Vorsfelde - Vorsfelde

Vorsfelde
City of Wolfsburg
Arms of Vorsfelde
Coordinates: 52 ° 26 ′ 30 ″ N , 10 ° 50 ′ 27 ″ E
Height : 63 m
Residents : 12,815 (Dec. 31, 2015) [1]
Incorporation : July 1, 1972
Postal code : 38448
Area code : 05363
map
Location of Vorsfelde in Wolfsburg
Vorsfelde seen from the Drömlingswiesen (1987)
Long street in the center of Vorsfelde
Amtsstrasse at the level of the former dam gate

Vorsfelde is a district of Wolfsburg in eastern Lower Saxony . The place is a historically grown agricultural town , which is about four kilometers from the city center on the Aller River , the Mittelland Canal and the Drömling wetland . The 1145 than Varesfelt first documented and systematically founded place was since the Middle Ages as spots of the central town of Vorsfelder Werder .

By granting city ​​rights on October 11, 1955, Vorsfelde was an independent city in the Helmstedt district until the Lower Saxony municipal reform on July 1, 1972 . Since then, the place has been a district of Wolfsburg [2] and, along with Fallersleben, a sub-center of the city.

geography

Vorsfelde is located in the northeast of the city of Wolfsburg. It borders on the districts of Reislingen , Allerpark (special district), Teichbreite , Tiergartenbreite , Velstove , Wendschott and Neuhaus as well as the community Danndorf and thus the district Helmstedt .

The district is located in the south of the Vorsfelder Werder , where the Upper Allerniederung merges into the Drömling wetland with the Wendschotter nature reserve and Vorsfelder Drömling with Kötherwiesen . In terms of nature, Vorsfelde belongs to the Südheide and forms the end of the southern Ostheide . The place on the edge of Werder is the southernmost point of the entire Lüneburg Heath .

The B 188 , the Aller and the Mittelland Canal divide the district into the smaller Vorsfelde-Süd with residential, mixed and commercial areas and the historic city center with residential and mixed areas to the north ( Vorsfelde-Mitte and -Nord ). In the Allerniederung between Vorsfelde and the center of Wolfsburg lies the Allersee .

history

founding

The Wolfsburg , Vorsfelde and the New and the Old Pond on a map of 1745
“Plan of the patch of Vorsfelde with its environs” (detail) by GC Geitel from 1770

Vorsfelde was a planned medieval town founded around 1130 as the central location of the Vorsfeld Werder. The forerunner settlement was the village Achtbüttel at the foot of the Werder , after which a path in the vicinity of the old town school is named today ("achtenbüttelweg "). Vorsfelde served as an eastern outpost in an area in which, presumably at the same time, Slavic Wends in Rundlingen settled down as settlers. Vorsfelde was created directly on the Aller at the southern foot of the Vorsfelder Werder, an 80 km² high geest plate . The place was on a shallow ford by which since the Middle Ages a trade- and Heerstrasse led. Here is a passage of the Most was glacial valley possible.

Vorsfelde was first mentioned in a document in 1145 in a papal bull as Varesfelt by Pope Lucius II in Rome. The term varesfelt comes from the expression var for a place where you cross a river or land. In conjunction with -felde for field it was a forest vacancy. The place name reflects the geographical conditions at the time, because a trade route crossed the Aller at a shallow ford here. Until 1400, the local name nor was Varsfelde , then transformed in a sound change the a ino and thus to Vorsfelde .

The family of the Lords of Vorsfelde as the lower, less wealthy ministerial family in the Guelph services appeared for the first time in 1217 through Gottfried von Vorsfelde. Their possessions and rights existed in the area from Vorsfelde to Vechelde , Helmstedt and Königslutter . The last representative was Heinrich von Vorsfelde, who was last mentioned in 1478 as vicar at the St. Blaise monastery in Braunschweig .

The first city map from 1761 shows 125 houses. When the town was founded, there were fifty plots of the same size. The place is built on the two-street principle. Originally there was only today's Lange Straße and today's Amtsstraße, which form an elongated oval. The city center was divided by Kattenstrasse and Kirchstrasse (today: An der Propstei). The four town exits were called Oberes Thor, Meynthor, Wolfsburger Thor and Dammthor; whereby actual gate structures are not proven. Since Vorsfelde had market rights , there were several places to hold markets. Small cattle and poultry as well as pigs were in the pig corneroffered, a plaza-like indentation in Long Street. The Rossmarkt, where cattle and horses were traded , was on Meinstrasse .

There were major city ​​fires in 1604, 1780 and 1798. This is why most of today's houses in the historic city center were built in the 18th and 19th centuries. The majority are two-story half - timbered buildings on a stone base.

Fortifications

Location of the Vorsfelde castle wall , today a meadow

There are no visible traces of medieval fortifications in the cityscape today. In 1946 the Braunschweig regional archaeologist Alfred Tode looked for a medieval castle stables in the Drömlingswiesen using old maps . He found the Vorsfelde castle wall about 900 meters east of the medieval city center (near the Sudammsbreite) and carried out an archaeological excavation . Among other things, palisade fortifications were found. They belonged to a defensive tower in the style of a motte with an adjacent castle wall on a sand island in the Allerniederung. The facility was built in the early Middle Agesassigned to the 11th century. However, it was not about the Vorsfeld Castle , referred to in the tradition as the Old House , which is believed to have been located within the village. It was first mentioned as a castrum in 1218 and is referred to as a slot ( castle ). Possibly it was located on the property of the former office building in the Amtsstraße, which is indicated by the name of the hallway there In den Burgäckern . Even today there is a trench-like depression behind the land on the upper western district road.

Local and population development

View from the street Obere Tor (north) onto the historic city center , left: Lange Straße, right: Amtsstraße
View from Dammtor (south) to the city center, left: Amtsstraße, right: Lange Straße, in the middle is the "Ütschenpaul" (Fröschepfuhl)
Allerbrücke

Since the Middle Ages , the inhabitants of Vorfeld were predominantly arable citizens who owned some cattle and land, but also practiced handicrafts and trade. In Vorsfelde as the main town for the 18 villages at times on the Vorsfeld Werder, there was an economic development. The spot was an administrative, court, market and church location.

The first industrial settlements in rural Vorsfelde began in 1871, when the town was connected to the railway network with the Lehrter Bahn between Hanover and Berlin. A station building was erected in an open field on the railway line around one kilometer south of the village, and businesses (potato flake factory, canning factory, brewery, dairy) were built in the vicinity. From this, today's Vorsfelder Südstadt was formed. The Mittelland Canal , which was built south of the town from 1936, brought the population temporarily work. The place was not given a port.

year Population numbers
1663 263
1781 871
1848 1.502
1890 1.762
December 2, 1895 ¹ 1.753
December 1, 1900 ¹ 1.820
16. June 1925 ¹ 1.881
16. June 1933 ¹ 1.896
17. May 1939 2.102
1946 3.291
1950 4.479
25. September 1956 ¹ 5.739
6. June 1961 ¹ 7.291
1966 10.993
27. May 1970 ¹ 11.252

1 Population according to the census of ...

Affiliations

Formerly the Vorsfelde town hall , today the administrative office

Vorsfelde has belonged to the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg since its foundation in the 12th century . In the first centuries after the town was founded, the town and castle of Vorsfelde constantly changed their tenants . Because of their border location, Vorsfelde and the Vorsfelder Werder were fought for over two centuries between the Guelph dukes of the Braunschweig and Lüneburg lines, the margraves of Brandenburg and the archbishops of Magdeburg .

After the Lords of Vorsfelde in the 13th and 14th centuries, which ruled from 1389 noble family of those of Bartensleben about the town. After the extinction of their family in 1742, Vorsfelde and the Vorsfelder Werder fell back as a settled fiefdom to the Duchy of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel as a part of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. The Duchy established the Vorsfelde office in 1742 and had the Vorsfeld Werder with almost 15 villages administered from here until 1918.

Since 1833 Vorsfelde has belonged to the Helmstedt district in Brunswick . On October 11, 1955, the place received city ​​rights . On July 1, 1972, the city of Wolfsburg incorporated Vorsfelde with other places in its surrounding area. Then there was a local council and the great financial strength of Wolfsburg gave rise to important infrastructure facilities such as the Im Eichholz school center and other building areas.

Political

coat of arms

Old coat of arms
Wild boar heraldic animal in the former Vorsfeld town hall

The Vorsfeld coat of arms shows a black boar leaping to the right over green ground on a silver background . It is a talking coat of arms in which the wild boar embodies the part of the name Vor in the place name Vorsfelde, Dat vor is a term from Low German and stands for a lean pig . The coat of arms in its current form appeared for the first time around 1740. It originated from the Vorfeld local sealon which a jumping wild boar can be detected as early as 1483. The fact that the coat of arms has the shape of a wild boar may also be related to the frequency of wild boar in the nearby Drömling forests.

Since 1952 there has been a real heraldic animal as a stuffed boar in a showcase in the former Vorsfeld town hall (today the administrative center of the city of Wolfsburg). The animal was shot by the then mayor Max Valentin in Drömling.

Local mayor

Local Mayor Günter Lach

Politically, the district is represented by the Vorsfelde local council. Günter Lach ( CDU ), who was also a member of the German Bundestag from 2009 to 2017 , has been the local mayor since 2001 .

Former community and city directors

After the Second World War up to the incorporation in Wolfsburg:

from to Name
1946 1951 Franz Schulze
1951 1958 Karl Willgerodt
1958 1970 Paul Rother
1971 1972 Rudolf Grommelt

Former mayor

From the beginning of the 20th century until the incorporation into Wolfsburg [3] :

from to Name
1907 1925 Wilhelm Schulze
1925 1933 Franz Schulze
1933 1945 Max Valentin
1945 1946 Franz Schulze
1946 1948 Fritz Weiberg
1948 1952 Emil Sturm
1952 1956 Max Valentin
1956 1958 Fritz Weiberg
1958 1961 Max Valentin
1961 1964 Fritz Weiberg
1964 1972 Max Valentin

Economy and Infrastructure

In 1985 the city of Wolfsburg commissioned the architecture professor Friedrich Spengelin from Hanover to draw up a development plan for the Vorsfeld city center. The trigger was planning to build retail stores near the city center. The design was called the Spengelin concept and was largely implemented from 1988 onwards. It took the through traffic out of the city center and diverted it via bypasses. An important point of the concept was the creation of additional parking space for business customers in the city center. The four-lane "Drömlingsallee" from Allerbrücke to Meinstrasse, planned between Aller and An der Meine, was not realized.

Companies

The Sparkasse function in Vorsfelde has been performed by the Braunschweigische Landessparkasse , which belongs to NORD / LB , since January 1st, 2008 . The market leadership of NORD / LB in the area of ​​the former Duchy of Braunschweig , in which Vorsfelde was also located, is due to history. Vorsfelde, which belonged to the Duchy of Braunschweig from 1742 to 1918, is therefore not in the business area of ​​the Sparkasse Celle-Gifhorn-Wolfsburg . The Volksbank Vorsfelde eG went back to the year 1881, [4] in 2000 it became part of the Volksbank Wolfsburg eG .

Road traffic

When it comes to road traffic, the place is now greatly relieved of through traffic. When the Volkswagen plant changed shifts, thousands of commuter vehicles used to roll through the town on the B 188 . The first bypass road was a 1.2 km long section of the B 188 in the area of ​​the old town (from An der Meine to Wolfsburger Straße ), which was opened on November 26, 1968. Since the 1990s and the beginning of the 21st century, additional bypass roads have relieved large-scale inner-city traffic.

Rail transport

Former station building from 1873, today a residential building with a pillar extension
Locomotive 216 122-2 in the Vorsfeld station (1983)

The Lehrter Bahn and the high-speed line Hanover-Berlin run through the district in an east-west direction as a connection between Hanover and Berlin. Vorsfelde owes the Lehrter Bahn as an important east-west main line for its railway connection established in 1871. Factories were established around the station in what was then an open field, from which the Vorsfelder Südstadt developed. After 1945 , Vorsfelde , located on the edge of the zone , was the border station for freight trains to the former Soviet zone and later GDR . The railway line also passed interzone passenger trains . The northeast end of the originally leading to OebisfeldeThe Schandelah – Oebisfelde railway line was relocated to Vorsfelde in 1955 because of the inner-German border , so that the line was entirely within the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1978 the Vorsfelde station was closed to passenger traffic, but was still important for freight traffic until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. In 1991 the station was also closed to freight traffic. The former station building came into private ownership and is now separated from the railway line by a noise barrier .

Shipping

The Mittelland Canal runs through the district in the Allerniederung area . The Aller runs almost parallel .

The Uelzen Waterways and Shipping Office has a branch in Vorsfelde on the Mittelland Canal. Shipping traffic is handled in the ports of Wolfsburg .

Postal service

For the development of the postal system in Vorsfelde, see: Braunschweig – Calvörde postal route

Public facilities

education

School center with gym

The Vorsfelde school center is located northwest of the historic old town . It consists of a secondary school , a secondary school , a grammar school , which has been called the Phoenix grammar school since 2012, and a branch of a special school for the physically handicapped . The first construction phase of the school center with twelve classrooms was completed in 1965 and initially housed the secondary school. Further enlargements took place around 1969, 1976 and since 2011.

The Hauptschule, Realschule and Gymnasium merged with the schools of the former Kreuzheide school center from the 2009/2010 school year. From the 2012/2013 school year, all schools will be united at the Vorsfelde site. Since the merger there has also been an upper secondary school in Vorsfelde.

There are also three primary schools in Vorsfelde:

  • Heidgarten elementary school in Vorsfelde-Nord from 1967
  • Old town elementary school in Vorsfelde-Mitte from 1871 and 1955
  • Primary school Moorkämpe in Vorsfelde-Süd from 1959

Culture and sights

Stork's nest on the half-timbered house at Lange Straße 38 from 1860
The landmark erected in 1990 on Ütschenpaul Square

Old town center

The center of Vorsfeld consists of an old town with a closed inventory of restored half-timbered buildings and a few new buildings. The road surface and street lighting were completely renewed during the inner city renovation in 1999/2000 and produced in the historical style.

Since 1860, a pair of storks has had their nests on the roof of an approximately 300-year-old half-timbered house in Langen Strasse in the town center . It is the oldest continuously inhabited nesting site in the Wolfsburg area. The nearby wetland of the Drömling serves as a food source. [5]

Buildings

The oldest buildings are the former executioner's house from 1607 at Meinstrasse 14 and the beekeeper's house as a residential and storage house from 1590 at Amtsstrasse 9. Another old building is the Lütcherath house from 1798 as a farm bourgeois house with a striking mansard roof . It belongs to a family that has lived in Vorsfelde since the end of the 17th century.

At the southern end of the city center at the confluence of the Amtsstrasse and Langestrasse there is a triangular square called Ütschenpaul. The name is based on an earlier pond with frogs and toads , the Ütschen. In 1990 a water-spouting frog figure was erected on the square as a landmark.

District Court

Former court building from 1801, today Ludwig-Klingemann-Haus, below the former prison, Klingemann memorial plaque

The Amt Vorsfelde , established in 1742, included an official property built in 1755 at Amtsstraße 35, which was given a newly built court building in 1801 after the fire of 1798. Next to the court is a red brick building that used to be a prison and is now used by the DRK . The courthouse was up to the annexation by the city of Wolfsburg in 1972 District Court . After a period of use as the seat of Wolfsburg authorities, it was made available to local associations from 1987 onwards. The house was renamed “Ludwig Klingemann House” in memory of the workers' leader, USPD and SPD local chairman Ludwig Klingemann. The Social Democrat, who was elected to the local council and district council before 1933, was murdered by the National Socialists in 1942.

Churches

St. Peter's Church in the center of the village

Sport

The district has a number of sports clubs. The largest club is the popular sports-oriented MTV Vorsfelde , founded in 1862 , which with 5330 members (as of January 1, 2016) is one of the sports clubs in Lower Saxony with the most members. It has its own fitness and health center. The SSV Vorsfelde from 1921 with its venue in the Drömlingstadion on the Mittelland Canal is mainly geared towards football . The club took part in the first main round of the DFB Cup twice in the 1990s . There is also the Vorsfeld tennis club.

Clubs / groups (selection)

Association / group founding Members Stand
Men's choir 1843 221 1995
Rifle Brotherhood 1846 210 2012
Männerturnverein (MTV 1862 eV) 1862 5300 2011
Volunteer firefighter 1866 900 1995
Keglerklub 1867 16 1995
Kyffhauser comradeship 1873 350 1995
Evangelical Women's Aid St. Petrus 1910 85 1995
Play and Sports Club Vorsfelde (SSV) 1921 600 1995
Reit- und Fahrverein Vorsfelde 1921 400 1995
Vorsfelder tennis club 1926 200 1995
German Red Cross 1937 1.200 1993
Country women's association Vorsfelde and the surrounding area 1946 587 2014
Fishing and water protection association Vorsfelde 1946 650 1992
Small animal breeding association F 435 1948 41 1995
Social association 1948 410 1995
Pomeranian country team 1950 50 1995
mixed choir 1950 160 1989
Association for home care, nature and animal protection 1952 207 1995
Vorsfelde settlement community 1954 200 1993
Fanfare and horn procession "Elche" 1955 162 1993
DLRG 1965 687 2015
Shantychor "Dream beds" 1980 65 2009

Former clubs (selection)

society founding Dissolved
Civic association 1845 1853
Agricultural Association 1930
Horse Insurance Association 1950
Pig Fund Support Association 1892 around 1960
Cycling club 1898 1940
Workers gymnastics club 1918 1933
Milk Control Association 1968
Goat Breeding Association 1970
Beekeeping Association 1938 1973
Association of German Soldiers 1950 around 1985
Reservistenkameradschaft 1962
Allotment garden association Behrendorfer-Wiesen 1962 2010

Regular events

Art in the cityscape

  • Children on the running beam (1962) by Maximilian Stark (Gifhorn) - at the Ütschenpaul
  • Give me my ball (1980) by Harald Isenstein (Copenhagen) - at the St. Petrus Church (copy; the original has been in the Wolfsburg Clinic since 1990)
  • Memorial in Schweinwinkel, Lange Straße, in memory of Georg Arfmann's earlier small cattle and pig markets

Personalities

Honorary citizen

Before it was incorporated into Wolfsburg in 1972, the city of Vorsfelde granted two people honorary citizenship .

Another honorary citizen from Vorsfelde after the incorporation:

Streets in Vorsfelde are named after the honorary citizens.

Sons and daughters of Vorsfelde

Personalities who have worked on site

literature

  • Vorsfelde . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 16, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 287.
  • Wilhelm Spangenberg: Vorsfelder Chronik . Vorsfelde 1975.
  • Erhard Kühlhorn: Historical-regional excursion map of Lower Saxony, sheet Wolfsburg . Hildesheim 1977, ISBN 3-7848-3626-7 .
  • Otto Sroka: Nice Vorsfelde . Vorsfelde 1980.
  • Konrad Hecht: Vorsfelde and Fallersleben - On the question of the maintenance and care of two old small towns in the area of ​​today's city of Wolfsburg . Wolfsburg 1975.
  • Johann Dietrich Bödeker: The land of Brome and the upper Vorsfelder Werder. History of the room at Ohre, Drömling and Kleiner Aller. Braunschweig 1985, ISBN 3-87884-028-4 .
  • History of the apron volume 1 . Wolfsburg City Archives, Wolfsburg 1995, ISBN 3-929464-01-2 .
  • History of the apron volume 2 . Matthias Brodtmann, Wolfsburg 1995, ISBN 3-929464-02-2
  • History of the apron volume 3 . Working group on the history of Vorsfeldes, Vorsfelde 1995.
  • Heinz Burghard: Historic town houses. In: Historic buildings in the Gifhorn-Wolfsburg area. Gifhorn 1992.

Weblinks

Commons : Vorsfelde - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Statistics of the City of Wolfsburg (PDF), accessed on March 22, 2016
  2. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes for municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27th, 1970 to December 31st, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 221.
  3. Werner Strauss: Stations of the infrastructure development . In: Matthias Brodtmann (Hrsg.): History of Vorsfeldes - The change of place in the 20th century . Wolfsburg City Archives, Wolfsburg 1995, ISBN 3-929464-02-0 .
  4. ↑ New opening of the branch in Vorsfelde on the website of Volksbank BraWo , accessed on January 22, 2017.
  5. Storch lands back in Vorsfelde in: Wolfsburger Allgemeine Zeitung of February 23, 2015
  6. Marcel Glaser: Undemocratic hero worship or admonishing remembrance against the war? About the current handling of war memorials using the example of the memorial in Vorsfelde , report on the event on October 9, 2014 at the Phoenix-Gymnasium in Wolfsburg-Vorsfelde, 500 kB, PDF
  7. ^ Dieter Polte: A concert for the 50th parish fair. In: Wolfsburger Nachrichten. Edition November 7, 2017.
  8. Dieter Polte: Johannesfest celebrated on the 50th birthday. In: Wolfsburger Nachrichten. Friday Packet for August 28, 2017.