Location of in Vienna
|• Foundation||500 BC C. by tribes of Celtic origin|
|• Name||Vedunia , 'wooded stream' in Celtic.|
|• Total||414,78 km²|
|• Land||395,26 km²|
|• Water||19,39 km²|
|• Media||151 y 542 m s. n. m.|
|• Maximum||543 m s. n. m.|
|• Minimal||151 m s. n. m.|
|Weather||Continental wet Dfb|
|Water course||Danube river|
|• Total||1,797,337 [ 1 ] hab.|
|• Density||4547 hab / km²|
|• Urbana||1,797,337 hab.|
|• Metropolitan||2,680,667 (2014) [ 2 ] hab.|
|IDH (2017)||0.937 [ 3 ] ( 1st ) - Very high|
|• in summer||HONOR|
|Postal Code||1000–1239, 1400, 1402, 1251–1255, 1300–1301, 1421, 1423, 1500, 1502–1503, 1600–1601, 1810, and 1901|
|Official Web site|
|Member of: Eurocities , Organization of World Heritage Cities|
Vienna ( German : Wien AFI : [viːn] ( ? · i ) ) is an Austrian citylocated on the banks of the Danube , in the valley of the Vienna Woods, at the foot of the first foothills of the Alps. It is the capital and main city of the country, as well as one of its nine federal states (Bundesland Wien) .
It is surrounded by the federal state of Lower Austria . Vienna is the largest city, cultural center. It is also the second largest city in Central Europe (after Berlin ) and the sixth largest city in the European Union . Its population exceeds 1,800,000 inhabitants (2017) and its metropolitan area has 2.4 million, a population similar to that of the city in 1914. The official language is standard Austrian German ; He also speaks Viennese German , a Bavarian dialect.
The city has a long history, as it is one of the oldest capitals in Europe, which is why it has an important artistic heritage. During the 19th century it was one of the great musical capitals of the world and at the beginning of the 20th century it was a mecca for Western philosophy and political debate , as well as one of the main world cultural centers.
The Romans called it Vindobona , a name of Celtic origin that means white city . Like the different Vienas, Vianas or Veanas that are distributed throughout Europe, it comes from the word beann (mount, hill or peak). Thus, beann in Scottish Gaelic and in Irish means peak or peak. In Protogaelic , much closer to the original Celtic, it is written benna ; in old irish , benn ; in Welsh , ban and in Breton, ban and benny.
The first human settlements in present-day Vienna are of Celtic origin (ca. 500 BC), later Germanic, and with the expansion of the Roman Empire towards the north in the 1st century BC. C., adheres to this in the year 13 a. The Danube River , like the Alps , then served as a natural boundary between the barbarians and the Romans, and Vindobona served from then until the fall of Rome (AD 476) as a defense point for the empire. The city was born as a camp for the Roman army, to control the Province of Pannonia , in which different units are based, among which theLegio X Gemina , which remained there since the area was occupied by Germanic peoples in times of Gratian and Theodosius .
With the barbarian invasions it is occupied by avars and Magyars . Charlemagne conquers the city in the 9th century and baptizes it with the name of Ostmark (the mark of the east). During the late Middle Ages, Vienna was an important ally of the papacy and a supply point for arms and food for the company of the Crusades (eg Richard the Lionheart ). It was the capital of Hungary with Matías Corvino , and from the 15th century until the Napoleonic wars capital of the Holy Roman Empire., being the habitual residence of the Habsburgs .
In 1237 the walls of Vienna reached the extent that they would retain until their disappearance in 1857.
Since the fall of Constantinople in 1453, there was a growing interest of the Ottoman Empire in Vienna, since it was the key to conquer the other countries of Europe; interest that becomes most notable during the period of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent . But their efforts failed and the Austrians emerged victorious from the various sites to which they subdued the city, the first in 1529, despite the fact that initially the city's defenders received only half-hearted support from their German neighbors. The Turkish army was ill equipped for a siege and its task was hampered by snow and floods. Suleiman withdrew at the end of October and was unable to resume the siege upon his return in 1532, when he found the defenders supported by a large army under the command of the Emperor Charles V's brother, Ferdinand.
Between the first and the second Turkish siege (1529-1532), the defensive facilities were constantly reinforced and modernized. As a consequence, the free spaces in front of the bastions had to be extended again and again to use them as a shooting range. In 1529 these spaces covered 90 m which, from 1683, were widened to 450 m. Until 1858 no building was built on this esplanade.
The third siege occurred in 1683, at the so-called Battle of Vienna , and marked the beginning of the decline of the Ottoman Empire in Europe. It was initiated by the Grand Vizier Kara Mustapha, who desperately needed a military success to bolster his shaky position and tried to achieve in a campaign against Emperor Leopold I . The Turks advanced with overwhelming force, besieging the city on July 16, but their lack of siege artillery allowed Leopold to muster an additional army consisting of Austrian, German and Polish troops, who defeated the Turkish army in a battle fought in front of the city walls on September 12, which is also known as the Battle of Kahlenberg .
During the 18th century , the Habsburgs had made the city their capital since 1556 and its importance was increased with the expansion through the Danube Valley. It became a main nucleus of the European Baroque thanks to the construction of important architectural works and musical creations. In 1800, before the Napoleonic wars, the city had 231,900 inhabitants.
Since the siege of 1683, when many small towns that existed outside the wall were destroyed, numerous palaces with gardens have risen on the undulating terrain in front of the city. The starting point was the plans for the royal palace of Schönbrunn, drawn up by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach . By 1720 there were 200 rural residences. Prince Eugene of Savoy had acquired in 1693 the most beautiful plot and one of the largest with the first income that had come to him. There, after forty years of work, he built the Belvedere with its spacious gardens.
After the Austrian defeat at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1809 ( Battle of Wagram ), the latter stayed at the Schönbrunn Palace , in Vienna (where -ironies of history- Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette had stayed just a few years ago , daughter of Maria Teresa and Francisco I , emperors of Austria). During this stay, France and Austria allied themselves, and Napoleon married Maria Luisa , also the daughter of the Austrian emperors.
Metternich , Austrian Chancellor at this time, switched Austria to the anti-Napoleonic side after the French defeat in Russia . After the final defeat of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna is held , an international conference called with the aim of reestablishing the borders of Europe. The meeting was held from October 1, 1814 to June 9, 1815, which allows Austria to retain much of its territories despite having been allied with Napoleon, and from then on, Vienna, through the Chancellor Metternich, would become the linchpin of continental European politics for the next thirty years.
During the 19th century , especially in the second half, Vienna began a demographic takeoff, accompanied by urban reforms, which turned it into a great city, multiplying its population tenfold in one century. In 1857, the walls were demolished by decree of Franz Joseph I of Austria , opening a new avenue, the Ringstraße , where important buildings were built, such as the Opera, the University, the Town Hall, the Parliament, the Stock Exchange and the history museums of art and natural history. The defeat of Austria in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 and the subsequent annexation of the German states to Prussiathey made the unified Germany a danger to Austria, so the latter had to ally itself with Hungary in what is known as the "policy of compensation" or Ausgleichpolitik . Thus, in 1867, after the Compromise with Hungary, Vienna became the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and a world-class cultural, artistic, political, industrial and financial center. With this alliance, Austria continues to add others, so that by the end of the 19th century the empire included the current countries of Austria , Hungary , Slovakia , the Czech Republic , Polish Galicia , theRomanian Transylvania , Ukrainian Bukovina and Ruthenia , Croatia , Bosnia-Herzegovina , Slovenia and Italian Trentino-Alto Adige .
Vienna reaches its demographic peak in 1916 with 2,239,000 inhabitants, making it the third largest city in Europe. This is the most glorious cultural period of the Habsburg monarchy , with Franz Joseph I ruling the Empire (period 1848-1916). It is also the time of the sumptuous Viennese waltzes at the Vienna National Opera, large carriages strolling the Ringstraße and Kärntner Straße , as well as typical Viennese cafes.
Intellectuals from the time stand out, such as Sigmund Freud in psychoanalysis and Otto Bauer in the field of political thought, the main exponent of Austrian Marxism , ideas that would have a strong impact on Viennese society, since in 1895 the municipal government would be in the hands of the Social Christian party, forerunner of the current ÖVP (Christian Democrat) party. Nor should we forget in the artistic plane the modernist movement , the Vienna Secession ( Secession ), with Gustav Klimt as the main exponent in painting, Coloman Moser in graphics and Joseph Maria Olbrich andJosef Hoffman in architecture. Contrary to these, Adolf Loos would also stand out with his architectural rationalism. However, World War I and the subsequent Austro-Hungarian defeat would truncate much of that splendor.
Following the assassination of the heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sofía Chotek , in Sarajevo at the hands of the Bosnian Serb terrorist Gavrilo Princip , and in the face of overwhelming evidence of the involvement of Serbian intelligence services in the plot, the dual monarchy declares the war to Serbia and ends up breaking out the First World War . In October 1918, Austria-Hungary and its allies defeated, the revolution broke out in Vienna calling for the dissolution of the monarchy and Austrian independence; It would be the end of the Habsburg monarchy that ruled the country since 1278.
The Republic of Austria
Vienna became, after the Treaty of Saint-Germain , the capital of the small Republic of Austria, reduced to its present size, suffering a major demographic, economic and political setback. Despite everything, at this time intellectual activity continued with the Vienna Circle ( der Wiener Kreis ), considered by many to be the most influential group of intellectuals of the 20th century in Europe, among which Moritz Schlick and Ludwig Wittgenstein stand out in positivist philosophy. logic ( Logischer Empirismus ).
During the republican democratic period, that is, from 1918 until the dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934, the Social Democratic Workers' Party ( Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei in German ) obtained an absolute majority in all elections held for local government, so the city passed to be known as Red Vienna . The social democratic policy of those years was characterized by an extensive program of social housing and by marked support for public education and health, as advocated by the Austrian Marxist current . Red Vienna ended in 1934 as a result of the Austrian Civil War and the victory of thePatriotic Front . Its last mayor was Karl Seitz .
El III Reich
Viennese cultural importance would remain until 1938, the year in which the country was invaded and later annexed by Nazi Germany . Said annexation, known as the Anschluss , was forbidden in the peace treaties and was the first of the expansions aimed at unifying all German-speaking into a single state, under a single leadership ("ein Reich, ein Volk, ein Führer") . In the city, which became the capital of the province of Ostmark , on March 14, 1938, Hitler delivered his first major speech to the Viennese from the central balcony of the Hofburg Palace., a speech that is considered one of the most emotional of the dictator and most acclaimed by its massive audience due to the euphoria that the annexation of Austria to the Third German Empire ( Dritte Reich ) caused in part of the population. To legitimize the invasion, a referendum was held on April 10, which was favorable to the Anschluss with 99.73%, although it lacked democratic guarantees.
During World War II , Vienna suffered indiscriminate US aerial bombardments that destroyed much of its historical heritage (the Gothic St. Stephen's Cathedral, the Hofburg Palace, the Vienna Opera, the Danube bridges, among others), which was rebuilt after the war. In May 1945 Vienna was taken by the Soviet army , who, together with the French, Americans and English, would occupy it for the next ten years under a quadripartite occupation system in the city, similar to that of Berlin .
Following the efforts of Leopold Figl and Julius Raab and the subsequent signing of the Moscow Agreement , Austria regained its independence on May 15, 1955, and Vienna was once again the capital of the Republic of Austria. From then on and thanks to its commitment to neutrality, Austria became the headquarters of international organizations such as OPEC , UNIDO , IAEA , IIASA , among others, which makes Vienna the third capital of the UN , after New York and Geneva , so you can see today a large international community, particularly in the 4th district of Vienna (Wieden) derived from its diplomatic corps. Since 1995 it has been part of the European Union and the Schengen countries . As of 2002, the Austrian shilling was taken out of circulation and the euro came into force as the legal tender throughout Austria.
Vienna is the capital of Austria , it is located in the center of Europe and in the northeast of Austria. It is only 40 kilometers from the border with Slovakia , only 60 kilometers from Hungary and 90 kilometers from the Czech Republic . The city has a total area of 414.65 km², making it the largest in Austria by area. Vienna is situated on both sides of the Danube River , which crosses the city from the northwest to the southeast.
The mountain range of the Alps begins in the city in what is called the Eastern Alps. The area includes the Vienna Woods , which are very popular with the inhabitants of the city and is a protected landscape area of the Eastern Alps. In the city the lowest point is Lobau, 151 meters above mean sea level, and the highest point is Hermannskogel with 542 meters. The average altitude is around 170 meters.
Vienna, according to the Köppen classification , is in a transition zone between the humid temperate climate and the continental humid climate . The annual average temperature is 11.4 ° C, registering lows of -17 ° C and highs of 37 ° C. The precipitations are of 548 mm, without dry months.
The winters are very cold, with temperatures around 0 ° C and frequent frost and snow, with records of -17.6 ° C. The summers are soft, moist and temperatures, although not usually very warm, can exceed 35 ° C on occasions. The autumn and spring are highly variable in terms of temperature, being generally quite colder autumns (already in November with possible snow), and relatively abundant rainfall. [ 4 ]
|Vienna average climatic parameters (Innere Stadt)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||16.8||19.5||25.4||27.4||31.5||36.5||36.1||37.0||31.8||24.8||21.3||16.4||37.0|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||3.8||6.1||11.5||16.1||21.3||24.0||26.7||26.6||21.1||15.3||8.1||4.6||15.3|
|Temp. media (°C)||1.2||2.9||6.4||11.5||16.5||19.1||21.7||21.6||16.8||11.6||5.5||2.4||11.4|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||-0.8||0.3||3.5||7.8||12.5||15.1||17.4||17.5||13.6||8.8||3.6||0.5||8.3|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||-17.6||-16.4||-10.4||-2.1||4.9||6.8||10.9||10.1||5.6||-1.8||-7.0||-15.4||-17.6|
|Total precipitation (mm)||21.3||29.3||39.1||39.2||60.9||63.3||66.6||66.5||50.4||32.8||43.9||34.6||547.9|
|Rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||5.3||6.0||8.1||6.3||8.3||9.3||8.2||8.5||6.9||6.0||7.5||7.6||88|
|Hours of sun||70.1||101.6||142.9||197.5||238.5||237.9||263.1||251.6||181.6||132.3||66.7||51.8||1935.5|
|Fuente: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics|
The population of Vienna in the first quarter of 2015 [ 1 ] was 1,797,337 people, of which approximately 80% are Austrians and the remaining 20% from other countries. The largest group of immigrants are Serbs , both from Serbia and Bosnia (including Montenegrins ), seconded by Turks , Germans , Poles , Romanians, and citizens of countries that were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire ( Bosnians, Croats, Hungarians, Czechs). [ 6 ]The Viennese population has increased since 1988, especially in recent years, as a result of immigration. The metropolitan area , which spans the lands of Lower Austria, has a population of about 2.5 million.
The city, a Roman foundation, gained importance with the settlement of the Habsburgs when it became the capital of their empire. During the Middle Ages and the 16th and 17th centuries , the population slowly increased due to epidemics and sieges. The 18th century was a quieter period and by 1790 it already reached 200,000 inhabitants. The nineteenth century meant an unprecedented demographic growth for the city, according to the position that its state reached in Europe. In 1850, with 551,300 inhabitants, it had already moved to Moscow and Saint Petersburg , and by the middle of the 1870s it already exceeded one million inhabitants.
In 1910, the Austro-Hungarian capital was the third largest city in Europe, after Paris and London , and slightly above Berlin and Saint Petersburg , with 2,083,630 inhabitants, estimated at 2,239,000 in 1916, during World War I. , when it reached its historical demographic peak. The dismemberment of Austria-Hungary was a demographic setback and the population has been experiencing ups and downs since then but with a marked downward line, always standing below 2 000 000 and being without significant variations since 1951. In recent years there has been a decline demographic rebound favored by the integration of Eastern European countries into theEuropean Union .
Regarding religion, according to the 2001 census, 49.2% of the population is Catholic , 25.6% atheists , 7.8% Muslims , 6.0% Orthodox , 4.7% Protestant and the rest of the confessions do not reach the 1 %.
|Airport||IATA code||ICAO code|
|Vienna International Airport||LIFE||LOWW|
It has an extensive network of roads and highways, and the city has an efficient public transport system that includes trams, buses and five lines of the Vienna metro .
Vienna is the educational center of Austria and home to the best-known universities in the country:
- University of Vienna
- Vienna Medical University
- Technical University of Vienna
- Vienna University of Economics
- Vienna Academy of Fine Arts
- Vienna University of Applied Arts
- University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences
- Vienna University of Music and Dramatic Art
- Vienna University of Veterinary Medicine
- Sigmund Freud University of Vienna
Vienna hosted the final of Euro 2008 .
|Rapid Vienna||Soccer||Bundesliga (Austria)||Allianz Stadium||1899|
|FK Austria Vienna||Soccer||Bundesliga (Austria)||Franz Horr Stadium||1911|
|First Vienna FC||Soccer||Austrian First League||Estadio Hohe Warte||1894|
|BC Zepter Vienna||Basketball||Austrian Basketball Bundesliga||Vienna Hopsagasse||1999|
|Vienna Vikings||Football||Austrian Football League||Estadio Hohe Warte||1983|
Vienna is, by tradition, a city of strong debate of political ideas, the origin of social democracy in the second decade of the 19th century (see Otto Bauer ). After the Second World War , the preference of the Viennese has generally leaned towards the center-left of the SPÖ (Sozial-Demokratische Partei Österreichs), the Social Democratic Party of Austria, party of the current mayor of the city, Michael Ludwig . In the 2010 municipal elections, the far-right nationalist party FPÖ (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs), obtained 25.77% of the votes, becoming the second political force in Vienna with 27 representatives.
Quality of life
Currently (2019) Vienna holds the first place within the lists of quality of life of cities in the world, basically due to its order, cleanliness, safety and high efficiency of public services, as well as the variety of options for education, culture and entertainment. [ 8 ]
In recent years, Vienna has increased the number of its inhabitants due to the arrival of immigrants from the former Yugoslavia , Turks (which, however, in recent years have been decreasing with many returns to Turkey), Poles, Romanians and, to a lesser extent , Slovaks, Hungarians, Chinese, Indians and Egyptians. Likewise, it is within the cities with the highest number of asylees and political refugees, which is why refugee communities are still visible today, for example, as a result of the Islamic revolution in Iran and the military coups in Chile , Argentina and Uruguay . Progressively, the families of Jews have returned Viennese, who are now notably increasing their participation in the economic life of the city.
|Historic center of Vienna|
Unesco World Heritage Site
Schönbrunn Palace and Gardens.
|Criteria||ii, iv, vi|
|Region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||2001 (XXV session )|
|In danger||from 2017 [ 9 ]|
|Official Web site|
In 2001, Unesco declared the "Historic Center of Vienna" as a World Heritage Site , noting firstly that its architectural and urban qualities represent an outstanding testimony to a continuous exchange of values throughout the second millennium. [ 10 ] Furthermore, its architectural and urban heritage illustrates very well three key periods of European political and cultural development: the Middle Ages , the Baroque period, and the Gründerzeit . Finally, from the 16th centuryVienna has been universally recognized as the "musical capital of Europe". Much of this legacy is transmitted in the monuments of this city, which are listed below alphabetically by their German denominations , since in Vienna they are not known under their translated names. The Spanish translation is in parentheses.
- Academy of Fine Arts (Academia de Bellas Artes)
- Albertina , one of the most extensive collections of prints and drawings
- Burgtheater (imperial court theater)
- Heuriger , typical Viennese taverns to taste good wines, cold meats or sausages from the region found in the Viennese districts of Döbling , Favoriten or Floridsdorf , in the state of Burgenland or in the Weinviertel (part of Lower Austria ),
- Hundertwasserhaus , displaying the avant-garde architecture of Austrian architect Friedensreich Hundertwasser
- Kaffeehäuser , Viennese cafes
- Kahlenberg , a mountain in the Wienerwald (Vienna Forest), with the most spectacular viewpoint of the Danube River as it passes through Vienna
- Karlskirche (Church of San Carlos Borromeo), a masterpiece of Baroque architecture
- Augustinerkirche (Church of the Augustinians), Gothic church whose crypt ( Herzgruft ) preserves the hearts of the Habsburgs
- Kaisergruft (Imperial Crypt), Habsburg family mausoleum
- Kärntner Straße and Graben , the streets with the fashion stores of the most prestigious and expensive brands; there are also nice cafes, such as the Hotel Sacher café, origin of the Sachertorte
- Kunsthistorisches Museum (Museum of Art History), one of the richest in the world
- Museum Liechtenstein ( Liechtenstein Museum), opened by the ruling family of said principality. It houses important works by Rembrandt , Rubens and Van Dyck
- Museum für angewandte Kunst (Museum of Applied Arts), is a prestigious and historical museum institute located on the famous Ringstrasse
- Museum für Völkerkunde (Museum of Ethnology), which houses the controversial Plume of Moctezuma , claimed by the government of Mexico
- Museumsquartier (Museum Quarter) with three modern art museums featuring the best of Gustav Klimt and Oskar Kokoschka painting
- Naturhistorisches Museum (Natural History Museum)
- Belvedere Palace , a baroque style palace
- Schönbrunn Palace (literally, "Schönbrunn" in German means "Beautiful fountain")
- Hofburg Imperial Palace ("Hofburg" = "Court Palace")
- Schwarzenberg Palace , a baroque palace, seat of the House of Schwarzenberg
- Wurstelprater , an amusement park with the "Riesenrad" (giant Ferris wheel)
- Rathaus (Town Hall)
- Sezession (Secession)
- Spanische Hofreitschule (Spanish Riding School)
- Staatsoper (State Opera)
- Stephanskirche (or Stephansdom) (Vienna's St. Stephen's Cathedral) on the Stephansplatz (St. Stephen's Square).
- Votivkirche (Votive Church), which houses the largest altar of the Virgin of Guadalupe outside of Mexico.
Sister cities and friendship agreements
- Belgrade (Serbia)
- Bratislava ( Slovakia )
- Brno (Czech Republic)
- Budapest [ 11 ] (Hungary)
- Kiev (Ukraine)
- Ljubljana (Slovenia)
- Moscow (Russia)
- Tel Aviv (Israel)
- Warsaw (Poland)
- Zagreb ( Croatia )
- “Population at the beginning of the quarter since 2002 by federal state” . Statistics Austria . Consultado el 18 de septiembre de 2015 .
- Eurostat . «Population on January 1st by gender and age group» (en inglés) . Consultado el 18 de septiembre de 2015 .
- "Subnational HDI" . Global Data Lab . Retrieved December 23, 2019 .
- ZAMG Klima Jahresrückblick 2013 , Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, accessed June 11, 2014
- "climate data from 1971-2000 Austria - Vienna Inner City» (en inglés) . Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics . Consultado el 16 de febrero de 2015 .
- ktv_mrandow. "Daten und Fakten - Wiener Bevölkerung nach Migrationshintergrund" . www.wien.gv.at (in German) . Archived from the original on December 22, 2015 . Retrieved May 29, 2016 .
- Vienna City Administration. "Elections to the Vienna City Council 2010" (in English) . Retrieved September 25, 2012 .
- «City Mayors: Best cities in the world (Mercer)».
- "The Historic Center of Vienna, inscribed on the list of World Heritage in Danger" (in English) . Retrieved July 8, 2017 .
- "Historic Center of Vienna" . UNESCO Culture Sector . Retrieved January 1, 2013 .
- "Budapest portal: Testvérvárosok" [Budapest portal: Twinned cities] . Archived from the original on August 9, 2013 . Retrieved September 15, 2015 .