|Classification||Rubbed string instrument|
The violin (from the Italian violino, short for viola) is a stringed instrument of the violin family. Who plays it is called a violinist.
In ancient violins, the strings were gut. Today they can also be made of metal or gut wound with aluminum, silver or steel; the string in my, the sharpest - called cantino - is directly a steel wire, and occasionally gold. Nowadays, strings are being made of synthetic materials that tend to combine the sound achieved by the flexibility of the gut and the resistance of metals. In addition to the effect achieved by the bow on the strings, others can be achieved: pizzicato (pinching the strings like on the harp or guitar, but with another position), tremolo (moving the bow up and down very fast), vibrato (oscillating fingers lightly on the strings), glissando (sliding the fingers from one position to another), col legno (touching with the wooden part of the bow),
Violin music scores always use the treble clef, formerly called "violin clef".
- sol 3
- mi 5
The number is indicated according to the international acoustic index , according to which the middle C is a C 4 . This index is used worldwide except for Mexico ( 440 → 5 ) and the countries governed by the Franco-Belgian acoustic index (440 → 3 ).
Loudness rope more serious it is the sun in March , and then follow, in increasing order, the re 4 , the four and my five . On the violin, the first string to be tuned is the la ; this is commonly tuned to a frequency of 440 Hz , using as a reference a classic forked metal tuning fork or, since the late 20th century, an electronic tuning fork . The pitch has tended to rise in recent years and is most commonly 442 Hz today, and even higher in North American orchestras.
The body of the violin has a domed shape, with a streamlined silhouette determined by an upper and lower curvature tapering to the waist in a C shape. Violin tops are modeled with gentle curves that provide the vaulting characteristic. The rings, which go around the violin giving the silhouette, are low in height, the neck has a certain angle of inclination towards the back with respect to the vertical, longitudinal axis and is finished off by a snail called the colocho or volute. The internal structure of the violin is made up of two fundamental elements in the sound production of the instrument given by the harmonic bar and the soul. The harmonic bar runs the length of the top just below the bass strings and the truss rod is located just below the right foot of the bridge where the treble strings are located.
The bow is a narrow rod, with a smooth curve and ideally constructed in the hard wood of the Brazilian wood or "from Pernambuco" ( Caesalpinia echinata ), about 77 cm long, with a 70 cm ribbon consisting of between 100 and 120 ( with a weight of about 60 grams according to length and caliber) horsetail mane , the best quality being the so-called "Mongolia", which come from cold climates where the hair is finer and more resistant. Such a ribbon runs from one end to the other of the bow. For the strings to vibrate and sound efficiently, the ponytail tape of the bow must be properly and regularly rubbed with a resin called rosin (in Spain it is called "perrubia ", from" fish- blonde "). Also, currently ―many times to reduce costs―, the bleached horsehair is replaced by vinyl fibers. The violin bow has a screw system in the part where it is taken that by making the piece by which one end of the horsehair tape is attached to move makes it tighten or distend.
Violins are classified according to their size: the 4/4 - whose length is usually 14 inches or 35.5 cm and its maximum width is 20 cm, and a height of 4.5 cm - is the largest and is the one used by adults; They are followed by smaller violins, intended for young people and children, called 3/4, 2/4 and 1/4. There is also a 7/8 size violin, also called "Lady", which is used by some women or by adult men with small hands. The size of the violin is according to the size (length) of the hand.
The genealogy that leads to the current violin is more complex. It is found in the rubbing of the strings of the lute and the rebab - and its European version, the rabel -, instruments diffused in Mediterranean Europe during the medieval expansion of Arab culture. In Italy , from the Byzantine lyre or the rebab , the most evident antecedents emerge, both for the violin and for the so-called viola da gamba ; Such precedents are the viola de arc (a name used for all bowed stringed instruments, such as the rebecor rabel, and which also receives the names of viela, vihuela, vihuela de arco, fídula and giga) and the lira or viola da braccio , is already very similar to a primitive violin or viola, although with the fingerboard separating the staves. It is in the sixteenth century that the violin itself appears, although with some differences from most violins that have been manufactured since the nineteenth century . The top cover and side boards are made of softwood, while the bottom cover is made of hardwood. In northern Italy the city of CremonaIt was located between a forest of firs (soft wood) and one of maple (hard wood), so these woods were used by the great violent masters. The bow has undergone many modifications. The current model dates from the 19th century, when François Tourte gave it a concave curvature, which in the most primitive models was convex, like that of the hunting bow.
Although in the seventeenth century the violin ( violino ) was quite widespread in Italy , it lacked any prestige (the lute , the vihuela , the viela, the viola da gamba, the guitar , the mandolin were much more considered). However, Claudio Monteverdi is one of those who discovered the possibility of the sound qualities of the violin, and that is why he uses it to complement the choral voices in his opera Orfeo ( 1607 ). Since then the prestige of the violin begins to grow. Around that time certain violin makers began to become known (still called luthers or luthiers , or luthiers—More frequently than violeros - since initially they were dedicated to making lutes). This is how Gasparo Bertolotti from Saló , or Giovanni Maggini from Brescia , or Jakob Steiner from Vienna become known ; However, one city will become famous for its luthiers specialized in making violins : Cremona . Indeed, from Cremona are the justly famous Andrea Amati, Giuseppe Guarneri , Antonio Stradivari (their surnames are usually better known in their Latinized form : Amatius , Guarnerius , Stradivarius) and Claudio Monteverdi himself . During the 19th century, François Lupot and Nicolas Lupot stood out. It is from then on, and especially with the baroque , that the Golden Age (apparently thereafter more perpetual) of the violin began.
Since then the violin has spread throughout the world, even being found as a "traditional instrument" in many non-European countries, from America to Asia. The violin is a leading instrument in orchestras, chamber groups, etc. It has received special attention in Arabic music, in which the performer plays it leaning on the knee as if it were a cello , and in Irish Celtic music, where the instrument is called fiddle (derived from the Italian fidula ), and its derived music such as, to some degree, country .
As for the secret of the typical sonority of the violins made by the Stradivarius and Guarneri families , there are today various hypotheses that, rather than being excluded, seem to add up; In the first place, it is considered that the time was particularly cold, which is why the trees developed a harder and more homogeneous wood. [ 1 ] Added to this is the use of special varnishes that reinforced the structure of the violins. It is also assumed that the trunks of the trees were transferred by rivers whose waters had a pHthat reinforced the hardness of the woods; Also influencing is a proven chemical treatment (perhaps more than with the objective of sound, that of conservation) of the instruments, which reinforced the hardness of the boards. [ citation needed ] Finally, certain Stradivarius violins have a beveled finish on their internal parts of the contours where the woods contact, which seems to benefit the acoustics of these violins. (There is a story from "The violin of joy")
Parts of a violin
The violin consists mainly of a soundboard that has elegant and beautiful ergonomic shapes (oval section with two tapers near the center). Such soundboard consists of two tables: the soundboard and the table of the base (traditionally made with wood maple ), the side covers or rings and the top or table top harmonic (traditionally wood fir white or red); the lid is pierced symmetrically and almost in the center by two resonance openings called "ears" or "eses", since at the time of its design the long S was still used in writing or printing , similar to an " efe"Italic but without the horizontal crossbar, and in disuse from the 18th century . For the same reason, these days they tend to be called" efes ".
Inside the box is the sound post or soul of the violin, which is a small cylindrical wooden bar arranged perpendicularly between the top and the harmonic table on the right side of the axis of symmetry of the box (that is: practically below, to the right, from the area where the bridge rests ), on the opposite side to the web , along the inner face of the lid , a strip called a harmonic bar is glued with glue . Both the soul and the harmonic bar They fulfill two functions: to be structural supports (the violin suffers a lot of structural tension) and to better transmit the sounds within the resonance box.
The resonance box is, in the orchestral violin, 35.7 cm in length, and is edged by flanges on both boards; such ridges fulfill, in addition to a decorative function, the function of reinforcing the instrument.
On the outside, the soundboard is continued by the handle or shaft ; the neck or "handle" ends in a pegbox , a rectangular cavity in which the knotted strings are inserted and tensioned there by means of separate pegs for each cord, the pegs are like simple keys with a slightly cone-shaped section; after the pegbox, a finial called "due to its shape" volute (although in certain cases the volute is replaced by other shapes, for example a human face or the figuration of a lion's head).
At a certain angle, the lines of the scroll, in perspective, make a straight and continuous line with the strings, especially my and sol, and meet on the horizon. This allows you to know, when the violin is placed on the shoulder, when it is correctly straight.
On the handle is located the fingerboard of the violin or tastiera , this is usually made of ebony since this wood produces that "maderil" sound that rubbed string instruments require, and ebony is extremely hard and dense, so the friction of the strings does not damage the fretboard. Ivory tastieras can be found in old violins .
On the top of the box is the ponticello or bridge which keeps the four strings elevated, in the back of the resonance box, attached to it by a flexible nerve that is hooked to a button, there is another piece (traditionally made of ebony wood) of triangular shape called the tailpiece , as its name indicates, the tailpiece serves to retain the four strings, these are supported by the following points: the holes of the tailpiece, the ponticello, the nut located on the shaft and The pegs.
When you want to attenuate the sound, a kind of partition called a mute is applied to the bridge .
Since the end of the 19th century, it is common to add a removable chin guard or "brace" to the back of the violin case , although such an attachment is not essential (the invention of this addition is attributed to Louis Spohr ); On the other hand, the varnish (traditionally "shellac" diluted in alcohol) is quite important with which most of the violin is coated on the outside.
The unique acoustics of the violin have been widely studied throughout the 20th century , highlighting the research of the German Ernst Chladni , from which a whole formulation called Chladni's scheme derives .
The way to hold both the violin and the bow is an important part of teaching the instrument to achieve a good playing technique, therefore it should have a primary consideration when beginning the study of the instrument. The first thing to take into account in the position of the violin, is that it must be held in such a way that the eyes can be fixed on the head of the violin; and in turn the left arm should be accommodated slightly forward so that the fingers are placed naturally and perpendicular to the fingerboard. In the same way, the correct and relaxed positioning of the instrument between the neck and the shoulder is important, both for the achievement of a good sound and performance and to protect the player from injuries due to unnecessary tension. It should be placed as high as possible so that the left arm,
An instrument of singular resistance, the violin usually requires little special care. When not in use, it should be kept in a case that is as tight and padded as possible, with the box, the bow rod and strings clean, and the bow mane slightly relaxed. The violin must be protected as much as possible so that it is not affected by humidity or sudden changes in temperature; otherwise, it only requires regular cleaning with a dry cloth, or with products specially designed for it. Strings often break from tension and friction, and for this reason it is a good idea for the violinist to have a spare set of strings. The horsetail hairs (manes) that make up the ribbon of the bow also tend to break; for this reason, frequent execution may force its replacement when necessary. If the violin is played without the chin guard or chin guard, it is advisable to wear a handkerchief on the part of the neck and chin on which the violin rests to prevent the instrument from being affected by perspiration. It often happens that an "old" violin that has been well played sounds better than a new or little used violin.
It is important in the care of the violin that when stored for a long period of time the strings are loosened so as not to remain in tension. With this, the structure of the violin will be protected from possible cracks due to unnecessary stress.
Since the second half of the 20th century, the strings and bow ribbon, in many cases, are being manufactured with synthetic materials; and the use of these materials has also spread to other parts in the case of serially manufactured violins: for example tailpieces, chin rests, tasties, which are being made of plastic material which affects the characteristic sound of the instrument, and therefore with some detraction from professional violinists. In the case of electric violins , almost all their components are synthetic, but in them the sound (different from that of acoustic ones) is produced electronically; such violins are often used in pop , rock , jazz and related ensembles .
The violin in folklore
The introduction towards the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century of the violin in the area of the Southern Cone is mainly due to the Jesuit and Franciscan religious , many of them born Italians such as Domenico Zipoli , whose name bears a famous Cordovan music school .
The Jesuits introduced musical education in the reductions created in territories that today belong to Argentina , Paraguay , Bolivia and southern Brazil , in a region populated in the aforementioned centuries by indigenous people among whom the Guaraní culture predominated . Most of these small cities were destroyed with the expulsion of the Jesuits, in 1767 in the Spanish colony, preceded by a decision of the kingdom of Portugal. The Jesuit missions of Bolivia are the only ones that were saved from the destruction that came with the expulsion of the religious. It consists of seven cities in the region known asChiquitania where a baroque music festival is held annually .
In Brazil, the handmade violin known by the name of rabeca was also introduced by the religious, especially in the area of the Jesuit missions, but its use in music developed more intensely during the brief colonizing presence of the Dutchman Mauricio de Nassau, in Recife, between 1637 and 1643. Another important stimulus represented the installation of the Portuguese Court in Rio de Janeiro in 1807.
Currently, the use of the rabeca as a melodic instrument is common in the music of the northeast region and also in the northern Amazon. In the Amazon city of Bragança , in the state of Pará, the rabeca tradition received a notable boost from the public power that helped to install a school for teaching the instrument, based on the knowledge and technique of local teachers .
Within the South American folklore, the violin is particularly relevant in the folklore of Argentina and in surrounding areas, where it was used in religious music, although Creole and native populations quickly learned to use it for profane music. Thus, in much of northern Argentina and southern Bolivia, the violin (and even a more rustic variant that has kept the archaic name of rebab ) is one of the main musical instruments, after the guitar and the bass drum. Cats , chacareras , Bolivian cuecas and to a lesser extent chamamés , zambas and criollo polkas are usually accompanied with the violin .
Music of folk origin, tango has the violin as one of its main instruments. The tango violin is usually the same as the concert violin for so-called classical music , whereas the violins of the other musics mentioned above are usually "criollo" violins, in ways very similar to the classical violin, although the great difference is found in the woods with which they are made ( Creole carob and mistol or chañar for example); In much of Argentina (especially in the NOA ) musicians who specialize in playing the violin are not called violinists but violinists orviolistos , in the northeast the term violinero is frequent (which, however, is more often applied to the " luthier "). Ethnic groups of directly aboriginal descent also tend to make interesting types of "violins", for example among the Qom'lek (or Tobas) "violins" are characteristic, made from a quadrangular can of edible oil to which a wood handle, the strings are usually made with gut, although more modernly they are made with the metal cables obtained from bicycle brake systems; Such violins having an intonation called m'biké , such intonation, it is considered, is similar to that possessed by European violins in the 16th century.
In Mexico , its use extends to huasteco son , huapango , calena music , planeca music and mariachi . In Spain , it is used in verdiales . In Anglo-Saxon countries, the folk violin is called a fiddle . [ 2 ]
In Chile , the only region in which the violin was traditionally introduced into folk music is Chiloé , generating a variant of this instrument known as the Chilote violin , which, apart from incorporating the use of native woods from Patagonia Chilean in the lutheria of violins, such as larch , coigüe and ciruelillo , presents a flatter and larger acoustic box than the learned violin, giving it a characteristic sound. A variant of the chilote violin that used ram guts as strings is known as Barraquito , being common to hear both instruments in dances such as the Periconaand in parades in honor of saints and virgins. In Chiloé it is common to also find the rabel as part of the traditional musical instruments.
Nicoló Paganini created a very interesting mixture between the human's relationship with the violin, the story tells that his mother Teresa Bocciardo told him that her son was destined to be the most important violinist in the world, in the musical corridors of Italy they spoke of the "diabolical talent" of Paganini, who culminated this stage of the perception of his pact by composing two great works better known as "24 Caprices for violin" and "Violin Concerto No. 1 (Paganini)".
- Wikimedia Commons houses a multimedia gallery on Violin .
- Wiktionary has definitions and other information about violin .
- TheViolinSite.com Resources for violinists and violin learners (in English and Spanish) of all ages.
- The violin in Spanish Violin section of the Pianomundo portal.
- Musical appreciation. Violinistic interpretation.