Venice - Venecia

Venice
Venezia Venèsia
Town
Venice Old Town Lagoon Aerial View.jpg
View of the old town

Flag of Venice.png
Flag
CoA City of Venice.gif
Shield

Other names : The City of the canals, The Queen of the Adriatic, the City of the lagoon

Venice located in Italy
Venice
Venice
Location of Venice in Italy
Venice located in Veneto
Venice
Venice
Location of Venice in Veneto

Interactive map
Coordinates 45°26′23″N 12°19′55″E / 45.439722222222, 12.331944444444Coordenadas: 45°26′23″N 12°19′55″E / 45.439722222222, 12.331944444444
Official language italiano
• Other languages veneto
Entity Town
Country Italian flag Italy
Region Flag of Veneto.svg Veneto
Metropolitan city Venice
Mayor Luigi Brugnaro (Independiente)
historical events
• Foundation October 15, 421 AD C. (1599 years)
Surface
• Total 414,6 km²
• Land 156,9 km²
• Water 257,7 km²
Altitude
• Media 1 m s. n. m.
Weather Humid subtropical climate
Water course Venice lagoon
Population (2011)
• Total 270 884 hab.
Density 653.41 hab / km²
Demonym Venetian, Venetian
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
• in summer CEST ( UTC + 2 )
Postal Code 30121–30176
Telephone prefix 041
Registration AND
ISTAT code 027042
Cadastral code L736 [ 1 ]
ISTAT code 027042
Festivals April 25th
Twinned with See here Sister cities
Patron (a) Saint Mark the Evangelist
Official Web site
Member of: Eurocities , Organization of World Heritage Cities

Venice (in Italian Venezia [veˈnɛʦːi̯a] and in Veneto Venèsia [ veˈn ensi va ] ) is a city located in the northeast of Italy . It is also the capital of the Venetian region and of the province of Venice . Its historic center, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO , [ 2 ] is located on a group of islands in the Venetian lagoon , in the north of the Adriatic Sea.. Its geographical peculiarity, as well as its millenary history and its rich monumental and artistic heritage, have made Venice one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world.

The city is built on an archipelago of 118 small islands (if we include the islands of Murano , Burano and Torcello), almost all of them linked together by 455 bridges and includes six districts or municipalità on the mainland ( terraferma veneziana ) where the majority live of the population; about 60 thousand inhabitants in the insular center and 200 thousand on the mainland. The center of Venice is reached by the Liberty Bridge , which from the neighboring town of Mestre accesses the Piazzale Roma. In the interior of the city there is no road traffic, being, with the exception of the navigation through the channels that separate the islands, a completely pedestrian city. Collective transport is carried out by ferry boats known as vaporettos . They are in charge of the municipal company ACTV. [ 3 ]

Its canals make up a large network of streets that start from the Grand Canal , a great road through which a multitude of boats , large and small, pass, the best known of which are the so-called gondolas .

Weather

According to the Köppen climate classification , Venice has a humid subtropical climate ( Cfa ), with cold winters and warm summers. The 24-hour average in January is 3.3 degrees Celsius (37.9 ° F), and for July this figure is 23 degrees Celsius (73.4 ° F). Precipitation spreads relatively evenly throughout the year, averaging 748 millimeters (29.4 in).

Gnome-weather-few-clouds.svg Venice average climatic parameters (1971-2015) WPTC Meteo task force.svg
My One. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jun. Jul. Ago. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Annual
Temp. max. media (° C) 6.6 8.6 12.5 16.1 21.5 24.9 27.7 27.5 23.5 18.0 11.6 7.4 17.2
Temp. media (°C) 3.4 4.7 8.3 12.0 17.1 20.5 23.0 22.6 18.9 13.8 7.8 4.0 13.0
Temp. min media (° C) −0.1 0.8 4.1 7.8 12.7 16.1 18.3 17.7 14.3 9.6 4.0 0.6 8.8
Total precipitation (mm) 47.0 48.3 48.8 70.0 66.0 78.0 63.9 64.8 72.0 73.5 65.5 50.6 748.4
Rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.0 5.2 5.7 8.3 8.2 8.6 5.9 6.1 5.9 6.7 5.8 5.9 78.3
Snowfall days (≥ 1 mm) 1.6 1.0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 1.2 4.8
Hours of sun 80.6 107.4 142.6 174.0 229.4 243.0 288.3 257.3 198.0 151.9 87.0 77.5 2037.0
Relative humidity (%) 81 77 75 75 73 74 71 72 75 77 79 81 75.8
Source # 1: MeteoAM (sun and humidity 1961-1990) [ 4 ] [ 5 ]
Fuente n.º 2: Journal Ligure "The snow on the coasts Maditerraneo (sic)" (Snow) [ 6 ]

Story

Venice was founded in the 5th century , taking advantage of its particular geography, which gave it protection against the attacks of the Germanic peoples . Initially it was under the rule of the Eastern Roman Empire , but little by little it became independent from it.

For several centuries, constituted as a city-state , it specialized in navigation and developed a maritime power that allowed it to dominate the Mediterranean trade. Due to its location at the crossroads between great empires, it held a dominant position in trade with the kingdoms of China and India . Until 1797 it was the capital of the Republic of Venice (known as La Serenissima ) and, with its 180,000 inhabitants, one of the most populated cities in Europe . At the head of the city, despite being nominally constituted as a republic, there was a kind of elective monarchy (the doge or doge), who directed, together with other governing bodies, the life of the city and its possessions.

After a period of French (1805-1814) and Austrian (1797-1805 and 1814-1866) domination, Venice was incorporated into Italy in 1866. Since its founding, the city has suffered the effects of periodic floods. Today the city faces a serious threat from repeated floods. In spring and autumn the so-called acqua alta ( high tide ) takes place, twice a day, which completely floods St. Mark's Square . The Italian government began in 2003 the construction of a system, called MOSE ( Modulo sperimentale elettromeccanico ), to erect mobile dikes that would close in case of rising sea water levels during theacqua alta . It was tested on July 10, 2020 and on October 3 of the same year it was used for the first time to contain the floods that the city suffered. [ 7 ]

Art and culture

Venice has a legendary reputation for its extensive artistic heritage and long history as a reference for European painting. The wealth of the powerful of the city (the Church, politicians and certain merchants) made it possible to maintain a long patronage of painters, architects and other artists: from Gentile Bellini in the 15th century to Francesco Guardi at the end of the 18th century , passing through Giovanni Bellini , Tiziano , Giorgione , Sebastiano del Piombo , Tintoretto , Veronese , Jacopo Bassano , Giambattista Tiepolo, among others. Curiously, many of these artists were born in other locations and came to Venice attracted by its strength.

The style of the successive Venice painters maintained some common characteristics (warm and rich coloring) that radiated their influence throughout half of Europe. The so-called " Venetian School " influenced masters as diverse as Rubens and Velázquez , and was decisive in the genesis of Baroque painting in the seventeenth century .

The architecture of the city experienced an especially brilliant period during the Renaissance , with architects such as Mauro Codussi , Pietro Lombardo , author of beautiful churches, and Jacopo Sansovino , who built the monumental Biblioteca Marciana . Andrea Palladio and Vincenzo Scamozzi also left notable works in Renaissance Venice. Later, Baldassare Longhena will stand out .

Antonio Vivaldi , one of the heights of Baroque music , was born in Venice on March 4, 1678 (died in Vienna on July 28, 1741). Another of the greats of music, Richard Wagner , died in the city on February 13, 1883. Likewise, the great composer Igor Stravinsky , although he died in New York , wanted his remains to be taken to Venice and they rest today in the cemetery of San Michele. All this is a reflection of the importance of the city not only as a place of origin of many geniuses, but above all as an inexhaustible source of inspiration throughout the history of poets, musicians, painters and all kinds of artists. [ 8 ]

In Venice you will find one of the most famous opera houses in the world, the La Fenice theater , which literally means "Phoenix Bird" and lives up to its name, having risen from its ashes after repeated fires, the last at the end of the century. XX . It was the premiere venue for some of the most famous pieces in the repertoire, including several by Verdi .

The city was also the birthplace of famous writers such as Marco Polo (1254-1324) (although there is a debate about Marco Polo's birthplace and it is proposed that he was born on the Croatian island of Korčula ) and his famous book Il Milione . Giacomo Casanova (1725-1798) also stands out with his autobiography, Histoire de ma Vie ( Story of my life ), which links his lifestyle to the city of Venice itself. In theater, playwrights who incorporated the Italian theater tradition of the Comedia del arte but using the Venetian dialect in their comedies, such as Carlo Goldoni , stood out .

Since 1895 the city has hosted the Venice Biennale , [ 9 ] a name commonly used to refer to the Venice International Art Exhibition, which includes the Venice International Film Festival , born in 1932. Both events are the first and oldest of its kind that are still being performed. Other events related to the Biennale are the Venice International Architecture Exhibition , the Theater Festival, the Contemporary Dance Festival and the Contemporary Music Festival. Due to its antiquity and prestige, the Biennial is currently one of the most important contemporary art events in the world.

The immense cultural heritage of Venice, a summary of its millenary history, was recognized by Unesco with the distinction of World Heritage Site in 1987 for the historic center of the city and the lagoon. [ 2 ]

Universities

Università Ca 'Foscari , public, was founded in 1868.

Venice has several universities . The Università Ca 'Foscari , founded in 1868, has its headquarters in the Gothic Palace of the same name on the Grand Canal . This university offers courses in economics, commerce, languages, literature, philosophy, and natural sciences. It is organized into eight departments and four interdepartmental schools. During the 2012/2013 academic year, it had 18,829 enrolled students.

The other university in the city is the IUAV , a public university of architecture, design, theater, fashion, visual arts, urban planning and territorial planning. It has offices in Mestre and Treviso . The architecture university founded in 1926 by Giovanni Bordiga, [ 10 ] at that time president of the Gallery of the Academy of Venice , was the second in Italy after that of Rome . Today it has three departments: Architecture, Building and Conservation, Project Culture and the Department of Design and Planning in Complex Environments.

IUAV University of Venice , founded in 1926.

The Gallery of the Academy of Venice , founded on September 24, 1750 by the will of the Senate of the Republic of Venice [ 11 ] has its main headquarters in the old Hospital of the Incurables. Other venues are on the island of San Servolo and in the Villa Manin di Passariano in Codroipo . Some of the famous artists who taught here were: Piazzetta , Tiepolo , Hayez , Nono , Ettore Tito , Arturo Martini , Alberto Viani , Carlo Scarpa, Afro , Santomaso , Emilio Vedova y Riccardo Schweizer .

Venice International University was founded in 1995 as a consortium of five Italian universities and two institutions. Since then it has grown to include sixteen members, including the Autonomous University of Barcelona , Duke University and Boston College . It offers university courses, intensive seminars, extracurricular and co-curricular activities during the two academic semesters (fall and spring) and summer schools; held each year and open to students from member universities.

The Venice International University , founded in 1995, is located on the island of San Servolo .

Venice is the only Italian city with an ecclesiastical faculty of Canon Law , "St. Pius X". Its current conformation is due to a decree of the Congregation for Catholic Education of 2008. [ 12 ] Commissioned by the then patriarch , Cardinal Angelo Scola , the faculty is located in the restored building of the Patriarchal Seminary, next to the Basilica of Santa Maria della Salute . It is part of the Studium Generale Marcianum academic pedagogical center , which also includes the Higher Institute of Religious Sciences "L. Giustiniani", affiliated with the Faculty of Theology of Triveneto .

In 1876 the Benedetto Marcello Conservatory was founded , located in the Palazzo Pisani Moretta since 1940 . In Mestre there is the headquarters of the nursing course of the University of Padua and the Laboratory of Construction Sciences IUAV.

Venice's Carnival

Masked lovers of the Venice Carnival .

Without a doubt, the most popular festival in Venice is Carnival . It was officially declared the supreme holiday during the 13th century . However, it was in the 18th century when the Venetian carnival reached its maximum splendor. Travelers and aristocrats from all over Europe flocked to it in search of fun and pleasure. With the decline of Venice as a merchant and military power, the carnival paled until it almost disappeared. Something recovered at the end of the 20th century, with the massive arrival of tourists to the city, although the great times of unbridled fun were behind us.

For centuries, the carnival was the escape route for citizens to escape the great control of the Venetian government. With the occupation of Venice by Napoleon's army , the carnival was prohibited for fear of conspiracies, taking advantage of the incognito. It did not recover until 1979. During the ten days that it lasts, people dress up and go out to walk and take photos, either in organized or improvised parades. For the most part, the costumes are elaborate colorful costumes from the Venetian seventeenth century , imitating the models of old paintings and covering the face with highly decorated masks, which have become one of the symbols of the city. During the carnival many events and parties are also organized.

Transport

Channels

In Venice collective transport ( vaporetto ) is very useful . In the old part of the center, the only means of movement are private boats, taxis (high-cost boats) and traghetti : boats very similar to a gondola but without decoration, which act as a bridge at various points on the Grand Canal.

The classic Venetian boat is the gondola , currently used mainly for tourists, weddings, funerals and other ceremonies. Most Venetians travel by vaporetto , which run regular routes along the Grand Canal and between the various lagoon islands. In addition, many of them have boats or motorboats as a car.

Connection of the island with the mainland

Road transport can reach the city through the Puente de la Libertad , a long pier across the Laguna Veneta equipped with a railroad track and highway that connect it with the mainland. Buses and private cars stop and park in Piazzale Roma, at the entrance to the city.

Streets

Aerial view of Venice.

The numbering of the streets is by neighborhoods or sestiere , and instead of being numbered street by street, each neighborhood is assigned a numerical series. The abundance and sinuous layout of streets, canals, alleys, alleys and courtyards makes it difficult for the visitor to find their way around. To avoid this, the roads and bridges are marked with large signs and in many places there are signs that indicate the direction to the most important landmarks: San Marcos, Piazzale Roma (where the bus station is, at the entrance of the city ), Rialto , Academia, etc.

Streets with tourists and canal

The names of the Venetian streets still preserve the nomenclature of the eleventh century , so they are different from those of other Italian cities. Thus, there are canals (which logically are not considered streets, and if they are large they are called canale ; and if they are narrow river ), streets (which, unlike the rest of Italy, where they are called via , here they are called calle ), streets and piers that run along the canals and rivers (called fondamenta ), small streets flanked by houses and shops (called ruga or rughetta ).

Other particular names are: the first streets that were paved are called salizada or salizzada ; small alleys, called bouquet , dead-end streets, called corte , important docks, called riva , streets that pass under buildings, called sotoportego and plazas (all called campo or campiello according to their size, except San Marcos, which it does receive the name of piazza , and that of the bus station, which, being smaller, is called piazzale ).

Bridges over the Grand Canal

Airports

Airport IATA code ICAO code
Marco Polo Venice-Tessera Airport, south side.JPG Marco Polo International Airport VCE LIPZ
Treviso Airport A Canova.jpg Sant'Angelo Treviso Airport TSF LIPH

Administrative organization

Subdivisions of Venice
  1. Venice - Murano - Burano
  2. Lido - Pellestrina
  3. Favaro Veneto
  4. Master - Carpenedo
  5. Chirignago - Zelarino
  6. Marghera
MunicipalitaVCE.png
Sestieri de Venecia:
Cannaregio
Castle
Dorsoduro
San Marco
San Polo
Santa Croce

The historic city is divided into six areas or " sestiere ". These are Cannaregio , Castello (including San Pietro di Castello and Sant'Elena ), Dorsoduro (including Giudecca and Sacca Fisola ), San Marco (including San Giorgio Maggiore ), San Polo and Santa Croce . Each sestiere was administered by a procurator and his staff. Today the sestiere are statistical and historical areas without any degree of autonomy.

These districts contain parishes (seventy in 1033, reduced in number by Napoleon and today thirty-eight). These parishes were the precedent of the sestieri , which were created in 1170. Other islands in the Venetian lagoon are not part of any of the sestieri , having historically enjoyed a considerable degree of autonomy. Each sestiere has its own street numbering system, in which each house is assigned a unique number within the district.


Demography

Graph of demographic evolution of Venice between 1861 and 2011

ISTAT source - Wikipedia graphic elaboration

Heritage

Plazas

St. Mark's Square
St. Mark's Square, with the Basilica, the Campanile and the Procuratie Vecchie .

Napoleon Bonaparte said of this square that it was "the most beautiful hall in Europe." It is the only one in Venice that reaches the category of Piazza . The floor is made of Istrian stone slabs . The square is bounded by famous buildings: a background, the facade of the Basilica of San Marco , the Campanile of brick (from there the arrival of the ships noted and warned of fires), the Ducal Palace and the Torre dell ' Orologio . Delimiting the square with a length of almost 350 m are the two buildings called Old Prosecutors and New Prosecutors, whose facades are a continuous arcade.

The building of the Procuratie Vecchie ('Old Procurators') was the seat of the procurators and magistrates in charge of the preservation of the Basilica. Built between the late 15th and early 16th centuries , they are to the right of it. On the opposite side are the Procuratie Nuove ('New Procuradurías'); begun by Scamozzi at the end of the 16th century , they were completed by Longhena in 1640. At the end of the square, between these two buildings, you can admire the Fabbrica Nuova , today the Correr Museum.. At the end of the Old Prosecutor's Office building, in the north wing of the square, is the tower called Dell'Orologio or Los Moros ; gives access to the Haberdashery neighborhood. In the center of it there is a large clock that indicates the hours, the days and the course of the planets and stars. At the top you can see the figures known as Moors who strike the hours striking a bell . You can go up to the terrace where they are.

The space in front of the Doge's Palace , next to the Basilica, is known as Piazzetta , and is, perhaps, the heart of the city. Surrounded by buildings of varied artistic styles, such as the Loghetta or access portico to the Campanile, the Library of San Marcos , an imposing Renaissance building designed by Sansovino, and the Palazzo itself, it opens onto the lagoon on a quay adorned by two large columns, with the Lion of San Marcos , symbol of Venice, culminating in one, and San Teodoro , ancient patron of the city, in the other. Formerly, the square was a wide grassy enclosure crossed by a river and delimited by two churches: San Teodoro and San Gemignano.

Palacios

Palazzo Giusti, (izq.) And Ca 'd'Oro , (der.)
Fondaco dei Turchi
  • Palazzo Ducale , a Gothic building for the most part, located at the eastern end of St. Mark's Square, its two most visible facades look out over the Venetian Lagoon and St. Mark's Square. The palace was the residence of the doges , seat of government and the court of justice and prison of the Republic of Venice. Its main access is the Porta della Carta, an admirable late Gothic work full of sculptures, adjacent to the Basilica. Very sumptuous is the courtyard of the palace, with the Staircase of the Giants , by Sansovino. The interior preserves part of the original rooms with rich collections of paintings.
  • Ca 'd'Oro . One of the most beautiful Venetian palaces, with a characteristic Gothic façade of mixed arches, was built by the architect Bartolomeo Bon in the 15th century , introducing timid renaissance details in the decoration and structure.
  • Ca 'Rezzonico . Imposing baroque palace, the work of Baldassare Longhena, who seemed to be inspired by the Sansovino Library to compose the façade, exaggerating the decoration and the volumes. It houses the Venetian Baroque museum .
  • Palazzo Dolfin Manin , built by Jacopo Sansovino for Giovanni Dolfin , Lord of Verona . The last Doge of Venice , Ludovico Manin, lived there .
  • Palazzo Fortuny , home of the homonymous museum about the Spanish painter Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo .
  • Palazzo Grassi , by Giorgio Massari (1748). Those in charge of restoring it were Gae Aulenti and Antonio Foscari , who transformed it into a museum in 1986. It houses large international exhibitions.
  • Peggy Guggenheim Collection . Installed in the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, or Palazzo Nonfinito , as its works were unfinished in the eighteenth century , it was acquired by the patron who bears its current name, assigning it to his collection of contemporary art, which includes excellent works by Picasso , Max Ernst (second husband of the founder), Pollock and Marino Marini , among others. It is one of the most important museums of its kind in Italy.
  • Palazzo Contarini del Bovolo . Well known for its spectacular spiral-shaped exterior staircase.
  • Ca 'Corner della Regina , headquarters of the Prada Foundation .
  • Fondaco dei Turchi .
  • Barbaro palaces .
  • Palazzo Labia.
  • Great School of San Marco .
  • Palazzo Malipiero.
  • Ca 'Pesaro , a Baroque masterpiece, by Longhena . In it is the Museum of Modern Art.
  • Ca 'Tron .
  • Palazzo Vendramin , Renaissance palace (1509) with twin windows. Richard Wagner died in it in 1883.
  • Ca 'Dario .
  • Ca 'Foscari , headquarters of the homonymous University.
  • Palazzo Savorgnan , from the 17th century , is a secondary education center; its gardens are a public park.

Iglesias

Main facade of the Basilica of San Marcos
Church of Santa Maria della Salute

Other places of interest

  • Library of San Marcos . Sumptuous building built by Jacopo Sansovino opposite the Palazzo Ducal, it is one of the masterpieces of Renaissance architecture, notable for the classical harmony of its facades and the meticulous decoration that covers them. It houses an important collection of documents, as well as works by the most eminent Venetian painters.
  • Venice Arsenal . The largest industrial complex in Europe prior to the Industrial Revolution .
  • Accademia Gallery . It has its origin in the Academy of Arts founded in the 18th century . This museum is perhaps the richest in Venetian painting in the world, along with the Prado Museum in Madrid. Almost all the painters who worked or passed through Venice are represented, and some, like Giorgione or Titian, with some of their greatest creations.
  • La Fenice Theater . Inaugurated in 2003 after the last fire that destroyed it, the reconstruction faithfully reproduced the old theater.
  • Grand Canal . It is 3,800 m long, 30 to 70 m wide and a maximum of 5 m deep. On its shores, there are about 200 palazzos , built from the 12th to the 18th century . The Venetians call it the canalazzo . The minor channels are called rii . It is crossed by four bridges, the Rialto Bridge being the oldest.
  • Piombi . It is an old prison located in the attic of the Doge's Palace in Venice.
  • Great School of San Rocco .
  • Teatro San Moisè .

sports

Team Sport Competition Stadium Creation
Venezia FC Football pictogram.svg Football A league Pierluigi Penzo Stadium 1907
Veneziamestre Rugby Rugby pictogram.svg Rugby Super 10 Municipal Sports Center 1986
Reyer Venice Mestre Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball Serie A Basketball League Palasport Taliercio 1925

Gastronomy

Risi e bisi

Among the various typical dishes are fish from the Adriatic Sea (the most typical are prawns, squid, Murano crabs or sardines), carpaccio with Parmesan cheese, Venetian liver, "pescatora" rice and the "mandolin" (crunchy nougat with almonds).

The most typical drink in the city is spritz , a soft drink with alcohol, very traditional in the Veneto area. It can be taken with bitter . Crodino , a non-alcoholic drink, is also very typical ; the prosecco , a sparkling wine; the bellini , a cocktail with wine and white peach juice; the "bussulai", a cinnamon-based drink, or the sgroppino , a liqueur with lemon sorbet, vodka and prosecco .

Twinned cities

Venice is twinned with the following cities:

References

  1. "Cadastral Codes" . Comuni-italiani.it (in Italian) . Consulted on April 29th 2017 .
  2. ^ A b "Venice and its Lagoon" . UNESCO Culture Sector . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  3. ^ "A Bridge to Venezia - Ponts" . Archived from the original on July 11, 2010 . Retrieved December 31, 2009 .
  4. ^ "Venezia / Tessera" . Italian Air Force National Meteorological Service . Retrieved December 5, 2013 .
  5. ^ "Tabella CLINO" . MeteoAM . Retrieved June 22, 2013 .
  6. Roberto Pedemonte (mayo de 2012). «The snow on the coasts of the Mediterranean (sic) (second part)» . Ligurian magazine (en Italian) (Genoa) 12 (44) . Consulted on the 28th of June 2014 .
  7. https://www.efeverde.com/noticias/sistema-diques-mose-protege-venecia/
  8. VVAA: The treasures of Venice , Editorial LIBSA, 2006
  9. ^ "History of the Biennale di Venezia" (in Italian) . Archived from the original on January 12, 2015 . Retrieved January 6, 2015 .
  10. ^ "Brief history of the IUAV University of Venice" . Retrieved January 6, 2015 .
  11. ^ "Brief history of the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice" (in Italian) . Archived from the original on October 21, 2014 . Retrieved January 6, 2015 .
  12. «Who we are» (in Italian) . Archived from the original on December 9, 2014 . Retrieved January 6, 2015 .

Bibliography

external links