of the largest in Spain, with approximately 169 hectares, [ 14 ] and thanks to its historical and monumental heritage and its various scenic and cultural spaces make it one of the cities with the greatest influx of national tourism and international across the country. Among its most representative monuments are the Miguelete , the Cathedral , the Serranos and Quart Towers , the Lonja de la Seda , declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1996, and the City of Arts and Sciences . [ 15] Also note that theMuseum of Fine Arts in Valenciais the most important pictorial museum of Valencia for their relevance being the secondpinacotecaof Spain, [ 16 ] [ 17 ] to equal theInstituto Valenciano de Arte Modern(IVAM), which aims to investigate and spread the art of the twentiethcentury. [ 18 ]
Due to its long history, this is a city with countless festivals and traditions, among which the fallas , which were declared as festivals of international tourist interest on January 25, 1965 [ 19 ] and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Humanity by UNESCO on November 30, 2016, [ 20 ] and the Tribunal de las Aguas , also declared in 2009 as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity . [ 21 ]In addition to this, Valencia has been and is currently the scene of several world events that helped shape the city and give international projection, as has been the Regional Exhibition of 1909 , [ 22 ] [ 23 ] the 32nd [ 24 ] and the 33rd America 's Cup sailing , [ 25 ] the European Grand Prix of Formula 1 , [ 26 ] the Open 500 tennis , [ 27 ] andGlobal Champions Tour de Hípica . [ 28 ]
Since 2015, the mayor is Joan Ribó , from Compromís , who came to the mayor's office thanks to the Nau Government Pact, signed by his formation with the PSPV and València en Comú. In 2019 , Joan Ribó I Canut won the elections and was re-elected mayor.
The toponym of "Valencia" derives from the Latin term Valentia Edetanorum , which the Romans gave it when it was founded. [ 29 ] This name can be translated as 'Valor (or strength) in the land of the Edetans ' (or simply as 'Valor de los Edetanos'), and is part of the custom, already practiced in Italy in the second century BC. . C. , to found colonies with allegorical place names of military virtues. [ 30 ] The Arabs called it مدينة التراب ( Madīna at-Turab, 'City of the sand'), for being located on the bank of the Turia River , while they reserved the term بلنسية ( Balansīa ) for the entire taifa of Valencia . [ 31 ] At the time of Abd al-Aziz, the city recovered the name Balansīa , [ 31 ] which would become Valencia in Spanish.
In 2016 , the Plenary of the City Council unanimously agreed to recover a municipal decree that was not made official in 1996 , which initiates the appropriate procedures to make the official name in Valencian official, València , [ 32 ] as the only official form, [ 33 ] Change that took place after the respective good views of various government institutions, including the Valencian Academy of Language, which mostly considered that the appropriate spelling from the historical and linguistic point of view of València was with open "e", although the Recommended pronunciation for Valencians is with closed "e".[ 34 ] On February 14, 2017,the change in the name of the municipality of Valencia to the exclusive form in Valencianwas published in the Official Gazette of the Generalitat Valenciana , [ 35 ] a fact that was official after its publication in theBOE. [ 36 ]
Throughout history the city has received various nicknames, such as the City of a Thousand Towers , [ 37 ] during the 17th and 18th centuries , the Capital of Turia or Cap i Casal . Also for several centuries and until recently it was known as Valencia del Cid . [ 38 ]
Since its foundation, Valencia has been the capital of the taifa of Valencia, the kingdom of Valencia , the Second Spanish Republic and the current Valencian Community. Due to this, in recent years work has been done on the drafting of the Charter of Valencia, [ 39 ] which would have the rank of an autonomous norm, and would regulate the management, organization and powers of the capital of the Community to help clarify and to delimit the competences of the City Council, as well as to establish the financial budget to carry them out. [ 39 ] [ 40 ]
From the conquest of the city by Jaime I until the reign of Pedro the Ceremonious, the city used as its own weapons a shield alluding to its location, "a walled city on waves." This emblem appears represented in one of the first municipal seals (1312) and in the shield carved in the Gothic door of the cathedral . However, as early as the 14th century, Valencia used its own royal weapons as its currency, as King Pedro the Ceremonious in recognition of the resistance opposed by Valencia to Pedro el Cruel de Castilla during the War of the Two Pedros (1356-1365) , granted the city of Valencia the right to use on its coat of arms and flag theroyal arms of Aragon and the royal crown . In addition to this, as a symbol of the loyalty of the city in the face of the two sieges suffered in the war with Castile, the king added to the left and right of the shield an "L" (for loyalty), stamped with the royal crown . In this way, the municipal council ( Consell municipal ) established the composition of the shield as early as 1377:
“And it is true that signal by the many high Kings darago granted and confirmed to this City was and is its own Real signal of canes or yellow and red bars. . and put mainly in the second and last one of those had on that one by the King of Castile enadi the said crown to the said signal ”Translation:
«And it is true that the signal by the very high Kings of Aragon granted and confirmed to said City was and is their own Royal signal of yellow and red canes or bars. [...] The very high Lord King now reigning on his own initiative and his mere generosity, thus considering His Mercy how he was well served by the said city notably in the recent Castile War, especially in the two sieges and more mainly in the second and last of those made on her [Valencia] by the King of Castile added the said crown to the said sign "
Shield of Valencia
The current shield [ 41 ] derives from the royal arms of Aragon, although later new elements have been incorporated, such as the bat, the rat penat in Valencian, an evolution of a wyvern , which also appears in the shield of the Generalidad Valenciana , and which was integrated into the emblem of the city in 1503. The bat was already used in some cases and was associated with some myths of the conquest of Valencia by Jaime I, although this was not official until the seventeenth century . The last element that was incorporated into the shield is due to Fernando VII, who awarded two laurel branches as a reward for the city's resistance during the War of Independence .
At present, the coat of arms has the following emblazoned on it: «In a loosed coat of arms, a field of gold with four sticks of gules, two eles crowned as tenants and in the lower part two laurel branches. At the bell, an open royal crown surmounted by a bat, seen from the front and with outstretched wings, made of a saber.
The so-called Real Señera , Señera Crowned, or Señera tricolor, is the same flag as that of the Valencian Community. [ 42 ] The origin of this flag comes from a heraldic ensign, that is, a shield, which evolved until it took the form of a flag, with a crown on the bars of the kings of the Crown of Aragon . [ 43 ] In this way, currently the flag of the city is established as follows: «The Flag of Valencia is the traditional" Señera "composed of four red bars on a yellow background, crowned by having the title of Kingdom and fringe blue next to the flagpole. "
The city of Valencia is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula , on the great alluvial plain of the Júcar and Turia rivers , right in the center of the Gulf of Valencia . [ 44 ] The primitive city was located about four kilometers from the sea, on a river island in the Turia. The mountains closest to the city are some of the last foothills of the Iberian system in the Valencian Community, such as the Cabeçol de El Puig and the Sierra Calderona , some 12 km and 25 km north of the city respectively. [ 44]
Valencia has traditionally been the capital of the extinct historical and natural region of La Huerta de Valencia , a region that in 1989 [ 45 ] disintegrated to form the regions of Huerta Norte , Huerta Sur , Huerta Oeste and the city of Valencia, thus remaining constituted as the only city-region of the Valencian Community, known as the «City of Valencia». In this way, the region of Valencia extends only to the city, its districts, and the Albufera lake . [ 12 ] The "City of Valencia" limits to the north with the regions of Huerta Norte andCampo de Turia , to the east with the Mediterranean Sea , to the south with the regions of Huerta Sur and Ribera Baja , and to the west with the region of Huerta Oeste .
Regarding its municipal term, the territory that includes the urban area has the following limits:
|Northwest: Burjassot , Godella , Rocafort and Bétera||North: Moncada , Alfara del Patriarca , Vinalesa , Bonrepós and Mirambell , Tavernes Blanques and Alboraya||Northeast: Alboraya and Mediterranean Sea|
|West: Paterna , Quart de Poblet , Mislata and Xirivella||East: Mediterranean Sea|
|Southwest: Picanya , Silla , Albal , Catarroja , Massanassa and Alfafar||South: Paiporta , Benetússer , Alfafar , Sedaví , Sollana and Sueca||Southeast: Mediterranean Sea|
The city of Valencia is located in the center of the Valencian depression , south of the Iberian sector . This plain is the largest plain in the entire Spanish Mediterranean basin, and is located in the center of the Valencian Community . The depression borders the Sierra Calderona to the north, the Serranía del Turia mountains to the northwest, the Sierra de las Cabrillas to the west, the Caroig massif to the southwest and the Serra de Corbera and Mondúver to the south. [ 44 ]
Its origin is due, at first to the sinking process of the Gulf of Valencia , which began about 6 million years ago, and secondly, to the process of silting up the area due to the sedimentary contribution of the Palancia , Turia and Júcar , as well as the Carraixet and Poyo ravines . This process was accelerated by the low erosive action of the sea, and in recent times by anthropic action, since man has accelerated the process of clogging wet areas through selective landings. [ 46 ]
Not all the depression is a perfect plain, since the extremely flat areas closest to the coast are connected with extensive inland foothills , such as Pla de Cuart or Campo de Liria . Also noteworthy is that the plain is dotted with small hills that break the unit as the Cabeçol of El Puig , mountain Saints Swedish , the Sierra Perenchisa of Torrente or mountain of Zorras of Cullera . [ 44 ] The highest altitude of the municipality of 104 meters is in Horteta. [2 ] In this way, the traditional landscapes of this relief unit are the cultivated fields of the orchard and the humid zones , such as the Valencia lagoon [ 12 ] and the Rafalell and Vistabella and del Moro marshes. [ 44 ] [ 47 ]
The river that runs through the city is the Turia . This is a river on the Mediterranean side of the Iberian peninsula , which is born in the San Juan de los Montes Universales mill, in the municipality of Guadalaviar ( Teruel ), and after 280 km of travel it empties north of the Valencian beach of Pinedo . Its famous floods , especially that of the 14 of October of 1957 , known as the great flood of Valencia , with a flow rate of 3700 m³ / s flooded much of the city of Valencia causing a lot of damage materials and personnel.
This fact led to the creation of a project to divert this channel and prevent subsequent floods, as well as trying to generate new infrastructures for the growth of the city. This project materialized with the construction of a new channel diverting it through the south of the city, known as Plan Sur ; [ 48 ] This riverbed is apparently dry, due to the fact that it only flows through it during floods, since ordinary flows are used to irrigate the plain of Valencia in the intakes of the ditches from the Repartiment weir . The old riverbed that passes through the downtown area has become a leisure-cultural space, the Turia garden .
Throughout history, the water from the Turia has been used to irrigate crop fields, for which a complex irrigation network was developed, the main axis of which is the irrigation channels of the Valencia valley . [ 49 ] These ditches take their water from the last flows of the river, downstream from the weir of the Moncada ditch . Finally, the runoff and excess water from the Turia are used for the Oro ditch and the irrigation of Francos and Marjales de Valencia.
The eight ditches are, on the right bank: the ditch of Quart , from this ditch then the ditch of Benàger i Faitanar, which also has the category of mother ditch; the Mislata canal ; [ 50 ] the Favara canal ; [ 51 ] and the Rovella canal . And on the left bank: the irrigation channel of Tormos ; the Mestalla canal ; and the Rascanya canal .
|Climograma of Valencia [ 52 ]|
|temperatures in ° C • total precipitation in mm|
Valencia has a mild Mediterranean climate, slightly rainy during winters and hot and dry during summers. According to the criteria of the Köppen climate classification, Valencia has a transitional climate between Mediterranean (Csa) and warm semi-arid (BSh) climates. [ 53 ] The average annual temperature is 18.4 ° C. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] [ 56 ]
Valencia's climate features hot summers and mild winters. January is the coldest month, with average maximum temperatures of 16-17 ° C and minimum temperatures of 7-8 ° C. Snowfall and freezing temperatures are rare within the urban core of the city but do occur. [ 57 ] . The warmest month is August, with average maximum temperatures of 30-31 ° C and minimum temperatures of 21-23 ° C and moderately high relative humidity. The daily temperature range is reduced due to the maritime influence: around 9 ° C on average. In the same way, the annual thermal amplitude is small due to the influence of the sea, being between 9 and 10 ° C. [ 55 ] [ 56 ]
Annual rainfall is between 450 and 500 mm, with minimum marked in summer (from June to August) especially in July with an average of about 8 mm; and maximums in the autumn months, especially in September and October (the average reaching somewhat below 80 mm in October) due to the effect of the cold drop , which has accumulated more than 150 mm in one day on several occasions , causing flooding. The annual average humidity is relatively high due to the influence of the sea, being around 65% and varying little throughout the year. [ 55 ] [ 56 ]
Below is a table with the climatological values in the reference period 1981-2010 from the AEMET observatory located in Jardines del Real (Valencia), at 11 meters above sea level. The extreme values are from the period 1981-2015.
|Average climatic parameters of the Valencia Observatory ( Jardines del Real ) (11 masl) (Reference period: 1981-2010. Extremes 1966-2018)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||26.6||29.0||33.2||35.2||42.0||38.2||41.8||43.0||38.4||35.8||32.0||25.2||43.0|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||16.4||17.1||19.3||20.8||23.4||27.1||29.7||30.2||27.9||24.3||19.8||17.0||23.0|
|Temp. media (°C)||11.8||12.5||14.4||16.2||19.0||22.9||25.6||26.1||23.5||19.7||15.3||12.6||18.4|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||7.1||7.8||9.6||11.5||14.6||18.6||21.5||21.9||19.1||15.2||10.8||8.1||13.8|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||-6.5||-7.2||-0.4||1.0||5.0||8.5||11.6||12.5||8.0||4.1||-0.8||-2.8||-7.2|
|Total precipitation (mm)||37.1||35.9||33.4||37.9||39.2||22.3||7.8||20.2||69.7||77.0||46.6||48.0||474.9|
|Rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||4.4||3.9||3.6||4.8||4.3||2.6||1.1||2.4||5.0||5.0||4.3||4.8||46.3|
|Hours of sun||171.4||170.6||214.7||233.7||258.5||275.7||314.5||288.1||234.5||202.2||166.7||155.2||2695.6|
|Relative humidity (%)||64||64||63||62||65||66||67||68||67||67||66||65||65|
|Source: State Agency of Meteorology [ 55 ] [ 56 ]|
Here are some weather records recorded at the AEMET observatory located in Jardines del Real (Valencia), considered from the year 1937 for temperature and precipitation and from 1945 for the wind. The absolute maximum temperature record is 43 ° C recorded on August 27, 2010, and the minimum of –7.2 ° C recorded on February 11, 1956. The maximum precipitation in one day is 262.6 mm recorded on 17 November 1956, and the maximum gust is 117 km / h registered on 25 February 1989. [ 58 ]
The main natural risk suffered by the city of Valencia were floods , since throughout history the Turia River caused several overflows and very serious floods in the city. Among all these overflows of the Turia, the most serious was the one that occurred on October 14, 1957 with the Great Flood of Valencia , when precipitations exceeding 300 mm occurred in a large part of the Turia hydrographic basin (361 mm in Bejís , although this population is located in the Palancia river basin), which originated two flood waves over Valencia, the first of 2700 m³ / s and an average speed of 3.25 m / s; and the second, more violent, of 3700 m³ / s and 4.16 m / s. These flood waves flooded most of the Valencian capital, causing the death of more than 80 people, as well as considerable material damage.
After this flood, it was planned to divert the course of the Turia through the south of Valencia, with the project called Plan Sur . This project provided the river with a drainage capacity of 5000 m³ / s, [ 48 ] in addition to other minor river regulation works. Given the delay in aid from the government after the flood, Mayor Tomás Trénor Azcárraga faced Francisco Franco , who dismissed him. However, with his behavior the mayor achieved his objective, since based on his criticism, aid to the city was speeded up and the works to divert the Turia began.
Another risk that usually affects the Mediterranean area of the Iberian Peninsula is heat and cold waves . Valencia suffers every year in the summer months several alerts for heat waves, which are according to the State Meteorological Agency ( AEMET ) a period of at least 3 days with abnormally high temperatures. These heat waves can cause so-called heat strokes , even causing deaths. By contrast, in the months winter danger comes cold waves, since the temperatures can promptly fall below 0 ° C . This is due to the irruption of icy air currents from theArctic or Siberian in the Valencian territory. [ 44 ] The main consequences of cold waves are roadblocks due to ice sheets or the danger of hypothermia for the homeless .
The seismic risk also affects Valencia, since the city is located in an area of moderate seismic danger. Throughout history Valencia has suffered several earthquakes , [ 59 ] one of the strongest being the one registered on September 16, 2003, which had a magnitude of 4.2 on the Richter scale , although that was not the of greater intensity, since in the years 1823 and 1904 the city also suffered two earthquakes of intensity 5. [ 59 ] It should be noted that over the years 2010 and 2011 there were 16 earthquakes, although all of them were of low intensity. , with magnitudes between 1.5 and 2.8 on the Richter scale.
Valencia is located on the thermomediterranean bioclimatic floor , so its climax vegetation is the Mediterranean forest , while the maquia occurs in those areas where the arboreal vegetation has disappeared. [ 61 ] Due to the anthropization of the environment, nitrophilic plant species predominate in most of the municipal area, with the exception of those that occur in the environment of coastal wetlands (Albufera and Marjal de Rafalell and Vistabella) and of river channels. [ 62 ]
The main tree species that can be found in the Mediterranean forest areas that remain in the municipality of Valencia (mainly in the Dehesa del Saler ) are the holm oak , the Aleppo pine and the taray , while the shrub species, which are They occur in the undergrowth or in maquia areas, they are the mastic , the juniper , the kermes oak , the myrtle , the thyme , the gorse , the rosemary , the satureja and the palm heart .
On the other hand, the tree species associated with the riverside forest ( Turia riverbed ) are the willows , alders , poplars or poplars, ash trees , elms and tarays, while the shrub species associated with this type of forest are among others the reeds , reeds , cattails , oleanders and brambles . Around the humid areas and ditches there are several communities of marsh vegetation , which sink their roots in fresh water or wet mud, such as reeds., the cattails, the mansiegas and the reeds.
In the dune ranges closest to the sea , the presence of "pioneer species" stands out. Some of these species are typical of mobile dunes , such as the reed or the sea bell , and the others are typical of the fixed dunes, such as the aladierno or the mastic. Finally, some succulent species such as salty grass or salicornia occur in the dune malls .
The Valencian territory presents a great biodiversity , which is greater around the Albufera de Valencia , where the La Granja de El Saler Fauna Recovery Center is located. [ 63 ] Some species of fish present in the municipality of Valencia are the fartet and the samarugo , endemic species of the Valencian Community, as well as the eel , the mullet and the seabass , of special economic importance. [ 64 ]
The extraordinary poultry richness of the Valencian territory, [ 65 ] can be observed by the great variety of species that exist in the Valencian territory. Various types of ducks can be found in the municipal area , such as the red duck with up to 10,000 specimens, the common spoon with up to 20,000 specimens or the mallard . The heron colonies are also noteworthy , being the Cattle Egret , the Squacco Heron or the Gray Heron . Finally, the presence of species such as the common tern , theSandwich tern , the common stilt , the gray teal or the gull .
With regard to the mammals that can be found in the territory of Valencia, the rodent species stand out, such as the brown rat , the water rat , the field mouse or the Moorish mouse . Although some groups may also be shrews , foxes and bats (the bat cave , the long - tailed bat , etc.).
In the municipality of Valencia there are also some species of amphibians, such as the common midwife toad , the common toad , the runner toad , the pintojo toad , the spurred toad , the speckled toad , the gallipat and the common green frog . [ 66 ] As well as there are several types of reptiles present, such as lizards and lizards (the Iberian lizard , the ocellated lizard , the Iberian skink , the red-tailed lizard and the long- tailed lizard ), snakes (theShingles blind , the ladder snake , the horseshoe snake , the snake bastard and vipers ), geckos (the coastal geckos and common geckos ), and turtles or terrapins (the European pond turtle and terrapin ). [ 67 ]
The city of Valencia has in its municipal area several places and natural spaces of special ecological, cultural and landscape importance, which largely owe their current state to the action of man.
The Albufera Natural Park
This area of 21,120 ha was declared a natural park by the Generalitat Valenciana on July 23, 1986, and since 1990 it has been included in the List of wetlands of international importance for birds established by the Ramsar Convention of 2 February 1971. Since 1992 it has been an SCI zone ( Place of Community Importance ) and since 1994 it has been included in the ZEPA areas ( Special Protection Zone for Birds ). This humid area is located about 10 km south of the city of Valencia, [ 68 ] and comprises a system formed by the lake of theAlbufera , its humid environment, and the coastline adjacent to both. [ 12 ] [ 69 ]
The marsh of Rafalell and Vistabella
The Rafalell and Vistabella marsh , with an area of 102.92 ha, is one of the last marshes that extended north of the Turia river from Alboraya to Sagunto, which is fed by groundwater and irrigation remains. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] Regarding this wetland vegetation, it is noteworthy that this is dominated by reed and reed, which provide shelter for several species of malarial and waders, as well as some traces of vegetation dune on semifixed dunes and saladar vegetation, with species such as fine limonium or salicornia. In the marsh there are some ditches and small lagoons with underwater vegetation, such as the goose tongue or the water spike . Fish present in the fen are eel , the bass , the mullet and silverside , although there are suitable for reintroducing valencianas endemic species as the habitats Samarugo , the fartet , the loach or Gambita sluice. [ 70 ]
The Valencian garden [ 47 ] was born at the time of the Roman Empire , when Valencia was a logistics and hibernation center for its conquest campaigns in Iberia . The Romans introduced new crops, such as cereals , the olive tree and the vine ; however these and due to the conditions of the environment were not sufficiently productive.
Although what we really know today as the Valencian garden developed in the Middle Ages , during the Islamic period . Since the Muslims created an important network of irrigation infrastructures: ditches ; weirs ; and small dams . This network derived the strong avenues of the Turia and the ravines, managing to drain large swampy areas and bringing irrigation to the fields. At the same time, various activities were developed along these infrastructures such as: water mills, where the flow that circulated through the ditches was used; laundries, which served nearby homes or farmsteads .
Valencia has two city beaches fine golden sand, the beach of Las Arenas and Malvarrosa beach , which delimit the south to the port of Valencia and north with Patacona beach in Alboraya . [ 72 ] These are urban beaches, which have an extensive promenade where there are numerous and spacious venues, which occupy old bathhouses, and offer a wide range of accommodation and local cuisine .
The beaches of the capital located south of the Turia do not have such a marked urban character and present a more solitary atmosphere. From the beaches of Pinedo, with the Casa Negra sector where nudism is practiced, to the Perellonet or Recatí beach and the Perelló gola, there are more than 15 kilometers of sandy coast (protected by dunes), which constitute an offer of spacious beaches, surrounded by the Albufera Natural Park. [ 73 ]
Recently archaeological remains from the 4th century BC have been found . C. and III a. C .. [ 74 ] These are the oldest testimonies of human presence in the region. Recent research has revealed that Valencia and its surroundings, now included within the urban environment, were part of a luxury ceramic trade route. [ 75 ]
Valencia is one of the oldest cities in Spain, since it was founded under the name of Valentia Edetanorum by about two thousand Roman settlers in 138 BC. C. , in the time of the consul Décimo Junio Bruto Galaico . This was a classically Roman city in its conception, since it was located in a strategic place near the sea, a river island crossed by the Via Augusta , which communicated the current Andalusia ( Betica ) with the capital of the empire ( Rome ). The main nucleus of the city was located in the surroundings of the current Plaza de la Virgen. There was the forum and the crossing of the Cardo and theDecumano , which were and still are the two main axes of the city. The Cardo corresponds to the current Salvador-Almoina streets and the Decumano to the Caballeros street . [ 3 ] [ 76 ]
During the war between Cneo Pompeyo Magno and Quinto Sertorio , in the year 75 a. C., the city of Valenctia was destroyed, which was not rebuilt again until after about 50 years. After this period of neglect, the city regained its population and began to build large infrastructure projects, already in the century I , which led to the mid-century the city lived a period of great urban growth. Although centuries passed, in the third century , Valencia experienced a new era of decadence. Finally, during the last years of the Roman Empire, in the 4th century , the city began to form a primitive Christian community. [ 76]
- Visigothic period
A few centuries later, coinciding with the first waves of Germanic peoples and with the power vacuum left by the imperial administration , the church took over the reins of the city and buildings of Christian worship were replacing the old Roman temples. With the Byzantine invasion of the southwest of the peninsula in 554 the city gained strategic importance, settling in it Visigoth military contingents. [ 77 ] After the expulsion of the Byzantines in 625, a dark period began, poorly known by history and barely documented by archeology, which seems to bear witness to a very low tone of urban life. During the Visigothic periodIt was the episcopal seat of the Catholic Church , suffragan of the Archdiocese of Toledo, which included the old Roman province of Cartaginense in the Diocese of Hispania . [ 78 ]
- La Balansiya musulmana
The stage immediately after the Muslim conquest of the year 711 , constitutes a dark period of the city about which there is not much information. Despite this, it is known that Abd al-Rahman I (first emir of Córdoba ) ordered the destruction of the city, although several years later Abd Allah al-Balansi, son of Abd al-Rahman I, exercised a kind of autonomous government over the area Valencian. Among its decisions, the order to build on the outskirts of the city a luxurious palace, the Russafa , the origin of the neighborhood of the same name, and of which no remains have been found at the moment. [ 77 ]At this time the city received for centuries the name of Medina al-Turab, city of mud or dust, due to the state of neglect in which it was found. [ 76 ] [ 79 ]
The greatest boom in the city began with the Taifa kingdoms ( 11th century ), one of which was that of Valencia . The city grew, and in the time of Abd al-Aziz ( 11th century ) a new wall was built of which remains are preserved throughout the Ciutat Vella . The Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (the Cid Campeador) entered Valencia, leaving the city in the hands of Christian troops between 1094 and 1102 establishing an independent manor in Valencia . [ 80 ] After the death of El Cid, his wife Jimena, became a lady of Valencia, managed to defend the city with the help of her son-in-law Ramón Berenguer III for a time. But in May 1102 , faced with the impossibility of defending the principality, the Cid's family and people left Valencia with the help of Alfonso VI , but not before looting and setting fire to the city. [ 81 ] Thus, Valencia was conquered the next day again by the Almoravids , who restored the Muslim cult.
The decline of Almoravid power coincided with the rise of a new North African dynasty, the Almohads , who took control of the peninsula from the year 1145, although their entry into Valencia was stopped by Ibn Mardanis , monarch of Valencia and Murcia. , until the year 1171, when the city finally fell into the hands of the North Africans. [ 76 ]
- The Christian reconquest
In 1238 , the city was conquered by Jaime I with the help of troops of the military orders . After the Christian victory, the Muslim population was expelled and the city divided among those who had participated in the conquest, of which there is testimony in the Llibre del Repartiment . [ 82 ] Jaime I granted the city new laws, the Fueros de Valencia ( els Furs ), which years later extended to the entire kingdom of Valencia. From this moment, a new historical stage began in the city with the help of a new society and a language, which laid the foundations of the Valencian people as it is known today. [ 76 ]
According to the data on the capitulation of the city, the kingdom of Valencia had a population of 120,000 Muslims, 65,000 Christians and 2,000 Jews and thanks to the capitulation and the pacts that led to it, the Valencian population was able to continue in their majority. land. [ 78 ] Thus, according to the Arab historian Hussein Mones of the University of Cairo , these were the words that King Zayan said to James I at the moment he handed him the keys to the city:
In the city of Valencia, Muslims, noble people from my town coexist, along with Christians and Jews. I hope you know how to govern them so that they continue to live in the same harmony and that they work this noble land together. Here, during my reign, Holy Week processions went out and Christians professed their religion freely, since our Quran recognizes Christ and the Virgin. I hope that you grant the same treatment to the Muslims of Valencia. [ 83 ]
The city went through serious trouble in the middle of the 14th century . On the one hand, the black plague of 1348 and the successive epidemics of the following years, which decimated the population, and on the other hand, a series of wars and revolts followed, such as the Union War, a citizen revolt against excesses. of the monarchy led by Valencia as capital of the kingdom, [ 78 ] as well as the War with Castile , which forced the hastily erection of a new wall to contain, on two occasions (in 1363 and 1364), the Castilian attack . In these years, the coexistence between the three communities that occupied the city ( Christian , Jewish and Muslim) was quite conflictive. The Jews, settled around the Calle de la Mar, had progressed economically and socially, and their neighborhood was gradually expanding its boundaries at the expense of the adjoining parishes. For their part, the Muslims who remained in the city after the conquest were installed in a moorish house next to the current Mosen Sorell market. In 1391 an uncontrolled mob assaulted the Jewish quarter, which led to the practical disappearance of this community and the forced conversion of its members to Christianity. In 1456, again a popular tumult also assaulted the Morería, although its consequences were of less importance. [ 77 ]
- The Valencian Golden Age
The 15th century was a time of economic, cultural and artistic peak for the city. Throughout this century there was also a demographic growth that made Valencia the most populated city in the Crown of Aragon . [ 76 ] The local industry (with textiles at the head) reached a great development, being the silk industry the one that generated an important economic activity. [ 84 ] At this time, the Taula de Canvis , a municipal bank to support commercial operations, was also created. At the end of the century the Lonja de la Seda y de los Mercaderes was erected. The city became a commercial emporium that attracted merchants from all over Europe.
This economic boom was reflected in the artistic and cultural plane. During this period some of the most emblematic buildings of the city were erected, such as the Serranos towers (1392), the Lonja (1482), the Miguelete or the Chapel of the Kings of the Santo Domingo convent. In painting and sculpture, Flemish and Italian trends had an influence on some artists such as Lluís Dalmau , Gonçal Peris or Damian Forment . In literature , under the protection of the court of Alfonso the Magnanimous , written production flourished, by the hand of authors such asAusias March , Roig de Corella or Isabel de Villena . Around 1460 Joanot Martorell wrote Tirant lo Blanch , a groundbreaking chivalric novel that influenced many later authors, from Cervantes to Shakespeare . Also at this time, between 1499 and 1502, the University of Valencia was founded under the name of General Study . [ 77 ]
- Valencia with the Austrias
Following the discovery of America , the European economy was oriented towards the Atlantic to the detriment of the Mediterranean. Despite the dynastic union with Castile , the exploitation of the Mediterranean remained in the hands of the ancient Crown of Aragon, that is, Valencians, Catalans and Majorcans, while the conquest and exploitation of America was an exclusive matter for Castile. Faced with this, Valencia entered an acute economic crisis, which soon manifested itself with the rebellion of the Germanías (1519–1522), a social revolt against the nobility who had fled the city in the face of a plague epidemic in 1519. [ 77 ] The leaders of the insurrection were cruelly repressed by thevirreina Germana de Foix , which led to the acceleration of the authoritarian centralization of Carlos I . [ 85 ]
The crisis was accentuated during the seventeenth century with the expulsion of the Moors and Jews in 1609, [ 86 ] which accounted for almost a third of the entire population of the kingdom . [ 77 ] [ 87 ] The power of the nobility, increasingly dominant, caused the ruin of the country and the bankruptcy of the Taula de Canvis in 1613. During the so - called Catalan Revolt (1640-1652), Valencia collaborated with the cause of Felipe IV with militias and money, which caused a period of economic hardship accentuated by the arrival of troops from other parts of Spain.
- Valencia with the Bourbons
The decline of the city bottomed out with the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1709), which meant the end of the political and legal independence of the kingdom of Valencia. After the Battle of Almansa (April 25, 1707), Felipe V ordered the repeal of the Valencian Fueros as a punishment for the support that the kingdom had given Carlos of Austria . From the Decrees of Nueva Planta the Castilian Jurisdiction ruled in Valencia. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] The capital of the kingdom of Valencia went to Orihuela , an outrage to the city. Felipe V ordered that the Audiencia meet with the viceroyCardinal Luis de Belluga , who opposed the change of capital given the proximity of Orihuela as a religious, cultural and now political center to Murcia (capital of his other viceroyalty and of his diocese). Thus, given his hatred of the city of Orihuela, which he bombed and sacked incessantly during the War of Succession , he left the viceroyalty of Valencia as a protest to Felipe V, who finally returned the capital to Valencia. [ 77 ]
With the abolition of the Valencian Fueros and the accommodation of the kingdom and its capital to the laws and customs of Castile, the positions of the municipal government ceased to be elective, and became directly appointed by the monarch, often occupied by foreign aristocrats. . Valencia had to get used to being an occupied city, with the presence of troops quartered in the citadel , [ 90 ] which was next to the Santo Domingo convent , and in other buildings, such as the Lonja itself , which was a barracks until the 1762. [ 77 ]
- The nineteenth century
In the Spanish War of Independence against Napoleon's army - also known as the French War - the First Battle of Valencia occurred on June 28, 1808. You can still see the cannon shots in the Quart and Serranos towers. The city fell into the hands of troops under the command of Marshal Suchet on January 8, 1812 after a long siege. The occupation lasted until the end of the war in 1814. [ 91 ] After the capitulation, the French promoted some reforms in Valencia, which became the capital of Spain when José I moved the Court here in the summer of 1812. [ 77 ]
With the withdrawal of the French, General Elío organized a military revolt in Valencia that served to restore Fernando VII to the throne and initiate the absolutist administration (1814-1820). [ 92 ] In the following years, as a result of the legislation upheld by the Spanish Constitution of 1812 that ordered the formation of town councils in all those towns that exceeded the minimum number of residents stipulated by law, numerous districts close to the urban nucleus of the The city of Valencia in a confused legal situation are constituted in municipalities, including Ruzafa and El Grao . [ 77 ]
Between the years 1850 and 1851 Vicente Rodríguez de la Encina y Falcó de Belaochaga was mayor of the city, he also held the management of the Municipal House of Charity, and was a promoter of the Bank of Valencia (founded in 1900) and director of the Valencian Society de Aguas Potables (founded in 1846). [ 77 ] During the reign of Isabel II , the title of Duke of Valencia was granted to General Ramón María Narváez , although it was simply a noble title without any jurisdiction.
In the 1840s, gas lighting was introduced and shortly thereafter the paving of the streets began, a task that took several years due to the lack of resources of the city council. In 1850 the drinking water network was installed and in 1882 electricity was introduced in the city. In these years the growth of the city was consolidated and a large part of the old walls were demolished. [ 77 ]
In 1860 the municipality had 140,416 inhabitants. In 1858 the architects Sebastián Monleón Estellés , Antonino Sancho and Timoteo Calvo designed the General Project for the Ensanche of the City of Valencia, which provided for the demolition of the walls to allow the expansion of the city (a second version was reproduced in 1868). Both projects did not obtain final approval but served as the basis for the growth of the city. From 1866 on, the old city walls were completely demolished in order to facilitate the urban expansion of the same.
During the cantonal Revolution of 1873, it was articulated in the federal canton of Valencia (proclaimed on July 19 and dissolved on August 7), to which most of the municipalities of the nearby regions joined. In 1894 the Círculo de Bellas Artes de Valencia was founded . [ 93 ]
- Centuries XX and XXI
During the 20th century, Valencia remained the third demographic pole of Spain, since throughout the century its population tripled, going from 213 550 inhabitants in 1900 to 739 014 in 2000. Similarly, during the century XX Valencia was also the third industrial and economic center of the country, thanks to such important milestones as the creation of the Bank of Valencia in 1900, [ 94 ] the development of the widening of the city, construction of markets Central and of Columbus , and the construction of the North Stationrailway, which was completed in 1921. In addition to this, the Valencia of the new century became known with a great event, the Valencian regional exhibition of 1909 , which emulated the national and universal exhibitions, held in other cities of the world. This event was promoted by the commercial athenaeum of Valencia , especially by its president, Tomás Trénor y Palavicino , and had the support of the Government and the Crown, since it was inaugurated by Alfonso XIII . [ 22 ] [ 23 ]
On November 6, 1936, Valencia became the capital of Republican Spain at the hands of Francisco Largo Caballero , president of the government. On May 17, 1937, the government passed into the hands of Negrín , and on October 31 of that same year, the government moved to Barcelona . [ 95 ]
On January 13, 1937, the first official bombardment of the city of Valencia took place from a fascist Italian navy ship. From that day on, the bombings intensified and followed one another on several occasions, reaching the end of the war with 442 bombings on the city. These bombings left 2,831 injured and 847 dead, although it is estimated that the number of fatalities was higher, since the previous data are those recognized by the Franco government . [ 77 ]
As a result of the great flood of Valencia in 1957 , a new channel for the river was built on the outskirts of the city, so that the old channel could be converted into a recreational and landscaped area. [ 48 ] At the beginning of the sixties, the economic recovery began, and Valencia experienced a spectacular demographic growth due to immigration and the execution of important urban and infrastructure works. [ 96 ]
With the arrival of democracy , the old kingdom of Valencia was established as an autonomous community , the Valencian Community , and established in its Statute of Autonomy that the capital was Valencia. Despite this, on the night of February 23, 1981 there was a coup attempt, led by Jaime Milans del Bosch in Valencia , which failed. [ 97 ] Democracy led to the recovery of the Valencian language and culture, although a certain social tension around symbols could not be avoided (known as the Battle of Valencia ). [ 98 ] 
During the first 25 years of democracy , Valencia has undergone great development, mainly for such emblematic works as the Palacio de la Música, the Palacio de Congresos, the metro, the City of Arts and Sciences, by Santiago Calatrava and Félix Candela , [ 100 ] the MuVIM, the IVAM, etc. Thanks to these works, as well as the progressive rehabilitation of the Ciutat Vella, every day the city attracts more and more tourism. [ 101 ]
The registered population in the municipality of Valencia is 791,413 inhabitants ( INE 2018), while its metropolitan area has 1,559,908 inhabitants (INE 2018). [ 102 ] The metropolitan area of Valencia is mainly made up of municipalities located in the Huerta de Valencia ; some towns such as Mislata are completely conurbed within the city, while the rest are located in a first or a second metropolitan area. The municipalities of the metropolitan area that stand out for their population are Torrente with 81,245 inhabitants, Paterna with 69,156 inhabitants, Mislatawith 43,278 inhabitants and Burjasot with 37,584 inhabitants (INE 2018). [ 102 ]
|Demographic development of the city of Valencia (1787-2018) [ Note 1 ] [ Note 2 ]|
|Source: National Statistics Institute [ 103 ] [ 104 ]|
Throughout the 20th century, the city has multiplied its initial population by three and a half, the periods of maximum demographic growth being the years 1930 - 1940 and the decade of 1960 . The 1990s were years of demographic stability due to the fall of the rural exodus , which was a fundamental factor of growth in previous decades, as well as due to the reduction in the birth rate. In the 2000s, the strong foreign migratory currents that Spain received once again caused positive migratory dynamics, which began to stabilize and even become negative with theeconomic crisis of 2008-2012 . [ 105 ]
|Population entities that make up the municipality of Valencia|
| || || || |
|Houses of Bárcena||360||3|
|Mahuella, Tauladella, Rafalell and Vistabella||52||8-12|
| Masarrochos , with two nuclei: ||2153 |
| || |
|Sources: INE 2014, [ 106 ] Google Earth .|
The progressive increase in life expectancy and the reduction in fertility have been reflected in an age pyramid that narrows at its base and widens at the top, with an increasing weight of the older generations. However, the city's population continues to be relatively young, with 25% of its members in the 15-29-year-old generation, and 29% in the 30-49-year-old generation. [ 107 ]
It should also be noted that 13.9% of the population registered in the municipality is of foreign nationality ( INE 2011), coming mainly from South America (40.3% of foreigners registered), followed by those from other European countries (30.9%), African countries (13.3%), Asian (11.3%), Central America (3.1%), North America (1.0%), and finally the from Oceania (0.1%). [ 108 ] The foreign nationalities with the greatest presence in the city are the Ecuadorian(12,358 registered), the Bolivian (12,176 registered) and the Romanian (11,568 registered). [ 108 ]
Territorial organization and urban planning
Districts and neighborhoods
The city of Valencia is divided into districts, and these into neighborhoods. The neighborhoods of the city, in turn, are grouped into seven decentralized management bodies called municipal district boards. The seven boards are Ciutat Vella, Russafa, Abastos, Patraix, Trànsits, Exposició and Marítim. Some of the neighborhoods and districts were independent municipalities that joined the city from the second half of the 19th century . This is the case of Beniferri , Benimaclet , Patraix and Ruzafa that appear in the 1877 census as part of Valencia; Benimámet and Els Orriols in 1887; Gurgled , Bell ,Mahuella , Pueblo Nuevo del Mar and Villanueva del Grao in the 1897 census; and Benifaraig , Carpesa and Masarrochos in the census 1900. [ 109 ]
The street plan of Valencia presents a radial structure, with several concentric axes. [ 111 ] The first concentric axis is the Ronda Interior, which was developed on the site that remained after the old city wall was demolished. The names of the streets that make up this round are: Guillem de Castro; Xativa; Columbus ; Puerta del Mar; painter López; and Blanquerías. [ 112 ]The other concentric axes are the great roads (that of Fernando el Católico, that of Ramón y Cajal, that of the Germanías and that of the Marqués del Turia), the Ronda de Tránsito, formed by the avenues of Pérez Galdós, César Giorgeta, Peris y Valero, Eduardo Boscá, Cardenal Benlloch, Primate Reig, Peset Aleixandre, General Avilés and Campanar, and finally, those furthest from the center are the North rounds formed by the Avenidas de Pío Baroja, de los Hermanos Machado, de los Naranjos and Sawmill-Menorca. [ 113 ] and the South round formed by the avenues of 9 de Octubre, Tres Cruces and Antonio Ferrandis. [ 114 ]
The radial roads are the avenues of the Kingdom of Valencia, Blasco Ibáñez or of Valencia al Mar, [ 115 ] that of the Port, the avenue of the Cid , the avenue of the Valencian Cortes , that of Ausias March, the avenue of France, Avenida from Burjasot and San Vicente Mártir, Nicasio Benlloch, Padre Ferris and Centelles streets. In addition to all these streets and avenues, other roads of vital importance for the city must be highlighted, such as the river banks.
Lastly, the main streets in the old town of Valencia are Calle Caballeros, Calle San Vicente, Calle Quart, Calle de la Paz and Avenida del Oeste.
Bridges of the Turia
The Turia has been a natural barrier that divides the city into two zones, which is why several bridges have been built throughout history . Some have been destroyed by floods, like the one in 1957 , and rebuilt later. Following a west-east direction from the park Header to the port , bridges are: [ 116 ]
- Bioparc Bridge, Century XXI .
- October 9 Bridge, 20th century .
- Campanar Bridge, 20th century .
- Bridge of Ademúz or the Valencian Glories, 20th century .
- Bridge of the Arts, 20th century .
- Bridge of San José, 17th century .
- Serranos Bridge, 16th century .
- Trinity Bridge, Century XV .
- Puente del Real , 16th century .
- Wooden bridge , 21st century . [ 117 ]
- Bridge of the Exhibition (the comb), 20th century .
- Bridge of Flowers , XXI century .
- Puente del Mar , 16th century .
- Aragon Bridge, 20th century .
- Ángel Custodio Bridge, 20th century .
- Puente del Reino (the gargoyle bridge), 20th century .
- Monteolivete Bridge, XXI century .
- Puente del Azud del Oro (the ham holder), XXI century .
- Astilleros Bridge, 20th century .
Parks and gardens
The city was conceived by the Romans as a place of rest, and later the Muslims built a multitude of squares and gardens. It currently has numerous parks and garden areas (the Botanical Garden , the West Park, the Turia Garden, with more than 6.5 km of vegetation, etc.) and about 90% of the roads have garden areas in greater or less. Despite this, the city has only 5.64 m² of green space per inhabitant, one of the lowest rates of the large Spanish cities. [ 118 ] Some of the most popular parks and gardens in the city are:
- The Turia Garden , which is located in the old riverbed of the same name. When this river deviated from its course, its space was reused as a recreational area more than 6.5 km long. It is divided into several parts.
- The Botanical Garden , administered by the University of Valencia , [ 119 ] and its international identification code as a botanical institution is VAL.
- The Real or Viveros gardens are located in the Pla del Real district, right on the site where the Palacio del Real de Valencia was located . [ 120 ]
- The Paseo de la Alameda was the old access to the Royal Palace of Valencia from the sea . Today it forms a walk of just over a kilometer between the Puente del Real and the Puente de Aragón . [ 121 ] The extension of the promenade, now without a garden area, has a length of 2.5 kilometers, from the Plaza de Zaragoza to the Grao cemetery.
- The parterre or Plaza de Alfonso el Magnánimo was built on existing plots in the old Plaza de la Aduana, more or less in the year 1850. [ 122 ] Since its creation the garden has undergone very few variations, mainly due to the flood of 1957 which damaged this garden, with which its morphology changed somewhat.
- The Benicalap park is far from the historic center of the city , the land where it is located belonged to the Ministry of Agriculture , and was where the horticulture station dedicated to research and experimentation was located for many years. [ 123 ]
- Ayora garden, a garden free layout with romantic touches accompanying a modern palace built in 1900. [ 124 ]
Administration and politics
In Valencia there are four levels of public administrations, which have different responsibilities and competences. On the one hand, there is the Valencia City Council , [ 125 ] which is the body with the greatest powers and public officials in the city, since it regulates the daily life of citizens, and important matters such as urban planning, transport, collection of municipal taxes, management of road safety through the local police, maintenance of public roads (asphalt, cleaning ...) and gardens. He is also responsible for the construction of municipal facilities such as nurseries, sports centers, libraries, residences for the elderly, among others.
The Valencia Provincial Council also has its headquarters in the city, in the Palacio de Batlia, located in the Plaza de Manises. [ 126 ] This is the public body with the least powers in the city, despite this it is in charge of managing the interests of such emblematic establishments as the Casa de Misericordia, the La Beneficencia Cultural Center and the Parpalló Hall, [ 127 ] the Bullfighting Museum , [ 128 ] the MuVIM [ 129 ] and the General Hospital, [ 130 ] among others.
The administration responsible for the regional government of Valencia is the Generalitat Valenciana , [ 131 ] which has its headquarters in Valencia institutions such as the Valencian Parliament , located in the Plaza de San Lorenzo de Valencia, [ 132 ] the Palacio de la Generalidad (headquarters of the Generalitat Valenciana), located in the Plaza de Manises , or the Palacio de Fuentehermosa(headquarters of the presidency of the Generalitat), located on Caballeros street. The Generalitat has broad powers over the management of the city, from education, social affairs, traffic, economic policies, trade, etc. It is also responsible for the construction of facilities such as hospitals, schools, universities, residences for the elderly, etc.
Finally, the General State Administration , which deals with issues such as security (National Police and Army Corps), Justice, port and airport management, Renfe trains , and the coasts, among the most prominent competences . [ 133 ] These powers are coordinated by the Government Delegate in the Valencian Community and the sub-delegate of the Valencia government, who are appointed by the Government of Spain , and whose headquarters are in the Plaza del Temple. [ 134 ]
The government of the Valencia City Council is chosen by universal suffrage in elections held every four years. The D'Hondt system is the electoral method used in Spain to distribute the councilors of the municipalities , approximately proportional to the votes obtained by the candidates.
In the municipal elections of 2019 , Joan Ribó , from Compromís per València , won the elections, obtaining ten council members, and won the mayor of the city. Together with the 7 of the PSPV, he has formed a government government for the 2019-2023 legislature. [ 135 ]
Since the recovery of democracy in Spain , nine municipal elections have been held, and three political parties have governed the city: the PSOE , the PP and Compromís . From the first municipal elections , held in 1979, until 1991 the PSOE ruled the city. During these years, two mayors, Fernando Martínez Castellano (1979) and Ricard Pérez Casado (1979-1988), and a mayor, Clementina Ródenas Villena (1988-1991) succeeded each other . While from 1991 to 2015 , the PP has governed the city, being Rita Barberá Nolla mayor. From the elections of May 2015 , Joan Ribó of Compromís occupied the mayor, with the support of the PSPV and Valencia in Comú. In the May 2019 elections , Joan Ribó revalidates the mayoralty, with the support of the PSPV . [ 135 ]
|1979-1983|| Fernando Martínez Castellano (1979) |
Ricard Pérez Casado (1979-1983)
|1983-1987||Ricard Pérez Casado|
|1987-1991|| Ricard Pérez Casado (1987-1988) |
Clementina Ródenas Villena (1988-1991)
|1991-1995||Rita Barberá Nolla|
|1995-1999||Rita Barberá Nolla|
|1999-2003||Rita Barberá Nolla|
|2003-2007||Rita Barberá Nolla|
|2007-2011||Rita Barberá Nolla|
|2011-2015||Rita Barberá Nolla|
|2015-2019||Joan Ribó i Canut|
|2019-||Joan Ribó i Canut|
The mayor of the city, Joan Ribó, is also the president of the Local Government Board, so he is in charge of appointing the other members of the same, whose number cannot exceed a third of the legal number of members of the corporation. It should be noted that the mayor can appoint as members of the Local Government Board also people who are not councilors. Currently, the Local Government Board is made up of ten members, the mayor and nine councilors:
- Joan Ribó i Canut : Mayor ( Commitment ).
- Sandra Gómez López : 1st Deputy Mayor. Vice Mayor. ( PSPV-PSOE ).
- Sergi Campillo Fernández: 2nd Deputy Mayor. Vice Mayor. (You compromise ).
- Carlos Galiana Lloréns: 3º Deputy Mayor ( Commitment ).
- Ramón Vilar Zanon: 4º Deputy Mayor ( PSPV-PSOE ).
- Maria Luisa Notario Villanueva: 5th Deputy Mayor ( Compromís ).
- Maria Pilar Bernabé García: 6th Deputy Mayor ( PSPV-PSOE ).
- Isabel Lozano Lázaro: 7th Deputy Mayor ( Compromís ).
- Aarón Cano Montaner: 8th Deputy Mayor ( PSPV-PSOE ).
- Giuseppe Grezzi : 9º Deputy Mayor ( Commitment ).
Each group with representation in the municipal group has a spokesperson, which are:
- Carlos Galiana Lloréns - Commitment for Valencia
- María José Català Verdet - People's Party of the Valencian Community
- Sandra Gómez López - Socialist Party of the Valencian Country
- Fernando Giner Grima - Citizens
- José Gosálbez Payá - Vox
The economy of Valencia and its metropolitan area is, like the entire business network, closely linked to SMEs (small and medium-sized companies), very competitive, being recognized for their entrepreneurial nature and mainly for export purposes.
At present, a total of 3 973 hectares of the municipal area of the city are dedicated to the cultivation of the vegetable garden, [ 137 ] although the successive extensions of the port and its ZAL, as well as urban development, the construction of the new hospital in La Fe or the new roads and belts of the city, have practically wiped out the peri-urban garden areas. [ 138 ]
However, the greatest concentration of agricultural trade takes place in Valencia, since the port and railway facilities of the city are fast routes for the trade of perishable products from the countryside. Also important is the city's wholesale market, Mercavalencia, which is the reference center for the entire metropolitan area of Valencia.
Today, the industrial sector [ 139 ] is really almost symbolic within the municipality itself, due to the new laws and the urban character of Valencia. For this reason, industrial companies have moved to other locations outside the city. Since the end of the 19th century and for most of the 20th century there have been a large number of industrial companies in the city, from sectors such as metallurgy, ceramics, furniture manufacturing, etc. This exodus of companies caused the towns around the city to welcome companies, and suffered a huge demographic and economic development, such as the cases of Manises in the ceramic sector, Benetúserand Alfafar in the furniture sector, or Paterna , with the creation of the Fuente del Jarro polygon.
With regard to the textile industry, it should be noted that this subsector has suffered stiff competition from third countries. Despite this, this competition has not affected the textile industry of Valencia so abruptly, since Valencian products are characterized by quality, especially with regard to silk fabrics, which have a reputation in everyone for the tradition of this industry.
In Valencia there are several shopping centers , department stores , hypermarkets and supermarkets . [ 140 ] The most important are those belonging to the large chains, such as the Carrefour hypermarkets , with 3 hypermarkets in the municipality of Valencia and 4 in its metropolitan area , Alcampo , with two hypermarkets in the metropolitan area, the large El Corte Inglés and Hipercor stores , with 6 centers in Valencia, or the Consum supermarkets , with 68 stores, Mercadona , with 59 stores,Dia , with 29 locations, Opencor and Supercor , with 14 locations, Lidl , with 5 locations, or Aldi , with 2 locations. In addition to these facilities, in the city of Valencia there are also several shopping centers, such as the Nuevo Centro, the Aqua Multiespacio , the Saler, the Arena Multiespacio, the Ademúz, the Campanar Market, etc.
Neighborhood markets are also important to the city, such as the Central market , the Colón market, the Ruzafa market, the Benicalap market, the Algirós market, the Castilla market, the Cabanyal market or the Torrefiel market. , among others. Although we must also highlight the large number of neighborhood shops in the city, among which the clothing stores on Colón Street or the technological products stores on Islas Canarias Street stand out.
Tourism really began with the boom of the early twentieth century , at which time the inhabitants of Valencia began to enjoy the environment that surrounded them, mainly the coastal areas of Malvarrosa and Cabañal, where second homes were built, and even a spa . At this time, it was the custom of important people to own some of these houses, for their use and to invite their family and friends. A very prominent case is the Valencian writer Blasco Ibáñez , and his well-known meetings with painters and philosophers of the time. After the civil war there was a second boomtourism, when the old fishing beaches were improved, increasing the offer of accommodation and services on the beaches to turn them into real tourist centers.
Although in reality the true tourist boom of the city occurred at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st , since it was at this time when the new architectural and cultural icons of the city were built, such as the Palace of Music , the City of Arts and Sciences , [ 15 ] the Congress Palace or the Bioparc . At this time several major sporting and cultural events, including two editions were also held the America's Cup and the European Grand Prix of Formula 1 in theurban circuit of Valencia . [ 101 ]
The Palacio de Congresos , designed by the English architect Norman Foster , was inaugurated by the kings of Spain in 1998 and has 15,581 m² , equipped with 3 auditoriums or conference rooms, 9 committee rooms, and an exhibition hall of 1 077 m². [ 141 ] This building is conceived for holding all kinds of national and international events and conventions, especially large congresses and conferences. The 8,200 m² roof of the building stands out for the presence of photovoltaic sheets to produce electricity and is supported by glass, stone and alabaster pillars, with a canopy of 18 meters high.
From its launch in 1998 to 2011, the Palacio de Congresos has hosted more than 2 000 events with 1.5 million attendees, which has had an economic impact of more than 700 million euros for the city of Valencia. [ citation required ] Becoming recognized in 2010 as the best congress venue in the world, upon receiving the World's Best Convention Center, the highest award from the International Association of Conference Centers. [ 142 ]
For its part, the International Fair of Valencia (Feria Valencia) is the oldest organizing institution of fair events in Spain , since it was founded in 1917. The fair is located in the Valencian district of Benimámet , and was recently remodeled and expanded, by the architect José María Tomás Llavador, becoming the fair institution with the fourth largest venue in the world. Feria Valencia organizes more than a hundred contests, fairs and events every year, which is why it is one of the most important in the European circuit.
The sectors that regularly hold fairs in this enclosure are agriculture, food products, furniture, tourism, training and employment, etc. In 2010 Feria Valencia counted more than one million three hundred thousand visitors from all over the world and more than twelve thousand exhibitors participated in its contests (between direct and represented). Therefore, the economic impact of Feria Valencia in its environment is estimated between 700 and 800 million euros per year. [ 143 ]
In Spain, the first Stock Exchange to be established was that of Madrid , in 1831, and subsequently those of Bilbao , in 1890 and Barcelona , in 1915 were created. While the Valencia Stock Exchange began its journey in 1980, when the old Stock Exchange was transformed into Stock Market. The headquarters of the Valencia Stock Exchange is in the Böil de Arenós Palace , in the Ciutat Vella district . [ 144 ]
In any case, the history of the Valencia Stock Exchange goes back further, since already in 1863 a Stock Exchange was requested for Valencia, because at that time there were already brokers, who met in the Lonja. Although it was not until 15 November 1887 when it became operational on Bolsín of Valencia, which was located at the headquarters of the College of Trade Corridors, located on the street Puñalería number 10. [ 145 ]
At present, the Valencia Stock Exchange is an official secondary market exchange , intended for the exclusive trading of shares and convertible securities or those that grant the right of acquisition or subscription. According to the Securities Market Law (LMV) , «Official secondary securities markets are those that function regularly, in accordance with the provisions of this Law and its implementing regulations, and, especially, with regard to access conditions , admission to negotiation, operating procedures, information and publicity ». [ 146 ]
The Polytechnic University of Valencia opened in 2002, the science park Polytechnic City of Innovation (CPI), [ 147 ] which comprises an area of 140 000 m², and brings together all of the R + D + i of UPV, that is, 45 research institutes, [ 148 ] about 3 000 researchers, as well as about 400 support people. [ 148 ] [ 149 ]
The CPI is a networked science park structured in three areas of action; the premises, in which more than 25 city councils, business associations and promoter entities from the entire province of Valencia participate ; the national one, with more than 100 public and private Spanish R & D & I organizations ; and the international, [ 147 ]Where ICC researchers and research centers collaborate with more than 1 000 public and private research and innovation promotion bodies in more than 60 countries. The management of the Network and the dynamization of the cooperation between its actors is the responsibility of the Fundación Ciudad Politécnica de la Innovación, a non-profit organization promoted by the Polytechnic University of Valencia, and among whose reference patrons is the Santander Group . [ 147 ] This science park is a member of the Spanish Association of Science and Technology Parks (APTE), as well as the International Association of Science Parks (IASP). [ 147 ]
Within the complex of the City of Arts and Sciences , the Prince Felipe Research Center (CIPF) was also inaugurated in 2002, which has 23 laboratories distributed in three research programs: biomedicine ; chemical and quantitative biology; and regenerative medicine . The managing foundation of this research center is made up of the Generalitat Valenciana and the Bancaja Foundation. The objective of this center is to study possible solutions to diseases that affect human health, applying the most advanced technologies in order to develop new therapies and / or diagnostic methods. [ 150 ]
Finally, the University of Valencia inaugurated in 2009 its own science park, the Science Park of the University of Valencia (PCUV), [ 151 ] located on the Burjasot-Paterna Campus, about 8 kilometers from the city center . The managing entity of the PCUV is the Fundació Parc Científic Universitat de València , a private and general interest foundation, whose patrons are the Bancaja Foundation , the Santander Group, the Valencia Chamber of Commerce and the Valencian Business Confederation, in addition to the University From Valencia. [ 152 ]This science park has a space of more than 200,000 m² for research, innovation and knowledge transfer, uniting in a single space the university research and the R & D & i demands of the Valencian productive fabric. [ 153 ] The PCUV has two distinct areas, on one side is the scientific area, of which the research institutes are part, and on the other side the business area, consisting of a business incubator and various buildings for the installation of companies, R&D laboratories and technology platforms. It currently has 6 research institutes, singular centers and scientific services, and hosts more than 60 companies. [ 151 ]In the same way as the CPI, the PCUV is a member of the Association of Science and Technology Parks of Spain (APTE) and of the International Association of Science Parks (IASP).
With regard to regulated education, the Constitution states that there is a distribution of powers in educational matters among the various entities and administrations present in the State . In this way, the General State Administration reserves the exclusive competence to regulate the structure of the different educational levels and the conditions for obtaining, issuing and approving academic and professional qualifications, while the Ministry of Education of the Generalitat Valenciana is addresses: [ 154 ]
- The academic organization of early childhood education, primary education, compulsory secondary education, the baccalaureate, the special regime education and adult education.
- The elaboration of the official curricula corresponding to these teachings.
- The regulation of academic and organizational measures for the attention to diversity.
- The regulation and development of academic and organizational measures for the schooling, integration and inclusion of students with special educational needs, as well as students with high intellectual abilities.
- The development of academic and organizational measures to compensate for inequalities in education.
Basic education is compulsory and free, including primary education and compulsory secondary education as basic education . This education includes ten years of schooling and extends from six to sixteen years, although students have the right to remain in these teachings until they are eighteen.
|Non-university educational centers in the city of Valencia|
|Educational level of the center|| || |
|Compulsory Secondary||108||26 958|
|high school||65||11 797|
|Medium grade training cycles||47||6348|
|Higher level training cycles||33||8149|
| Source: Ayuntamiento de Valencia [ 155 ] |
In addition to these educational centers, in Valencia there are several special regime teaching centers . The official language school in the 2009/10 academic year had 4,064 students of English , 2,103 of French , 1204 of German , 940 of Italian , 591 of Valencian , and 1790 of other languages . [ 155 ] With regard to music and dance studies, the city has several conservatories: the “José Iturbi” municipal conservatory ; [ 156 ] the professional music conservatory; [ 157] The Higher Conservatory of Music; [ 158 ] the professional dance conservatory; [ 159 ] and the Superior Conservatory of Dance. [ 160 ] Valencia is also the headquarters of Musikeon, an institution active in different countries in the field of specialized music education and which annually attracts music professionals and advanced students from many countries in Europe and Latin America to the city.
The city has two public universities, as well as several private universities. It should be noted that Valencian public universities are among the best in Spain , as established by some rankings such as the University of Shanghai Jiao Tong. [ 161 ]
The University of Valencia (UV), [ 162 ] founded in 1499 under the name of General Study , is a public university oriented towards teaching and research in almost all fields of knowledge. It is among the four best Spanish universities, according to the most recognized accreditation systems, such as the one maintained by the University of Shanghai Jiao Tong . This university has three main campuses (Blasco Ibáñez, Tarongers and Burjasot-Paterna), also counting on numerous extensions, delegations, attached centers and exemplary locations, such as the historic building of La Nau , [ 163 ]The Botanical Garden [ 119 ] or the Palace of Cerveró. [ 164 ] It is known in Valencia as the "Literary University", to distinguish it from the Polytechnic University of Valencia , despite the fact that a very important part of the teaching and research at the University of Valencia is in "non-literary" fields.
The other public university in Valencia is the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV), [ 165 ] which was founded in 1968. This is a university in which special emphasis is placed on science and technology . It has several campuses, the most important of all being the one located in the city of Valencia, the so-called Vera campus, although outside the city are those of Alcoy and Gandía . The UPV is organized into 9 higher technical schools, 2 faculties and 2 higher polytechnic schools, which are in charge of organizing the teaching of 34 degrees , and has 41 departments and 45 centers and institutes ofresearch . In 2010, it was ranked number 336 in the ranking of the best universities in the world by the University of Shanghai Jiao Tong, being the 6th in Spain and the 1st in Spanish polytechnic. [ 161 ]
The Catholic University of Valencia (UCV) [ 166 ] is the private and Catholic university of Valencia. This university, named in homage to Saint Vincent martyr, was founded by Cardinal Monsignor Agustín García-Gasco on December 8, 2003. This University is the continuation of the university work of the "Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados University School of Nursing" founded in 1953, from the "Edetania University Teacher Training School", founded in 1969 and the "Faculty of Business Studies", created in 1995. At present, the Catholic University of Valencia has 7 Faculties that frame 20 teachings Grade officers.
In addition to these, in Valencia there are also several university headquarters and business schools associated with other universities outside the city. The National University of Distance Education (UNED) [ 167 ] has since 1997 with headquarters in Valencia, called Centro Francisco Tomas y Valiente . This center was created by the Ministerial Order of September 21, 1978, although the headquarters were located in the city of Alcira. In October 1983 the Valencia sub-headquarters came into operation, which depended on the Alcira branch, and whose headquarters have been located since 1987 in the Casa de la Misericordia. Subsequently, in 1995 the center became part of the Basic Network of Associated Centers project of the UNED, and finally, in 2000 it was officially renamed "Centro Alcira-Valencia Francisco Tomás y Valiente ".
Another university based in Valencia is the CEU Cardenal Herrera University (CEU), [ 168 ] which was founded in 1999 and opened in the 2000/01 academic year. This University has the headquarters of its CEU Business School in Valencia, which is located in the Colomina Palace, where its postgraduate offer is taught.
Since 1989, the ESIC [ 169 ] university center has had a headquarters on Avenida de Blasco Ibáñez in the city. This university center currently teaches, as a center attached to the Miguel Hernández de Elche University , official degrees and an also official master's degree in the terms provided by university regulations. And finally, the European University of Valencia (UEV), [ 170 ] is another university with a presence in the city of Valencia. The UEV is a center authorized by the Ministry of Education of the Generalitat Valenciana on January 27, 2010, although it has been present in Valencia through the Valencia Assigned Center and Estema Escuela de Negocios since September 2008.
Public health in Valencia is managed mainly by regional powers by the Ministry of Health of the Generalitat Valenciana . [ 171 ] The city within the health map of Valencia, belonging to the public health center of Valencia, which controls the following health departments: [ 172 ] [ 171 ]
- Sagunto Health Department (nº 4).
- Valencia Health Department: Clínico-Malvarrosa (nº 5).
- Valencia Health Department: Arnau de Vilanova-Liria (nº 6).
- Valencia Health Department: La Fe (nº 7).
- Valencia Health Department: General Hospital (nº 9).
- Valencia Health Department: Doctor Peset (nº 10).
In 2010, Valencia had a total of 28 primary care health centers and 14 clinics, in which a total of 534 doctors and 124 pediatricians worked , as well as another 698 workers from the health sector , such as nurses and auxiliaries . While the total of specialty centers was 4, in which a total of 258 doctors and pediatricians worked, and 233 nurses and assistants. It should also be noted that in 2010 the city of Valencia had a total of 7 public hospitals (of the Valencian Health Agency), in which there were a total of 3 371 functioning beds, 112 operating rooms, 3,130 optional health workers and 6,962 workers in other health activities. [ 155 ] In addition to these public hospitals, there are also 7 other private hospitals in the city. In this way, the existing hospitals in the city of Valencia are:
|Hospitals in the city of Valencia|
|Hospital|| || |
|Pare Jofre Hospital||Public||125|
|Fontana Clinic||Private non-charity||7|
|October 9 Hospital||Private non-charity||300|
|Valencian Institute of Oncology Foundation||Other private-charity||160|
|Valencia al Mar Hospital||Private non-charity||70|
|Health House Clinic||Charitable Private (Church)||192|
|Consortium General University Hospital of Valencia||Public||592|
|La Malvarrosa Hospital||Public||47|
|University Clinical Hospital||Public||587|
|Arnau de Vilanova Hospital||Public||302|
|Doctor Peset University Hospital||Public||539|
|La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital||Public||1440|
|Quirón de Valencia Clinic, SA||Private non-charity||79|
|Virgen del Consuelo Clinic||Private non-charity||156|
| Source: Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. [ 172 ] |
There are two administrations in charge of citizen security: on one side is the Valencia City Council , on which the municipal fire department of the Valencia City Council [ 173 ] and the Valencia local police depend ; [ 174 ] and on the other side is the Ministry of the Interior, on which the Civil Guard , the National Police, [ 175 ] and the Autonomous Police depend , although the Generalitat Valenciana also intervenes in part in the management of this police force. . [ 176 ]
The Valencia Local Police Corps has its origin in the Vigilance Corps created in the 1820s , which was maintained until 1870, [ 177 ] when the City Councildecided to establish a service more in line with the needs of a city of 200,000 inhabitants, for which the municipal guard body was created, with a staff of one hundred officials, ten inspectors and a chief. In 1901 the first regulations of the municipal guard were drawn up, and the mounted section was created. In 1927, due to the growth of the city and the increase in activities assigned to the body, its staff was expanded, the body's troops were distributed by districts, and the following year the circulation section was established. [ 177 ]
The Valencia Local Police Center (located at Avenida del Cid number 37) has modern facilities that are in accordance with the needs that are presented to the city's Local Police Corps at this time. [ 174 ] The workforce of the Valencia Local Police amounts to 1,900, [ 178 ] divided into various departments: [ 179 ] neighborhood police; district units; traffic units; Goe units; drive to beaches; reports and accident investigation section; cavalry section; special section X-4; green patrol and police unit molí del sol; and Gama group.
Municipal Fire Department
The fire service in the city of Valencia dates from the year 1755, when the City Council made a publication to extinguish fires. This publication detailed where the city's first fire station was located and how the " Machina Hydraulica " should be used . [ 180 ] Section Sappers Valencia Fire was created by the Mutual Fire of Valencia, with the intention to protect property intramural of mutuals , although shortly after the action zone was extended to homes outside the walls. But it was not until 1857 when the City Council began to take over the Fire Department. [ 181 ]
Currently the Municipal Fire Department of Valencia City Council divides the city into six work zones (Campanar, North, West, South, Maritime and Saler), [ 173 ] and has seven fire stations: the central fire station - General services; the Campanar fire station; the Devesa fire station; the Marítimo fire station; the fire station of the North zone; the fire station of the West zone; and the fire station of the South zone. [ 173 ]
Article 7 of the Law on Traffic, Circulation and Road Safety approved by RDL 339/1990 attributes to the municipalities sufficient powers to allow, among others, the immobilization of vehicles, the management and control of traffic and the regulation of their applications. [ 182 ] In Valencia these issues are regulated by a municipal ordinance on traffic, which was approved by plenary agreement on May 28, 2010. [ 183 ] With regard to the city's automobile fleet, in 2010 this consisted of 495 022 vehicles: [ 184 ]370 357 cars; 50 610 motorcycles; 29 684 mopeds; 29 573 trucks; 7 964 tractors; 5,887 trailers; and 947 buses. [ 184 ]
Valencia's main highways have a radial route , such as the V-21 , the V-31 , the A-3 , the V-15 / CV-500 , the CV-35 or the CV-36 . But Valencia also has a series of ring roads around it, these are the By-pass , the V-30 , which connects the A-7 with the city's port , or the CV-30 , which borders the north from the city.
|Valencia - - Cuart de Poblet - - Manises - - Cheste - Requena - Villargordo del Cabriel - Motilla del Palancar - Villarrubio - Arganda del Rey - Santa Eugenia - - Madrid|
|Le Perthus ( France ) - Barcelona - unbuilt - Tarragona - unbuilt - Pobla Tornesa - Puzol - Paterna - - Valencia - - Chair - La Alcudia - Játiva - Alcoy - Jijona - Alicante - Elche - Orihuela - Murcia - Almería - Adra -Motril- Nerja - Málaga - Algeciras|
|France - La Junquera - Gerona - Barcelona - Tarragona - Puzol -- Chair -- Algemesí - Gandía - Alicante - Crevillente - Cartagena - Vera , Malaga - Guadiaro|
|- Sagunto - Teruel - Zaragoza - Huesca - not built - Jaca - not built - Somport - Pau (Pyrenees Atlantiques) ( France )|
|- Sollana - Sueca - Cullera - Favara - Jaraco - Jeresa - Gandía - Benisa - Alicante - Santa Pola - Pilar de la Horadada|
|- Cuart de Poblet - Manises - Valencia Airport|