|Municipality and city of Spain|
|Location of Vigo in Spain.|
|Location of Vigo in the province of Pontevedra.|
|Nickname : Olivic City|
|Motto : Faithful, Loyal, Courageous and Always Beneficial City of Vigo|
|• Autonomous communication||Galicia|
|• Judicial party||Vigo|
62 [ 1 ] m |
(min: 0 in the Ria de Vigo [ 2 ] , max: 690 in saw Galiñeiro [ 2 ] )
|Population||296 692 hab. (2020)|
|• Density||2686,47 hab./km²|
|Demonym||vigués, -a [ 3 ]|
|Phone Pref.||(+34) 986 and 886|
|Mayor (2019)||Abel Caballero ( PSdeG-PSOE )|
|Budget||264 000 000 € (2021)|
|Pattern|| Cristo de la Victoria |
San Roque (popular devotion) [ 5 ]
|Patroness||Virgin of the Assumption (historically)|
Vigo is a municipality and city [ n 1 ] in Spain , in the province of Pontevedra , an autonomous community of Galicia . It is located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula , specifically in the Rías Bajas . With a population of 296 692 registered inhabitants ( INE 2020) [ 6 ] it is the most populous municipality in Galicia and the fourteenth in Spain, and it is the city without the rank of provincial capital with the most population in Spain. [ 7 ]
It has a population density of 2 720.44 inhabitants / km² in a municipal area of 109.06 km² of extension, [ 8 ] most of its inhabitants are registered in the urban area, while the rest of the population is distributed between the 18 peri-urban parishes that make up the rest of the municipal term [ n 2 ] and the Cíes Islands .
For its part, Vigo is also the head and capital of the homonymous metropolitan area that includes 13 other municipalities, [ n 3 ] with a conurbation of 482 858 inhabitants ( INE 2020) [ 9 ] is the 12th in Spain by population . It covers an area of direct socioeconomic influence of more than 540,000 people, and is only 27 km from Pontevedra and 37.8 km from Portugal . [ 10 ]
The economy of Vigo and its region is characterized by the preponderance of a diversified economy. Its main drivers are the automotive industry , shipbuilding , industrial fishing and the various activities of the port and the free zone . [ 11 ] Other basic sectors of the Vigo economy are commerce and tourism , due to its beaches , cultural offer, local festivals and also passing through the municipality of the Camino de Santiago on its Portuguese route along the coast .
Various institutions are also installed in the city, such as the European Fisheries Control Agency , the Cooperativa de Armadores de Pesca del Puerto de Vigo , the Camões Institute , the headquarters of the National Park of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia or the University of Vigo , among others. This high concentration of companies and institutions from various economic sectors means that in Vigo nearly 500,000 people live, work or study daily, representing approximately 53% of the population of the province and 18.46% of the population of Galicia. [ 12 ]
There are various theories about the origin of the Vigo place name . The most widespread version is that it derives from the Latin word Vicus , which means town or farmhouse and which refers to the small Roman settlement of Vico Spacorum . Other lines of research, by archaeologists and associations, indicate that Vigo was the Roman city of Burbida Magna, [ 13 ] which was an important commercial port and salting industries; however, this hypothesis does not have consensus among historians. [ 14 ] Other theories indicate that the toponym of Vigo comes from the Viking word Úig , which means bay. [ 15 ]
The shield of Vigo is a version of the old shield that adorned the Neptune fountain , which was located in the past in the Puerta del Sol of the city. The shield represents a castle with a square base and finished in a tower, next to the castle is the old olive tree that was in the atrium of the Cathedral of Santa María de Vigo, all on an island on a sea of five waving stripes representing the maritime character of the city.
According to some hypotheses about the origin of the flag of Vigo is that it was used during the Reconquest of Vigo , in the Spanish War of Independence . Later in the 1930s it began to be used as the flag of the Maritime Province of Vigo and on April 7, 1987, the plenary session of the city council approved its use as an official flag. It consists of two colors, white and red and they are in the form of a sotuer : white on the sides and red above and below.
- Olive of Vigo
Vigo in ancient times was known as the city of the olive and today as an olive city . This nickname is due to the fact that formerly in the atrium of the Santa María de Vigo co-cathedral there was a large olive tree , which was planted by the Knights Templar monks during the time in which they were in charge of ruling the parishioners .
The tree disappeared from that location when the current church was built . When it was demolished, the then administrator of the Vigo customs, Manuel Ángel Pereira, picked one of its branches and planted it in the garden of his house, which was located in the current Puerta del Sol. The tree grew until the development of the city forced to move it to the Paseo de Alfonso XII, where it is currently located.
In its new location and to protect it, an iron fence was installed, where in August 1932 a bronze plaque was placed with the following text:
INSIDE THIS GATE, OFFERING OF THE VIGUESES TO THEIR SYMBOLIC TREE, THE FIRM PROMISE OF THEIR LOVE, THEIR LOYALTY AND THEIR SELF-DENIAL FOR THE BELOVED CITY IS DEPOSITED TODAY. AUGUST 14, 1932.
Vigo is located in the western part of the Province of Pontevedra , of which it forms part as a coastal municipality of the Rías Bajas , and which limits to the north with the Ría de Vigo , to the northeast with the municipality of Redondela , to the east with that of Mos , to the south with the municipalities of Porriño and Gondomar and to the southwest with that of Nigrán . On the other side of the estuary, just in front of the city are the towns of Cangas and Moaña , 5 and 3.6 km away, respectively. It is located in the historical region of Valle del Fragoso, whose lands currently occupy the municipal term of Vigo, which is also part of the Vigo Region , along with ten other municipalities in its metropolitan area. [ 16 ]
The city of Vigo stretches in a northeast-southwest direction on the southern shore of the homonymous estuary, at the foot of the hill called Monte del Castro , which it ended up completely surrounding due to urban growth.
The municipal term occupies the entire Fragoso valley, an old agrarian plain today transformed into a periurban area, structured by the Lagares River and enclosed by the foothills of Mount Penide, Mount Cela, the Fragoselo Mountains and the Sierra de Galiñeiro , where the maximum altitude of Vigo is reached (Pico do Galiñeiro, 690 meters). It is therefore a wide basin or valley bordered by mountains and mountains of medium height and a narrow coastline 20 kilometers long. The primitive city occupied the terraces that ran down the northern and western slopes of Monte del Castro to the sea, but the enormous population growth experienced by the city during the 20th centuryit caused the urban nucleus to grow towards the valley and along the coastline. [ 17 ]
|Vigo estuary||Vigo estuary||Redondela|
|Nigrán and Gondomar||Gondomar and Porriño||Mos|
According to the Köppen climate classification , the climate of Vigo is in transition between the Mediterranean oceanic climate (Csb) and the oceanic climate (Cfb), tending more to the former. [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ]
The Vigo estuary is one of the rainiest spots in Galicia, with high rainfall and records of almost 2 000 mm per year. This makes Vigo the third city in Europe where it rains the most per year (measured in liters per square meter), after Trondheim (Norway, first) and Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, second).
The temperatures shown in the table below, belonging to the Vigo Airport meteorological station , do not reflect the reality of the city's climate, which is much more benevolent. Although the measurements are true and taken within the municipality of Vigo, they are taken at an altitude of 264 meters and 10 kilometers from the center, at the airport, in an area where the climate is colder than in the city and where the fog is quite frequent. [ 19 ]
|Average climatic parameters of Observatorio del ( Vigo Airport ) (261 masl) ( Redondela municipality ) (reference period: 1981-2010, extremes: 1956-2018)|
|Temp. máx. abs. (°C)||21.8||27.6||28.0||29.6||33.6||38.6||39.7||40.8||36.9||32.6||24.6||23.2||40.8|
|Temp. max. media (° C)||11.9||13.3||15.7||16.6||18.8||22.5||24.4||24.7||22.8||18.8||14.9||12.4||18.0|
|Temp. media (°C)||8.6||9.6||11.5||12.4||14.6||17.9||19.6||19.8||18.3||15.0||11.5||9.3||14.0|
|Temp. min. media (° C)||5.4||5.8||7.3||8.2||10.4||13.2||14.8||15.0||13.8||11.2||8.2||6.3||9.9|
|Temp. mín. abs. (°C)||-4.0||-5.0||-3.0||-0.2||2.0||4.6||7.6||7.2||5.0||1.0||-0.8||-3.4||-5.0|
|Total precipitation (mm)||208||162||141||157||127||62||44||45||102||231||246||162||1791|
|Rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||14.0||11.7||11.6||13.5||12.4||6.9||5.0||4.7||7.8||13.1||13.1||15.1||129.2|
|Snowfall days (≥)||0.1||0.2||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.1||0.5|
|Hours of sun||114||131||178||193||228||273||296||287||212||154||112||101||2269|
|Relative humidity (%)||84||78||73||73||73||71||71||71||74||81||84||84||77|
|Source: National Weather Agency [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ]|
Fauna and Flora
In the urban area of Vigo and its outskirts, the more or less stable presence of approximately one hundred poultry species has been detected that have adopted the environment as a residence or as a place of habitual passage. These can be divided into two large groups. In the first place, aquatic birds such as the mallard , the shag , the egret , the heron , the seagull or some specimen of kingfisher . Secondly, there are columbiform and passerine birds , such as the crow , the starling , the sparrow , the blackbird., the pigeon or the magpie . Finally, the presence of other types of species such as the griffon vulture , the tawny owl , the peregrine falcon or the woodpecker is also noteworthy .
With regard to the amphibians, mammals and reptiles that can be found in the municipality, it is common in the mountains that surround the urban area the presence of species such as the common squirrel , the weasel , the rabbit , the hedgehog , the marten , the wild boar , the ocellated lizard , the long- tailed salamander , the common toad , the badger , the newt , the Seoane's viper or the fox . [ 22 ] [ 23 ]
The urban center of the city has almost 11,000 ornamental trees in avenues, streets and squares; this figure does not include the species of green areas or forest parks. [ 25 ] Among the tree species found within the urban area, the following can be mentioned:
- Privet in Sanjurjo Badía street.
- Arce on Avenida de García Barbón and on Barcelona, Florida, Gran Vía, Zamora and Zaragoza streets.
- Camelio in the city center and on Avenida de García Barbón.
- Horse chestnut in the avenue of García Barbón.
- Camelia japonica in the center of the city, on Avenida de las Camelias and on Coruña, Estrada, Marqués de Valladares, Redondela and Toledo streets.
- False pepper in the Vigo crossing.
- Fotinia on Avenida de Alcalde Portanet.
- Lagunaria on Avenida de Ramón Nieto.
- Bitter orange tree on García Barbón avenue and on Tomás Alonso and Travesía de Vigo streets.
- Olivo on Alcalde Portanet avenue and on Alfonso XII and Rosalía de Castro streets.
- Peral on Avenida de García Barbón.
- Shade plane in practically all the parks and gardens of the city, in the avenues Atlántida, García Barbón, Marina Española and in calle la Paz.
- Rosa de siria on Avenida de García Barbón.
On the other hand, the main tree species that can be found in the mountains that border the urban area are typical of the Galician coastal forest, in these natural spaces there are abundant chestnuts , eucalyptus , pines and oaks .
- Fauna and flora in the Cíes Islands
Apart from the fauna and flora existing in the city and in its periphery, it should be noted that the archipelago of the Cíes Islands presents a great biodiversity . The islands have significant environmental wealth, both terrestrial and marine, [ 26 ] and a great variety of animal and plant species coexist on them.
The Cíes offer their own ecosystems in which a very diverse vegetation sprouts, [ 27 ] they harbor varied populations of seabirds and since 1988 they are included in the ZEPA areas ( Special Protection Zone for Birds ). [ 28 ] The archipelago is also home to non-marine bird species and other classes of vertebrates, especially small mammals and reptiles.
- Oil tanker Janina oil slick
In 1957 the first maritime catastrophe occurred that ecologically damaged Vigo's coastline. On January 18 of that year, a fire broke out on board the tanker Janina while it was sailing along the Portuguese coast. The accident caused a slick of approximately 10,000 tons of crude oil that particularly affected the southern area of the estuary . [ 29 ]
- Oil tanker Yanxilas oil slick
In 1965, eight years after the Janina incident, the oil spill caused by the Yanxilas oil tanker took place. That was caused by an accident suffered on board the ship that occurred while it was sailing a few miles from the Ría de Vigo. The spill of approximately 16,000 tons of crude oil seriously affected the Vigo coast and its natural environment. [ 30 ]
- Oil tanker Polycommander oil slick
On May 5, 1970, the Polycommander ship, during its passage through the Cíes Islands, ran aground in some shallows near the island of Monteagudo, which caused the reefs to tear the hull of the ship on its port side. This event caused a fire and a oil slick of 15,000 tons of oil that mainly affected the Vigo coast and other nearby towns such as Bayona , Cangas or Nigrán . The spectacular nature of the accident was the cover of US magazine The New Yorker in May 1973. [ 31 ]
- Oil tanker Prestige
The last maritime catastrophe that affected Vigo occurred in 2002, when on November 13 the oil slick caused by the sinking of the Prestige reached its shores. Damage to the estuary was not as severe as in other areas of the Galician coastline, since the Atlantic Islands National Park formed a natural barrier that stopped the entry of fuel into the Bajas estuaries. Despite this, the Cíes were affected by chapapote in 30% of their coastal strip, [ 32 ] where the clean-up work lasted for months due to the amount of spillage. [ 33 ]
- October 2017 forest fires
On October 15, 2017, Vigo and other nearby municipalities were affected by numerous forest fires , as during that day strong winds and high temperatures were recorded due to the passage through Galicia of Hurricane Ophelia , which contributed to fan the flames and spread the fires . [ 34 ]These fires mainly affected the suburbs and their mountains, even declaring outbreaks in urban areas at night. Faced with the collapse of the means of extinction, many residents of the municipality and other neighboring municipalities collaborated in the extinction tasks until the wee hours of the morning in order to prevent the flames from approaching the inhabited nuclei. These fires caused serious damage to the mountains of Vigo and those of other neighboring municipalities, as well as the eviction of houses, damage to buildings, school closings and the death of three people. [ 35 ]
Vigo and its region were populated since ancient times, as evidenced by the large number of dolmens and mamoas that have been found in various parts of the municipality. However, when it comes to the Paleolithic , the only finds dating from the Stone Age are fifty tools carved in quartz and quartzite.
Regarding the Neolithic period , the funerary constructions , called burial mounds , dated between the years 3000 and 1800 a. C., among which the so-called casa dos Mouros stands out, located in the parish of Candeán. In turn, outstanding petroglyphs are those found in Fragoselo and Millaradas.
In the transition from the III to the II millennium BC. C., there is a large group of rock carvings with representations of geometric motifs, weapons and fauna. Several finds of ceramics, bronze weapons and more rock carvings also indicate the existence of inhabitants in the district during the Bronze Age , between the years 900 and 800 BC. C. [ 36 ]
The castreña culture , which covers the Iron Age and which developed in Galicia from the 8th century BC. C. until the end of I d. C., left in Vigo numerous vestiges as shown by the remains of 26 castreño towns. This indicates that at this time the Vigo area had one of the highest population densities in Galicia. The largest of all these towns is the one located on the western slope of Monte del Castro . [ 37 ] The inhabitants of these communities lived from agriculture, an activity that they complemented with hunting and fishing, and they also worked iron and stone. [ 38 ]
In Vigo, during Roman times, there was an intense commercial and port activity on the Vigo coast since the 2nd century BC. Until the 1st century AD. C., [ 39 ] period in which the so-called Pax Romana was established . Likewise, excavations carried out in the Arenal and in the historic neighborhood reveal the possible existence between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD. C. of an important Roman settlement in these areas. [ 40 ]
Since Vigo after Lugo is the Galician town with the largest amount of Roman archaeological remains, in some places of the municipality vestiges of the Romanization process are still preserved , such as streets, salting factories, port facilities, necropolis, underwater remains or scattered Roman villas along the coast ( Alcabre , Toralla , etc.). [ 41 ]
During this period, according to the legends of the Roman chronicles, on August 24, 60 BC. C., Julio César in one of his persecutions to a Lusitanian warrior tribe in his fight against the Herminios arrived at the archipelago of the Cíes Islands, [ 42 ] where the military leader spent a few days of rest. [ 43 ]
The information available on this time in Vigo is very scarce, especially during the High Middle Ages . It was a period in which Germanic incursions and pirate attacks from northern Europe caused the population to move inland in search of more security, and took refuge in Monte del Castro . [ 44 ]
There is documentary evidence since 1024 of Romanesque churches in the current municipal area that prove the existence of population settlements in the area during the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, in locations that coincide with the current Vigo parishes. Only three churches remain in Vigo from the medieval period: Santiago de Bembrive , Santa María de Castrelos and San Salvador de Corujo . [ 45 ] Two bridges in Castrelos and in Sárdoma also survive , [ 46 ] as well as the Romanesque remains of the Freixo hermitage in Valladaresand the baroque churches of Lavadores and Sárdoma .
From the 12th century, Vigo began to recover its population. During this time the parish of Santiago de Vigo was the most important in the town along with the neighborhood of Santa María. Despite this, Vigo's economic development was limited because the crown granted Bayonne the power to trade by sea with other cities, to the detriment of the former.
15th to 18th centuries
Despite the incessant pirate attacks produced during these centuries, Vigo continues to grow. At this stage, artisanal and commercial activity gains importance, although the most important activity is constituted by sardine fishing.
In 1585 the English privateer Francis Drake tries to take the town, but fails thanks to the opposition of the neighbors. However, four years later he successfully attacks Vigo again, devastating and burning everything in his path. [ 47 ]
Later, in 1617 the Turkish pirates tried to assault the city but this attack was again repelled by the neighbors. The frequent maritime attacks forced the construction in 1656 of the city walls and the Castle of San Sebastián . [ 42 ] [ 48 ]
In 1702 the most outstanding historical episode in the history of Vigo takes place, the one known as the Battle of Rande . [ 42 ] The Anglo-Dutch fleet pursues the Spanish La Plata fleet and the French warships escorting it within the estuary . This fleet loaded with wealth from America is destroyed after a fierce battle developed both at sea and on land. The English took several ships loaded with treasures from the Indies, while the rest were sunk by flames and are still at the bottom of the Ensenada de San Simón , in the interior of the estuary. [ 49 ] In commemoration of this battle, inLondon is located Vigo Street . [ 50 ]
Years later, in 1719, the Taking of Vigo took place . This attack occurred in the course of the Quadruple Alliance War and was designed in retaliation for Spanish support for the Jacobite uprising in Scotland, which ended with the defeat of Philip V's troops at the Battle of Glenshiel . After the town's capture, Lord Cobham's troops surrendered to plunder. They seized a large quantity of arms and ammunition, which they suspected were being stored for a future invasion of England. [ 51 ]
In 1778 Carlos III broke with the monopoly of the ports authorized to trade with America, so that Vigo began to benefit from high-speed traffic. At this time the town of Vigo was completely surrounded by a wall, built on the occasion of the Portuguese Restoration War , due to the fear of an invasion. Near the sea was the Laxe bastion and on the opposite side, the Castle of San Sebastián. In the walls of this fortification, seven gates were located at various strategic points: the gates of A Laxe, that of Berbés, that of Gamboa, that of Falperra, that of the Sea, that of Pleasure and that of the Sun.
Finally, the arrival in the city of Catalan merchants and industrialists in the second half of this century represents a small economic revolution for the town, since factories of soap, salting and leather or linen products proliferated. [ 52 ]
At the beginning of the century, in 1809, as happened in the rest of Spain, Vigo was occupied by the French army . [ 53 ] The invasion caused a popular uprising led by Bernardo González del Valle "Cachamuíña" , Juan Almeida and Pablo Morillo , this resistance ended with the expulsion of the French military on March 28 of that same year . [ 42 ] [ 54 ] By this fact Fernando VII granted the town the title of Ciudad Leal and Valerosa, in recognition of the actions of the neighbors during this episode of the Spanish War of Independence .
Later, in the 1830s, the royal road that leads to Madrid, known as the Castilla or Villacastín road, was prepared and the reconstruction works of the new Collegiate Church , designed by Melchor de Prado, were completed .
The second half of this century meant a period of growth for the city, partly caused by the increase in relations with America, favored by the strategic position of the Port of Vigo on the Atlantic . Thus, since 1855, periodic maritime communication services have been established with Buenos Aires , Havana and Puerto Rico . In addition, in these years the branch of the Bank of Spain was also created and a new stone pier was built. This growth of the city caused its councilors to agree to demolish the walls to facilitate its expansion. [ 55 ]
A decade later, the construction of the railway and the filling works of the estuary began in order to expand the port facilities. In the following years, factories of derivatives of marine products and salting continue to be opened in Vigo, which represents a growth in the salaried population and the bourgeoisie. The city expands outside the walls with the opening of new streets and the construction of noble stone buildings. On the other hand, in 1880 the Vigo Municipal Savings Bank was created and in 1881 the Vigo-Orense railway line was inaugurated. [ 56 ] In that decade, on May 17, 1863, the Compañel press publishes Cantares Gallegos de Rosalía de Castro, work that marked the beginning of the literary movement called Rexurdimento . [ 57 ]
In 1878 the first visit to the city of Jules Verne on his yacht the Saint Michel III took place, the second was in 1884, [ 58 ] the purpose of this visit by the writer was to know the Ensenada de San Simón , scene of the Battle of Rande and that Verne himself had immortalized with the Nautilus in a chapter of his work 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea . [ 59 ]
At the end of this century, in 1898, the Port of Vigo received the badly wounded soldiers from the Cuban War , welcoming them and giving them the necessary help. This fact gave Vigo the title of Always Beneficent , [ 60 ] so since then the shield of the city has kept the motto of Ciudad Fiel, Loyal, Courageous, and Siempre Benefica .
This century marked a stage of astonishing economic advancement, in its first decades the liberal bourgeoisie from Vigo took into its hands the mechanisms of economic and political power. In little more than ten years the population doubled (in 1910 it already reached 30,000 inhabitants). In addition, as the century progressed, Vigo absorbed the neighboring municipalities of Bouzas (1904) and Lavadores (1940). [ 61 ]
During the first third of the 20th century, the port of Vigo was inextricably linked to the image of thousands of Galicians who embarked for America. Emigration was largely motivated by the economic crisis suffered by many families, and the port of Vigo was one of the main starting points for this migratory flow. Another symbol of the time is the tram , [ 62 ] which began operating in 1914. During this time there was intense social activity in the city. Thus, newspapers and weeklies, associations and organizations of a political or union nature abound. [ 63 ]
The Civil War will hardly be noticed in Vigo, where there was hardly any opposition to the Francoist coup d'état and only the Battle of Vigo took place , which lasted from July 18 to 28, 1936. This did not happen in Lavadores , where there was more resistance . [ 64 ]
In subsequent years the port served as a fuel and food supply base for Third Reich ships . [ 65 ] Another of the Nazi activities in Vigo was the export of tungsten from the Rande loading dock to Germany and other Axis countries . [ 66 ]
At the end of the 1950s, the so-called Spanish economic miracle began , a phenomenon that produced great demographic growth in Vigo and in other nearby towns. The growing labor supply of that time attracted a large population from rural areas, mainly from the Province of Orense , which took root in neighborhoods such as Teis . In addition, new residential neighborhoods such as Coya were created during developmentalism . This demographic growth was thanks to the consolidation in the city of various industries, such as Citroën Hispania , [ 67 ] the auxiliary automobile industry, the Empresas Álvarez ceramic factory, the shipyards of Ascón , Barreras or Vulcano , and fishing industries such as Motopesqueros de Altura Reunidos (MAR) [ 68 ] or Pescanova .
In the 1960s and 1970s, the communications network with the rest of the peninsula was improved and new plans were created to expand the city. Later in the last years of the Franco regime and during the first years of the transition , with Joaquín García Picher as mayor, a delegation of the tax agency was opened in the city, the new university college and the Eiras reservoir were built in Fornelos de Montes , Vigo is also designated as one of the venues for the future 1982 Soccer World Cup . [ 69 ] Within this period, in 1979, the Órbigo river accident occurred , [ 70] In which 45 students and 3 teachers from a Vigo school died, this accident shocked the Vigo society of the time and was the day of greatest mourning in the recent history of Vigo.
The growth of previous decades was slowed down during the decade 1975-1985 due to the impact produced by the industrial reconversion of the naval sector that hit the city hard, causing an increase in social conflicts and destroying part of the traditional industrial fabric linked to the sea. [ 71 ] At the end of the century, Vigo shows an economic recovery with respect to the previous decade, in part thanks to the creation of estates and institutions such as Caixanova , the Financial Club , the IFEVI or the University .
In 2000 the population of the municipality was around 280,000 inhabitants and it was located in the center of an area of influence of 500,000. This demographic growth continued in Vigo and in other municipalities in its area of influence until 2012, the year with 297,335 inhabitants. This increase in the population is mainly due to the good times experienced by the main economic activities of the city in the first decade of this century. [ 72 ] This population growth was slowed in subsequent years as a result of the economic crisis that affected Spain .
During the 2010-2020 decade, various actions took place in Vigo that entailed an urban transformation of the urban area, such as: the construction of sports infrastructures, creation of green areas, humanization and pedestrianization of avenues and streets, installation of elevators and escalators in the city center, or the rehabilitation of buildings and public spaces. [ 73 ]
In the first two decades of this century, Vigo has received various awards, among which we can mention the Prize of the Superior Sports Council granted in recognition of the initiatives created to promote sports activity, [ 74 ] the Escoba de Platinum awarded by ATEGRUS (Technical Association for Waste Management, Urban Cleaning and Environment) in recognition of waste management and urban cleaning, [ 75 ] the award for good practices in social policies for children awarded by Unicef , [ 76 ] the City of Science Prize awarded by theMinistry of Science, Innovation and Universities , [ 77 ] or the National Award for Internal Trade and the Galician Association of Industrial Engineers, both awarded in the category of best Christmas lighting project. [ 78 ]
Parishes and neighborhoods
- Alcabre (Santa Eulalia) [ 81 ]
- Bead (San Esteban) [ 81 ]
- Bembrive (Santiago) [ 81 ]
- Cabral (Santa Marina) [ 81 ]
- Candeán (St Kitts) [ 81 ]
- Castrelos (Santa Maria) [ 81 ]
- Comesaña (San Andrés) [ 81 ]
- Corujo [ 80 ]
- Scrubbers (Santa Cristina) [ 81 ]
- Matamá (San Pedro) [ 81 ]
- Navia (San Paio) [ 81 ]
- Oya [ 80 ]
- Sárdoma (San Pedro) [ 81 ]
- Yanes [ 80 ]
- Zamanes [ 80 ]
Vigo is a city that also has a large number of neighborhoods. [ 82 ] Historically the best known and most important are those of: Arenal, Balaídos, Berbés, Bouzas , Calvario, Casablanca, Casco Viejo and Coya . The importance of the aforementioned neighborhoods in the city is due to their large population density and the large number of companies and institutions that are within them. Likewise, the neighborhood of Chapela , although belonging to the municipality of Redondela , functions as one more neighborhood of the city since the entire building is due to the geographical location in urban continuity with the Vigo parish of Teis .
- District 1. It is delimited by the downtown area and the Casco Viejo .
- District 2. It includes the Casablanca neighborhood and Venezuela Street.
- District 3. It includes the part of the urban area that includes Beiramar, as well as the Traviesas area.
- District 4. It comprises the western part of the urban area, which includes the neighborhoods of: Coya and Bouzas .
- District 6. Located to the east of the municipality, it includes the parish of Teis .
- District 7. Located to the southeast of the municipality, it includes the Calvario neighborhood, as well as the parishes of Candeán and Lavadores .
- District 8. Located to the south of the municipality, it includes the parishes of: Beade , Bembrive , Matamá , Valladares and Zamanes .
- District 9. Located to the west of the municipality, it includes the parishes of: Alcabre , Comesaña , Corujo , Navia , Sayanes and Oya .
Vigo was during the 20th century the European city that registered the highest demographic growth, during that century its population multiplied by 12, going from having 23,259 inhabitants in 1900, to the 285,526 registered at the end of the century. [ 84 ] The 21st century began with an uninterrupted positive vegetative balance during the first decade, but the population increase was halted during a period of five years that spanned from 2011 to 2015, coinciding with this demographic decline with the economic crisis that affected Spain . It was not until 2016 when Vigo returned to recover a sustained upward trend in its population. [ 85 ]
With 296 692 inhabitants as of January 1, 2020, according to INE data , [ 9 ] Vigo is the most populated municipality in the autonomous community of Galicia . According to the population register, 140 164 people are men (47.24%) and 156 528 women (52.76%). This small difference in the male-female ratio in favor of women occurs in the age ranges above 30 years, and increases more clearly after 70 years according to the population pyramid.
|Graph of demographic evolution of Vigo [ 86 ] between 1842 and 2020|
Right population (1842-1897, except 1857 and 1860 which is the de facto population ) according to the population censuses of the 19th century. Right population (1900-1991) or resident population (2001-2011) according to the INE population censuses . INE's 2017 municipal register .Note: between the 1910 Census and the previous one, the term of the municipality grows because it incorporates Population according to the Bouzas , while the 1950 Census already includes Lavadores .
The metropolitan area extends throughout the south of the province. It limits to the southeast with the Comarca del Condado - Paradanta , to the south with Bajo Miño and Portugal , to the north with the Ría de Vigo , the Morrazo Comarca and the Comarca de Pontevedra , while to the west it limits with the Atlantic Ocean .
According to data provided by the INE as of January 1, 2020, [ 9 ] it has a population of 482,858 inhabitants, of which 296,692 inhabitants live in the municipality of Vigo, which means 61.44% of the total of the population of the metropolitan entity.
Currently the metropolitan area of Vigo is formed by the following municipalities: Baiona , Cangas de Morrazo , Fornelos de Montes , Gondomar , Moaña , Mos , Nigrán , Pazos de Borbén , Porriño , Redondela , Salceda de Caselas , Salvatierra de Miño , Sotomayor and Vigo . [ 87 ]
|Foreign nationalities (January 1, 2020)|
In the municipality of Vigo there are 17,226 citizens with a nationality other than Spanish, according to the latest publication of the municipal census (as of January 1, 2020). [ 88 ]
The largest foreign colony in Vigo, with 2 015 inhabitants, is that of citizens originating from Venezuela , in second place are citizens from Portugal with 1 848 registered inhabitants, and in third place with a total of 1 401 registered inhabitants are find Brazilian citizens . Other foreign nationalities with a large presence in the municipality are those of citizens from Colombia (1 379), Romania (1 107), Italy (841), Peru (837), Senegal (675), Paraguay (542), Argentina ( 536), Uruguay (514) orChina (492).
The majority of the foreign population of Vigo resides in the urban area, mainly in district 1 (downtown area and historic district), district 2 (Casablanca district and Venezuela street) and district 6 ( Teis ). [ 89 ] While the presence of foreign citizens in the peri-urban parishes of the municipality is less than in the districts belonging to the urban area, and in some cases it is very small, as is the case of the parishes of Beade , Bembrive , Matamá or Zamanes , where the foreign population barely represents 1.5% of the census.
Politics and public administrations
In Vigo there are four political administrations present, with different levels of responsibility and powers:
- The Vigo City Council is the body with the greatest powers and public officials in the municipality. It regulates matters such as emergency bodies (firefighters and local police), maintenance of public roads (asphalt, cleaning, etc.), parks and gardens, urban planning, tourism promotion, collection of municipal taxes and urban transport. He is also responsible for the construction of municipal facilities such as libraries, nurseries, sports centers, and so on. [ 90 ]
- The Junta de Galicia has in Vigo a territorial delegation located in Plaza de la Estrella and its own delegate appointed by the Galician government. [ 91 ] It has powers in social affairs, trade, education, economic policies, transit, among others. It is also in charge of the construction of facilities such as outpatient clinics, schools, hospitals, institutes, courts, residences for the elderly, universities, etc.
- Vigo has its own treatment in the provision of public services similar to those of a provincial capital by the state administration. For this reason, in the municipality there are offices of the General State Administration that deal with the management of airports, coasts, railways, justice, security ( army and national police ) and ports, among other powers. These are coordinated by the government delegate in Galicia and by the provincial sub-delegate. Some of the institutions representing the Government of Spain installed in Vigo are: Tax Agency , General Directorate of Traffic , Commercial Courts ,Property and Commercial Registry , Subdelegation of the Government or General Treasury of the Social Security . [ 92 ]
- Finally, the Diputación de Pontevedra also has a headquarters in the city located in the historic district.
The current mayor of Vigo is Abel Caballero , from the Partido dos Socialistas de Galicia-PSOE , elected for the fourth consecutive time as mayor in the 2019 municipal elections . In the council seats are distributed as follows: Socialist Party : 20, DGPP : 4 Tide Vigo : 2 and BNG : 1. [ 93 ]
|Municipal elections of May 26, 2019|
|Two Socialists of Galicia-PSOE Party||Abel Caballero||101 058||67,64%||20||3|
|People's Party of Galicia||Elena Muñoz Fonteriz||20 460||13,69%||4||3|
|Vigo tide||Ruben Perez Correa||10 384||6,95%||2||1|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc||Xabier Pérez Iglesias||8 461||5,66%||1||1|
|Citizens||Javier Alonso Seoane||3 618||2,42%||0||0|
|Vox||Sergio Maus Gómez||1 936||1,93%||0||0|
- Town hall
Since the recovery of democracy in Spain , eleven municipal elections have been held and only three parties have governed the city, the PSdeG-PSOE , the PPdG and the BNG . From the first municipal elections of 1979 to 1995, the PSdeG-PSOE ruled in the city, during this period two mayors succeeded one another, Manuel Soto Ferreiro (1979-1991) and Carlos González Príncipe (1991-1995). In the 1995 elections , the PPdG candidacy led by Manuel Pérez ÁlvarezHe obtained an absolute majority and governed in Vigo until 1999. From that year until 2007, three mayors from three different parties ( BNG , PSdeG-PSOE and PPdG ) succeeded one another as mayor . In the 2007 elections, Abel Caballero was elected mayor , forming a government in coalition with the BNG . In the last three municipal elections held, 2011 , 2015 and 2019 , Abel Caballero was re-elected mayor in the three electoral appointments, obtaining in the last two the second and third absolute majority in the history of Vigo.
- Municipal elections
|AP / PPdeG||11||9||13||15||11||10||13||13||7||4|
|BN-PG / BNG||1||1||4||8||7||5||3||1|
|PCG / EU||3||1|
|UCD / CDS||9||2|
- Governing Board
Vigo is the seat and head of the judicial party number 3 of the province, whose demarcation includes the municipalities of Vigo, Bayona , Gondomar and Nigrán . [ 95 ] The city is also the seat of the fifth and sixth sections of the Provincial Court of Pontevedra .
Vigo's economy is characterized by its diversification linked above all to the industrial, fishing, services and tourism sectors . Historically, it is the economic and industrial engine of Galicia, being the municipality with the highest GDP in the community according to the Ardán report, [ 97 ] prepared annually by the Vigo Free Zone Consortium . [ 98 ]
A very important institution for the industrial development of Vigo and its region has been the free zone, an organization based on public law and which currently functions as a local development agency , promoting infrastructures and land of an eminently industrial and commercial nature.
The main objective of the Vigo Free Zone is to encourage the establishment of companies with an export vocation, through the application of tax and customs exemptions. It was created by Decree Law of June 20, 1947, with the intention of taking advantage of the favorable strategic location conditions of the port of Vigo with respect to international maritime trade to promote industrial development in the region. [ 99 ]
The Vigo Free Trade Zone has five areas and industrial estates in operation, which are the following: the Bouzas port area , the Porto do Molle business and tertiary park in Nigrán , the Vigo Technological and Logistics Park , the Balaídos polygon and the A Granxa industrial estate in Porriño . The activity of these five parks accounts for 33% of the gross added value (GVA) of the Comarca de Vigo , generating around 18,000 direct jobs and another 40,000 indirect ones. [ 100 ]
Apart from the industrial estates integrated in the free zone, in Vigo and in other municipalities in its area of influence, other parks and industrial estates are installed, such as: Bagunda in Lavadores , Caramuxo in Navia , Carneiras in Matamá , Cocho in Moaña , Gándaras in Porriño , Miraflores in Sárdoma , Morrazo in Cangas del Morrazo , Pasaxe-Vincios in Gondomar , Rebullón and Veigadaña in Mos , San Isidro in Puenteareas , and so on.
One of the most important activities of the Vigo economy is the automobile industry , led by the PSA Factory in Vigo . [ 101 ] The factory employs more than 6,500 workers and 88% of its production is destined for export outside of Spain, representing around 30% of Galicia's total exports abroad.
The plant has deep drawing, painting and welding workshops at its Balaídos facilities. [ 67 ] It currently produces the following models: Citroën Berlingo , Citroën C Elysee , Citroën C4 Picasso , Citroën Grand C4 Picasso , Peugeot 301 and Peugeot Partner .
In Vigo and in other nearby towns there are also more than 90 companies from the automotive auxiliary industry, for example: Adhex, Benteler, Borgwarner, Dangel, Denso Corporation , Faurecia, Gestamp Automoción , GKN Driveline, Grupo Copo, Lear Corporation, Plastic Ominum, Snop Estampación, Viza, or the electric vehicle manufacturer Little Electric Cars, among others.
All these industries are grouped in the Galician Automotive Companies Cluster (CEAGA). [ 102 ]
Port of Vigo
The Port of Vigo is the one with the highest commercial volume in Galicia, covering 50% of the merchandise exported and imported by sea in the community. Most of its traffic corresponds to general merchandise, standing out in the movement of containers , Ro-Ro traffic of ro-ro cargo, natural stone and granite, wood, canned goods and fish products. [ 103 ]
It covers an area of more than 20 km and has more than 9 km of docking docks , which are: Beiramar and Berbés docks, sports dock, repair dock, transatlantic dock and the Arenal, commercial and cross docks. It also has two terminals, the one in Guixar en Teis for container traffic, and the one in Bouzas, basically for Ro-Ro vehicle traffic. Another of its main activities is fishing , since it has the fish market where the most fresh fish in Europe is unloaded. [ 104 ]
These commercial and economic activities mean that many local shipping companies are based in the port of Vigo. While other foreign shipping companies that carry out part of their operations in the port have headquarters or offices in the city, such as: AP Møller-Mærsk , Boluda Lines, CMA CGM , COSCO , Grimaldi Lines , Grupo Suardiaz, Hanjin Shipping , Hapag-Lloyd , Maritime Carrier Shipping Gmbh & Co (MACS Shipping), Mediterranean Shipping Company , StreamLines, Turkon Line or WEC Lines. [ 105 ]
At the tourist level, the boarding or stopover of passenger cruises is usual at its docks .
- Motorway of the sea
The objective of the so-called motorways of the sea is to decongest road connections between the different member states of the European Union . In the port of Vigo, these routes are carried out by the Grupo Suardiaz shipping company, [ 106 ] the ships that carry out these itineraries usually transport mainly wood, machinery, paper, food products, textile products, vehicles, and so on.
Crossings Highway Vigo sea are as follows: [ 107 ]
|Shipping company||Cities||Weekly get aways|
| Suardiaz |
|Motorway of the Sea Spain-Morocco: Vigo - Tangier Med||2 (Tuesday, Saturday)|
|Spain-France Motorway of the Sea: Vigo - Nantes / Saint Nazaire||1 (Monday)|
|Motorway of the Sea Spain-France-Belgium: Vigo - Nantes / Saint Nazaire - Zeebrugge||1 (Friday)|
Fishing and canning industry
The fishing sector generates in Vigo more than 32,000 direct and indirect jobs and a turnover of more than 1 billion euros per year. [ 108 ] More than 660 fishing vessels are registered in the port of Vigo, which makes it one of the main commercial ports of fresh fish for human consumption in the world, with around 800,000 tons per year. [ 109 ]
The main fishing companies by business volume that are based in the port of Vigo are: Atunes y Lomos (Atunlo), Comercial Pernas (Coper), Fandicosta, Frigalsa, Golden Touza, Grupo Profand, Iberconsa, Mascato, Nueva Pescanova , Pereira, Pescapuerta or Pesquera Ancora. [ 110 ] These companies have a presence in fishing grounds in third countries, such as Argentina, Australia, Chile, Malvinas Islands, Mozambique, Namibia, Peru or South Africa. Their catches in these fishing grounds are sent to all of Spain and dispatched to countries such as Egypt, France, Italy, Portugal and other more distant markets such as Asia (China or Vietnam).
In Vigo it is common to hold congresses and trade fairs related to industrial fishing, such as the World Tuna Conference [ 111 ] (biannually), Conxemar (annually), or the World Fishing Exhibition (which was held periodically from 1973 to 2009 ).
- Canning industry
In the municipality and in other nearby towns there are also companies dedicated to the processing of canned seafood , among them: Conservas Albo, Conservas Antonio Alonso (Palacio de Oriente), Conservas Cerqueira (Pay Pay), Conservas del Noroeste (Cabo de Peñas), Conservas Orbe, Conservas Rodríguez Pascual (La Coca) and Conservas Valcárcel (Vigilante). [ 112 ]
More than 10 shipyards and dry docks dedicated to shipbuilding and repair are installed in various parts of the estuary , [ 113 ] located mainly in Bouzas , Coya , Meira and Teis . Among these naval factories, some of them centenary companies, the following can be mentioned: Aister , Astilleros Armada , Astilleros Armón , Astilleros Cardama , Astilleros Lagos, Astilleros Montenegro , Freire Shipyard , Hijos de J. Barreras ,Industrias Navales A Xunqueira , MetalShips & Docks , Montajes Cancelas or Rodman Polyships .
Naval auxiliary industry companies are also established in the municipality and in its region, many of them created from the industrial reconversion of the 80s .
- Metallurgical sector
In Vigo, apart from having companies dedicated to shipbuilding, there are also other industries in the metallurgical sector specialized in the construction of metal structures, such as: tanks, bridge structures, industrial buildings, solar plants, water tanks, wind towers , and so on. [ 115 ]
Five centers and institutions dedicated to technological progress (R + D + i) are installed in Vigo and in other town councils in its region , where the development and research of new technological and scientific projects is carried out. These centers sporadically usually have the collaboration of the university and the free trade zone.
Some of the projects developed by these centers were the manufacture of electric vehicles , in collaboration with the Galician Automotive Companies Cluster (CEAGA), of which various models are already being manufactured by companies in the city; the design and manufacture of single-seater racing cars by university engineers in collaboration with auxiliary companies in the automotive industry; [ 116 ] the design and manufacture of marine drones ; [ 117 ] or the construction of the first four Galician artificial satellites , which were named as: Xatcobeo, HUMSAT-D, Serpens there Lume 1. [ 118 ]
In Vigo there are delegations, facilities and offices of different public administrations where around 20,000 civil servants work. Most of these public workers carry out their professional work in the regional administration and in the town hall. The rest of the officials accounted for by the government sub-delegation in the city are employed in the European Fisheries Control Agency , in the Pontevedra Provincial Council , in the University of Vigo , in the Consortium of the Vigo Free Zone and in the various delegations that are present in the municipality of the general administration of the stateOf which the following may be mentioned: customs, tax agency , port authority , maritime captaincy , CSIC , civil guard , justice , national police , foreign health, government sub-delegation, general treasury of social security , traffic , etc. [ 119 ]
Other economic activities
- Other industries
Other important manufacturing industries for the local economy are the extraction, transformation and export of granite from the Porriño quarries [ 120 ] or the chemical and pharmaceutical industry , with factories in the municipalities of Mos and Porriño ( Biofabri , CZ Vaccines , Lonza , Zelnova Zeltia , Zendal , among other companies). [ 121 ]Also in the municipality and in other neighboring towns there are companies from other industrial sectors, such as aeronautics, food, publishing or textiles. [ 122 ]
Various administrations, institutions and organizations have their headquarters in the city, among them the Community Fisheries Control Agency (ACCP) , or the National Park of the Atlantic Islands of Galicia .
Other institutions and organizations based in Vigo and in its neighboring municipalities are: National Association of Manufacturers of Canned Fish and Shellfish (ANFACO), [ 123 ] Association of Industrial Metallurgists of Galicia (ASIME), [ 115 ] Centro Gallego de Aerospace innovation (CINAE), [ 124 ] Technology Center Automotive Galicia (CTAG), Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Navigation of Pontevedra, Vigo and Villagarcia de Arosa, Club Financiero de Vigo (CFV), Cluster of Automotive Companies de Galicia (CEAGA), [ 102 ] Pontevedra Businessmen Confederation (CEP),Consortium of the Free Zone of Vigo (ZFV), Cooperative of Fishing Shipowners of the Port of Vigo (ARVI) , Luso-Galician Federation of Metallurgical Industrialists (FELUGA), Instituto Camões , etc.
The municipality receives a significant number of visitors throughout the year due to its gastronomy, festivals and cultural offer. However, it is during the summer season when the presence of tourists who visit Vigo increases, most of them attracted by the beaches of the municipality and by the Cíes Islands . [ 125 ] The presence of pilgrims in various parts of the municipality is also common due to the passage through Vigo on the Camino de Santiago on its Portuguese route along the coast. [ 126 ]
- Fairs and congresses
The Vigo Fair Institute (IFEVI) is the main promoter of congresses and professional fairs that take place in Vigo, [ 127 ] this infrastructure has gradually become consolidated in the Spanish congress and fair activity, organizing national and international events, including: Conxemar (fair dedicated to frozen seafood), Mindtech (business fair for the industrial sector), Navalia (business fair for the shipbuilding sector), Vigo Motor Show , or SICO (business fair for the construction sector). Concerts are also common at IFEVI facilities.
Apart from IFEVI, Vigo's congress and trade fair activity is complemented by the Mar de Vigo Auditorium and Conference Center , where professional conferences, events and fairs are usually held periodically in its premises. [ 128 ]
Vigo has a good connection with the network of roads, highways and highways that link it with the other Galician capitals and the main cities of Spain and Portugal.
Vigo's urban bus public transport service is run by the company Vitrasa ( Viguesa de Transportes, SA ). [ 129 ] It has a fleet of about 125 vehicles that cover more than 40 lines, making it the urban bus network with more lines in the Spanish northwest, serving the municipalities of Vigo and Redondela (parishes of Chapela and San Esteban de Negros ).
In addition to the Vitrasa urban transport , there are various bus services that link the city with other towns in its metropolitan area and other destinations, some of the main interurban lines available at the Vigo bus station are the following: Barcelona , Bayonne , Benavente , Burgos , Cangas del Morrazo , Ferrol , Gondomar , La Coruña , La Guardia , Lleida , Lisbon , Logroño , Lugo , Madrid , Nigrán ,Porto , Orense , Palencia , Pontevedra , Redondela , San Sebastián , Sangenjo , Santiago de Compostela , Tordesillas , Valladolid , Vitoria or Zaragoza . [ 130 ]
Approximately 553 taxis operate in the municipality, these are distinguished by being white vehicles, by carrying the flag of the city on the hood and the shield on the front doors. [ 131 ] On the roof they have a device called a module, which indicates if the taxi is free by turning on a green light and also has the numbers 1, 2 and 3 that indicate the rate that is currently on the car. taximeter. [ 132 ]
Currently, three shipping companies are integrated into Vigo's metropolitan transport, offering regular maritime transport services between Vigo and the municipalities of Cangas and Moaña . The companies Mar de Ons and Naviera RG complement each other on the route that connects Vigo with Cangas, while Naviera Nabia connects Vigo with Moaña. [ 133 ]
Renfe is the main railway operator in Vigo. In the municipality there are two railway stations belonging to the Adif network , the Vigo-Urzáiz Station and the Vigo-Guixar Station , both located in the center of the city.
- The Vigo-Urzáiz station has 4 platforms that serve 6 lanes that, with the straps installed in the middle zone, allow up to 9 simultaneous services to be operated. This infrastructure makes it possible to connect Vigo with the rail services belonging to the High Speed Atlantic Axis . [ 134 ]
- The Vigo-Guixar station offers daily long distance services that connect Vigo with various Spanish cities, such as Alicante , Barcelona , Bilbao , Madrid , Valladolid or Zaragoza , these lines are used by Alvia trains , such as Intercity and Trenhotel night trains. . The medium-distance connections from this station also include direct connections with the other Galician capitals with the exception of Lugo . There is also the Porto-Vigo International Train , which links Vigo several times a day withPorto via Tuy , the routes are carried out by the company Comboios de Portugal .
- The freight station is grouped within the Guixar passenger station, its main activities are the export of containers, granite and various merchandise destined for the port. [ 135 ] Likewise, urban waste is transported to the SOGAMA plant (Sociedad Gallega del Medio Ambiente) located in the municipality of Cerceda . [ 136 ]
The Airport Vigo , Peinador airport known as the neighborhood where it is located, is located between the municipalities of Mos , Redondela and Vigo, approximately 9 kilometers from the city center. It has a runway (02/20) 2,400 m long by 45 m wide and an ILS CAT II / III instrument approach system at head 20. It has a good strategic location, with direct connections to the Atlantic Highway (A-P9) , the Vigo-Tui highway (A-55) , the Rías Bajas highway (A-52) and the Vigo ring road (VG-20) . There is also a Vitrasa line (C9A) with frequencies every 30 minutes.
Its passenger terminal has a surface area of 26,000 m², which enables this infrastructure to serve four million users per year. This terminal, together with the car park, means that Vigo's airport currently has a space of 100,000 m² and 2,500 parking spaces for users. [ 137 ]
In 2020, the Vigo airport handled a total of 303,466 passengers. [ 138 ]
Their destinations are as follows: [ 139 ]
|Air Europa||Madrid-Barajas Season: Palma de Mallorca|
|Air Nostrum||Bilbao , Valencia|
|Binter Canarias||Las Palmas , Tenerife North|
|Evelop Airlines||Alicante (charter), Malaga-Costa del Sol (charter)|
|Iberia Express||Season: Tenerife North|
The municipality has more than a dozen lifts, stairs and mechanical ramps in the city, to facilitate the movement of residents of the areas with a harsher orography of the olive city. [ 140 ] The city council's vertical mobility plan also has future actions located and ordered by priority to build new lifts and mechanical ramps around the city. [ 141 ]
- Ascensor de Camelias : connects Avenida de las Camelias with Calle Menéndez Pelayo.
- Marqués de Valterra lift : connects the streets of Marqués de Valterra with Torrecedeira.
- Elevator de Pizarro : connects Pizarro street with Ribadavia park.
- Camilo José Cela Park Elevator : connects the streets of Torrecedeira with Pi and Margall. [ 142 ]
- Elevator between San Salvador and Isabel la Católica : connects Calle de San Salvador with Plaza de Isabel la Católica.
Escalators and escalators
- Escalators of the Plaza de Portugal : connect Uruguay Street with the Plaza de Portugal.
- Escalators of Puerta del Sol : they connect Puerta del Sol with Abeleira Menéndez street.
- Pizarro escalators : they connect Pizarro street with Ribadavia park.
- Gran Vía ramps : they connect Gran Vía with Venezuela Street. Awarded with the highest award in the International Project of the Year 2021 awards of the Elevator World publishing house. [ 143 ]
Commercially, Vigo serves a population of just over 736,500 inhabitants, which includes the municipality itself, a large part of the Province of Pontevedra and some centers in the neighboring province of Orense , as well as northern Portugal . [ 144 ] In Vigo there are well-known commercial chains from various sectors (food, DIY, accessories, decoration, sports, fashion, restaurants, etc.), either under franchises or with their own centers, such as Alcampo , Burger King , Carrefour , Cortefiel , Decathlon , El Corte Inglés ,Inditex , Leroy Merlin , [ 145 ] Lidl , McDonald's , Media Markt , Mercadona , Starbucks , [ 146 ] Toys "R" Us or Vips , among others. [ 147 ] These multinationals coexist with the traditional small local business.
- Urban commercial areas
The main urban commercial area of Vigo is Calle Príncipe (known as the "Golden Mile of Vigo") [ 148 ] and its adjacent areas such as Gran Vía, Ronda de Don Bosco, Urzáiz [ 149 ] or Puerta del Sol, which are very central and busy streets, both by locals and tourists. In these streets there are boutiques of various firms, as well as department stores , bank branches, bookstores, traditional restaurants and fast food franchises. [ 150 ]Another urban commercial area that has been growing in recent years is Avenida de Madrid, as it is the main access artery to Vigo, it has led to the establishment of various commercial firms, and most of the concessionaires are also installed on this road. of vehicles of the municipality.
- Commercial surfaces
These commercial spaces are the following: Alcampo I on Calle del Grove, Alcampo II on Avenida de Madrid, A Laxe Shopping Center (complex that also houses the city's casino ) [ 151 ] on Calle Cánovas del Castillo, Centro Bodegas commercial Bandeira on Aragon street, [ 152 ] Centro Comercial Camelias in the Plaza de America, Centro Comercial Gran Vía de Vigo in Miradoiro, street Centro Comercial Pizarro in the homonymous street, Centro Comercial Plaza ElípticaFrancisco Fernandez in the Plaza de Riego, Centro Comercial Crossing the homonymous street, [ 153 ] Centro Comercial Vialia Vigo (under construction) [ 154 ] in Station Square, El Corte Ingles on Gran Via and Parque Comercial Meixueiro at exit 664 of the Vigo-Tui highway .
- Municipal markets
In Vigo there are various markets and neighborhood food markets, [ 155 ] such as the municipal markets of Berbés, Bouzas, Cabral, Calvario, Teis, Progreso and Traviesas.
Theaters of Vigo are: [ 156 ]
|Yelmo Cineplex||10||CC Crossing|
|Gran Vía Cinemas||9||CC Gran Vía|
|Plaza Elíptica Cinemas||8||CC Plaza Elíptica|
|North Multicines||5||Via Norte Street, 22|
|Salesian Cinema||1||Venezuela Street, 3|
Various hotels and hostels are located in the municipality of Vigo, offering between them a hotel offer of more than 4,700 beds. [ 157 ] The city has two five-star hotels, the Gran Hotel Nagari and the Pazo los Escudos Hotel & Resort . The four-star hotels are AC Hotel by Marriott Palacio Universal , AGUA DE MaR Hotel Boutique, Hotel América Vigo, Hotel Axis Vigo, Hotel Ciudad de Vigo, Hotel Coya, Hotel Eurostars Mar de Vigo, Hotel Hesperia Vigo, Hotel NH Collection Vigo , Occidental Vigo Hotel, Tryp los Galeones Hotel, Zenit Vigo Hotel and Sercotel Bahía de Vigo. [ 158 ]While the three-star hotels are B&B Hotel, Hotel Inffinit de Vigo, Hotel Junquera, Hotel OCA Ipanema and Sercotel Tres Luces.
- Atlantic Daily . Regional newspaper belonging to the Rías Baixas Comunicación publishing group, published since 1987.
- Spain Exterior . General information weekly aimed at Spanish communities around the world whose headquarters are located on Luis Taboada street in the city.
- Vigo lighthouse . The most widely read newspaper in the city, in the whole of southern Galicia and the ninth in Spain . [ 159 ] It was published for the first time on November 3, 1853, making it the oldest newspaper in the Spanish press .
- The voice of Galicia . Regional information newspaper that has a delegation in Vigo, located on Avenida de García Barbón.
In the municipality you can tune in all the main radio stations that operate at national and regional level, in addition to having local stations that broadcast spaces dedicated to local news in their disconnections in different time zones: Radio Vigo ( Cadena SER ), COPE , esRadio , Onda Cero , Radio 3 , Radio 5 , Radio Galega , National Radio of Spain , Radio Voice , Yes Radio. There are also music and sports stations in Vigo of the most important Spanish channels ( Cadena 100 , Cadena Dial , Europa FM, Kiss FM , Loca FM, Los 40 Classic , Los 40 Principales , MegaStar FM , Melody FM , Classic Radio , Radio Marca , Rock FM ). [ 160 ]
In Vigo a local television station ( Televigo ) is currently broadcasting . The city has the headquarters of the ATLAS Agency (a news agency that supplies, mainly, the informative programs of Cuatro and Telecinco , among other media), Radio Televisión Española (RTVE) and Televisión de Galicia (TVG). The latter covers all the provincial news coverage of the regional channel, after the closure of the delegation located in the city of Pontevedra . [ 161 ]
There are several web pages that cover the information generated in the city and in the municipalities in its area of influence, including Metropolitano.gal , Noticias Vigo , Vigo al minute , Vigoé , Vigoempresa or Vigo Hoy .
Public health in Vigo is managed by regional powers through the Galician Health Service of the Junta de Galicia , known as SERGAS. The municipality within the health map of Galicia belongs to the Vigo University Hospital Complex (CHUVI), [ 162 ] in which the Meixoeiro Hospital , the Nicolás Peña Hospital and the Álvaro Cunqueiro Hospital are integrated . The opening of the latter has meant the centralization in this infrastructure of the health services previously provided by the Hospital Xeral de Vigo , the Hospital del Rebullón and theCíes Polyclinic , among other health centers. [ 163 ]
In Vigo there are also private hospitals, such as the Povisa Hospital , the Vithas Nuestra Señora de Fátima Hospital and the HM Vigo Hospital, as well as other smaller clinics than those mentioned above.
|Hospital|| || |
|Álvaro Cunqueiro Hospital||Public||1260|
|Povisa Hospital||Private non-charity||479|
|Vithas Our Lady of Fatima Hospital||Private non-charity||168|
|Nicolás Peña Hospital||Public||112|
|El Pinar residence clinic||Private Non-Charitable||74|
|San José psychiatric sanatorium||Private Non-Charitable||48|
|HM Vigo Hospital||Private Non-Charitable||45|
|Concheiro Medical Center||Private Non-Charitable||40|
|Mutual Fremap of Accidents at Work||Private Non-Charitable||17|
|Pintado Medical Center||Private Non-Charitable||12|
|San Rafael Home and Clinic||Private charity (church)||-|
The Vigo city council has a social policy area to provide the necessary help and advice that the most disadvantaged and needy groups and people may need. For this, the council's social policy department has five Municipal Social Services Centers (CMSS). [ 164 ] To make these services more effective, the Social Work Units (UTS) were created by zones, which develop various benefits such as social emergency aid, home help, socio-labor insertion, economic benefits, information service or service assessment and guidance. [ 165 ]
Education in Vigo depends on the Ministry of Education, University and Vocational Training of the Junta de Galicia , which holds the competences at the regional level on the matter.
With regard to public education , Vigo has 105 centers dedicated to infant and primary education , of which 64 are public and 41 are subsidized. 57 secondary and high school education centers , of which 17 are public and 40 are subsidized. 10 vocational training centers , of which 7 are public and 3 are subsidized. And finally, intended for university education , the municipality has the University of Vigo and the headquarters of the National University of Distance Education . [ 166 ]
As for other teachings include five centers of adult education , fourteen centers of special education , a center for teachers, the conservatory professional music, Conservatory of Music, the Municipal School of Arts and Crafts in Vigo (EMAO) , the Official School of Languages (EOI) and the diocesan seminary . [ 167 ]
- University of Vigo
The University of Vigo has two campuses in the municipality, the Lagoas-Marcosende campus in Zamanes and the downtown Vigo campus. These two campuses also have other attached centers, such as the María Sedes Sapientiae university teaching school and the university nursing schools of the Meixoeiro and Povisa hospitals .
The Lagoas-Marcosende campus is where almost all the faculties of Vigo are concentrated, [ 168 ] which are: biology and marine sciences, economic and business sciences, legal and labor sciences, philology and translation, industrial engineering , mining engineering, telecommunication engineering and chemical engineering.
The university schools of business studies and industrial engineering are located on the downtown Vigo campus , both on Conde de Torrecedeira street and the Toralla marine science station (ECIMAT) on the island of Toralla .
The university has two other campuses located outside of Vigo, the Orense Campus and the Pontevedra Campus . As well as the following research centers: biomedicine (Vigo), industrial technology (Vigo) and transfer and innovation (Orense).
The degrees taught at this center are as follows: business administration, environmental science, political and administrative science, law, social education and tourism, English studies, geography and history, art history, computer engineering, pedagogy, psychology and information technologies. [ 170 ]
There are three administrations in charge of citizen security in Vigo: on one side is the town hall, on which the municipal fire department [ 171 ] and the local police depend ; [ 172 ] of the Ministry of the Interior depend on the Civil Guard , the National Police and the Autonomous Police , although in the management of this police force is also involved, in part, the Board of Galicia ; and finally there is the Ministry of Development on which the port police depends, the port taking charge of the management of this police force. [ 173 ]
This police force has its origin in the municipal guard body created in the 1880s, when the city council decided to establish a service more in line with the needs of a city of 15,000 inhabitants, for which this body was created, which was initially made up of watchmen and watchmen who couldn't even make arrests. It was not until 1985 and due to the size of the city, when the current local police of Vigo was created, with a similar operation to the National Police . [ 174 ]
The Vigo local police station (Plaza del Rey number 1) has facilities in accordance with the needs of the city's local police force at this time. Its workforce exceeds 400 troops, divided into several sectors: police surveillance and support team, neighborhood police, accident investigation and report section, coast and beach service, district units, Goa units, traffic units, etc. [ 172 ]
Municipal fire department
The origins of the fire service in the city date back to the year 1879, when the city council planned the creation of a municipal fire department. In 1891, due to a fire that destroyed two houses on Sombrereros Street, the local press once again demanded that the political class create a fire department in Vigo in which the insurance companies of the buildings participate. Finally in 1894, when Primitivo Blein Costas was mayor , the municipal corporation agreed to create a volunteer fire department inspired by that of the Portuguese city of Porto . Created a year later, with Marcelino Astray de CanedaIn the mayor's office, the first headquarters of the Vigo fire brigade was located in the town hall, between the Plaza de la Princesa and the Plaza de la Constitución, in subsequent years other delegations were opened on Calle Progreso and Paseo de Alfonso XII . In 1897, a delegation of the Red Cross was created in the city, of which 30 of its members also belong to the municipal fire department. [ 175 ]
At present, the municipal fire department of Vigo has two parks: the central one, located in the parish of Teis and the auxiliary one in Balaídos, located at the bottom of the Rio stands of the Balaídos Stadium .
The scope of action of the Vigo Fire Brigade covers the following municipalities: Bayonne , Cangas del Morrazo , Gondomar , La Cañiza , La Guardia , Moaña , Mos , Nigrán , Oia , Pazos de Borben , Puenteareas , Porriño , Redondela , Tomiño and Vigo . [ 171 ]
Public supply and provisioning services
The Aqualia company manages the integral water cycle in the municipality of Vigo and other neighboring municipalities, such as Bayona , Cangas del Morrazo , Fornelos de Montes , Moaña , Mos , Nigrán , Porriño or Redondela , among others. [ 176 ] The water for supplying these populations comes from the Baíña reservoir (Bayona), the Eiras dam (Fornelos de Montes) and the Zamanes Dam (Vigo).
The WWTP (Wastewater Treatment Plant) of Vigo is located at the mouth of the Lagares River and has the capacity to serve a population of 800,000 inhabitants. This infrastructure allows the municipal sanitation system to comply 100% with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (DMA) on the purification of urban wastewater. [ 177 ]
Collection of urban waste and street cleaning
The company Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas (FCC), by concession, is in charge of the municipal street cleaning and garbage collection service. [ 178 ] Subsequently, these urban waste are treated at the Guixar plant, or at one of the various waste recycling and processing plants owned by the company SOGAMA (Sociedad Gallega del Medio Ambiente) in the Galician community.
Along the avenues, streets and squares of the municipality, the tourist or visitor can appreciate the cosmopolitan and maritime character of Vigo. [ 180 ] [ 181 ] In the center of the city Oliver have conducted various urban development, [ 73 ] as humanization and peatonalización public roads, building cycle paths, or the recovery of historic buildings. This urban heritage is complemented by the existence of buildings from different periods, such as Roman ruins, medieval walls and churches, to a great variety of monumental buildings, from the characteristic buildings of Vigo modernism, [ 182 ] through those representative of the most current architectural trends.
In the municipality of Vigo there are more than 30 chapels , monasteries and churches , among these buildings being the Co-Cathedral of Santa María de Vigo , which shares the cathedral seat of the Diocese of Tui-Vigo with the cathedral of Tui . According to some historians as early as the 12th century , there were initially two churches, Santa María and Santiago de Vigo, within the urban area of the municipality, which are not preserved today. Also in that same century, in several of the current Vigo parishes there were up to 15 Romanesque temples , of which three are preserved: San Salvador de Corujo ,Santa María de Castrelos and Santiago de Bembrive . The presence of these temples make Vigo one of the main Romanesque centers of Galicia , although in the urban area we will not find that style, with a few kilometers away from the urban nucleus we will see a high number of remains of this type in various neighborhoods and parishes. even some authors have coined the term "Vigo Romanesque".
Later, over the centuries and as a consequence of population growth, chapels and churches of other architectural styles were built in various parts of the municipality, including Baroque , Modernist , Neoclassical , Neo-Gothic , Regionalist or Renaissance . [ 183 ] Some of these religious buildings are the work of architects known as Antonio Cominges , Antonio Palacios , [ 184 ] Antón Conde Román<